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University of Sulymaniyah
College of Engineering
Department Of Architecture
Third Stage
Prepared by :
Shayan Salar Ahmed
H...
Content
1. Introduction of terms
1.1 Arches .
1.2 Vaults.
1.3 Domes .
2.1 History And Types of Arches.
2.2 History And Typ...
1.1 Arches
Is a structure that spans a space and supports
a load.
-Provides a structure which
eliminates tensile
stresses ...
1.2 Domes
A dome is an element of architecture that
resembles the hollow upper half of
a sphere.
Dome structures made of v...
1.3 Vaults
A vault, in architecture, is an arch-
shaped structure, usually of masonry,
used as the ceiling of room or othe...
2.1 History And Types of Arches.
Arches appeared as early as the 2nd millennium
BC in Mesopotamian brick architecture and
...
Types of Arches.
The most used arch types in European
middle age architecture was :
1.Semi circular Arch (Roman to Romanes...
Types of Arches.
Some Arch types
2.2 History And Types of Vaults.
In ancient Egypt brick vaulting was used, chiefly for drains.
The Chaldeans and Assyrians...
Types of Vaults.
1 Barrel vault (semi-circular vault)
2 Groin vaults ( cross vaults)
3 Rib vault
4 Fan vault
5 Dome
2.3 History And Types of Domes.
Roman domes are found in baths, villas, palaces, and tombs. Oculi are common
features.They...
Types of Domes.
(sphere).1. Semi Circular Domes
2. Segmental Domes (semi-sphere)
(these two types are from Roman architect...
3.Ancinest Greek Architecture.
Historians divide Ancient Greek civilization into
two eras, the Hellenic period (from aroun...
3.1 Arches and roofing systems.
Greeks didn’t use Arches in there structure , the used (the trabeated style) which th
Gree...
4. Ancient Roman Architecture.
Roman Architecture covers the period from the establishment of the Roman Republic
509BC, to...
4.1 Arches in Roman Architecture.
Arches with a circular form, also referred
to as rounded arch, were commonly
employed by...
4.2 Roofing systems in Roman architecture.
Roman vaults were the basis on which
more complex and varied forms were
develop...
4.3 Examples of Roman architecture.
The Colosseum at Rome is a good example
of this union in which the pires_ between the
...
4.4 The effect of using arches .
(comparing Greek & Roman architecture)
The columns in Greek Parthenon are near to each ot...
5. Early Christian Architecture
The Early Christian period is generally taken
as lasting from Constantine to Gregory the
G...
5.1 Arches and Roofing Early Christian architecture
The earlier basilican churches had their
columns closely spaced,
and w...
5.2 Examples of Early Christian architecture
The plans of the basilicas, or Roman halls of
justice were
copied by the earl...
6. Byzantine Architecture.
Byzantine architecture is that which was
developed at Byzantium on the removal of
the capital f...
6.1 Arches in Byzantine architecture
In Byzantine churches The high
ceiling of the nave was
held up by semi-circular arch ...
6.2 Roofing in Byzantine architecture.
The general architectural character depends
on the development
of the dome, induced...
Domes was mostly used in the Eastern part of
the Byzantine empire. While in west the roofs
(some times domes) where covere...
6.3 Examples of Byzantine architecture
The church of Holly wisdom was constructed on a scale unprecedented in human histor...
6.3 Examples of Byzantine architecture
The effect of using pendentived ( comparing Roman & Byzantine Architecture)
The cen...
7. Romanesque Architecture.
Romanesque architecture derives its name from
the similarity to ancient roman buildings. Most
...
7.1 Arches in Romanesque architecture
The arches used in Romanesque architecture are
nearly always semicircular, for openi...
7.2 Roofing in Romanesque architecture.
Groin Vault
is created by two barrel vaults intersecting at
right angles. The arch...
7.3 Examples of Romanesque architecture
Ribbed groin vaults replace barrel vaults and allow
the addition of clerestory win...
The effect of Romanesque architecture on gothic arches
Romanesque architecture had already
established the basic architect...
8. Gothic Architecture.
Gothic Architecture is a style of
architecture which flourished during the
high and late medieval ...
8.1 Arches in Gothic architecture
Semi circular Arch :
Arches with a circular form, also referred to as rounded arch, were...
8.1 Arches in Gothic architecture
Trefoil Arch
is an arch incorporating the shape or outline of
a trefoil — three overlapp...
Tudor Arch
Tudor arch, is a low, wide type of arch with a
pointed apex. It is much wider than its height
and gives the vis...
8.1 Arches in Gothic architecture
Blind Arch
arches that has no actual openings and that is applied
to the surface of a wa...
8.1 Arches in Gothic architecture
Cinquefoil Arch
A cusped arch having five foliations
worked on the intrados.
Its found l...
8.1 Arches in Gothic architecture
Rose windows
is often used as a generic term applied to a circular window,
but is especi...
8.2 Roofing in Gothic architecture.
Ribbed Vault
The intersection of two or three barrel
vaults produces a rib-vault or ri...
8.2 Roofing in Gothic architecture.
Types of Ribbed vaults:
Reticulated vault
Stellar vault
Stellar vault
(wooden) Cell va...
8.2 Roofing in Gothic architecture.
Fan vault
A fan vault is a form of vault used in the
Perpendicular Gothic style, in wh...
8.1 Arches in Gothic architecture
Flying buttresses:
A further development of arches were
the flying buttress which arched...
8.3 Examples of Gothic architecture
St. Roman Church
This church is located in Spain, effected
by Islamic architecture
Col...
8.3 Examples of Gothic architecture
St. Mary Westwell Church- Canterbury
The chancel, by far the most elaborate part of th...
9. Renaissance Architecture.
*Renaissance architecture is the architecture
between the early 15th and 17th centuries in
di...
9.1 Arches and Roofing Renaissance architecture
Arches are semi-circular. Arches are often used in
arcades, supported on p...
9.1 Arches and Roofing Renaissance architecture
Vaults
Vaults do not have ribs. They are semi-circular or
segmental and on...
9.2 Examples of Renaissance architecture
St. Peter‘
is a Late Renaissance church located
within Vatican City.
Designed pri...
9.2 Examples of Renaissance architecture
The dome of St. Peter's rises to a total height of
136.57 metres (448.1 ft) from ...
8.4 Difference between Romanesque and Gothic arches
The primary characteristics of Romanesque
architecture were Roman in o...
10 . Conclusion
*All the cultures and styles were effecting each other since the Islamic architecture, so there is no
Basi...
11. References
Sir Banister Fletcher --History of Architecture –
Rolf Toman -- The Art of Gothic—
John Mansbridge _ Graphi...
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General classification of arches and Roofing systems ( Domes & Vaults) In western Architecture-With examples

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prepared By : Shayan S,Zangana
Architecture Department / University Of Sulaimanyah

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General classification of arches and Roofing systems ( Domes & Vaults) In western Architecture-With examples

  1. 1. University of Sulymaniyah College of Engineering Department Of Architecture Third Stage Prepared by : Shayan Salar Ahmed Hazhir Jalil Mahmud Supervised by: L. Banaz Nasradin History Of Architecture A Report about : General classification of arches and Roofing systems ( Domes & Vaults) In western Architecture With examples
  2. 2. Content 1. Introduction of terms 1.1 Arches . 1.2 Vaults. 1.3 Domes . 2.1 History And Types of Arches. 2.2 History And Types of Vaults. 2.3 History And Types of Domes. 3.Ancinest Greek Architecture. 3.1 Arches and roofing systems. 4. Ancient Roman Architecture. 4.1 Arches in Roman Architecture. 4.2 Roofing systems in Roman architecture. 4.3 Examples of Roman architecture. 4.4 The effect of using arches . (comparing Greek & Roman architecture) 5. Early Christian Architecture 5.1 Arches and Roofing Early Christian architecture 5.2 Examples of Early Christian architecture 6. Byzantine Architecture. 6.1 Arches in Byzantine architecture 6.2 Roofing in Byzantine architecture. 6.3 Examples of Byzantine architecture The effect of pendentived comparing ( pantheon & holly w 7. Romanesque Architecture. 7.1 Arches in Romanesque architecture 7.2 Roofing in Romanesque architecture. 7.3 Examples of Romanesque architecture 8. Gothic Architecture. 8.1 Arches in Gothic architecture 8.2 Roofing in Gothic architecture. 8.3 Examples of Gothic architecture 8.4 Difference between Romanesque and Gothic arches 9. Renaissance Architecture. 9.1 Arches and Roofing Renaissance architecture 9.2 Examples of Renaissance architecture 10 . Conclusion 11. References
  3. 3. 1.1 Arches Is a structure that spans a space and supports a load. -Provides a structure which eliminates tensile stresses in spanning a great amount of open space. All the forces are resolved into compressive stresses. Building materials such as stone, cast iron and concrete can strongly resist compression but are very weak when tension, shear or torsion stress is applied to them. Arches consists of different components.
  4. 4. 1.2 Domes A dome is an element of architecture that resembles the hollow upper half of a sphere. Dome structures made of various materials have a long architectural lineage extending into prehistory. A dome is a rounded vault made of curved segments, meaning an arch rotated around its central vertical axis. Domes can be made much thinner than corresponding arches of the same span. For example, a hemispherical dome can be 2.5 times thinner than a semicircular arch, Sant peter Pantheon, Rome
  5. 5. 1.3 Vaults A vault, in architecture, is an arch- shaped structure, usually of masonry, used as the ceiling of room or other enclosed space, as the roof of a building, or as the support for a ceiling or roof. Masonry vaults are usually composed of wedge-shaped pieces called voussoirs, which are held in place, like the stones of an arch, by the pressure of the neighboring pieces. Because of the combined pressure of its components, any arch exerts an outward pressure at its base,
  6. 6. 2.1 History And Types of Arches. Arches appeared as early as the 2nd millennium BC in Mesopotamian brick architecture and their systematic use started with the Ancient Romans who were the first to apply the technique to a wide range of structures. The semicircular arch was followed in Europe by the pointed Gothic arch or ogive whose centreline more closely followed the forces of compression and which was therefore stronger. The semicircular arch can be flattened to make an elliptical arch as in the Ponte Santa Trinita. Both the parabolic and the cat nary arches are now known to be the theoretically strongest forms..Parabolic arches were introduced in construction by the Spanish architect Antoni Gaudí, who admired the structural system of Gothic style
  7. 7. Types of Arches. The most used arch types in European middle age architecture was : 1.Semi circular Arch (Roman to Romanesque) 2.. Pointed Arch (Romanesque , gothic ) 3. Trefoil Arch (gothic-style) 4. Cinquefoil Arch (gothic-style) 5. Ogee Arch (gothic-style) 6. Tudor Arch ( gothic-style) 7. horseshoe Arch (gothic-style) 8. four-foiled Arch (gothic-style) 9. Blind Arch ( Romanesque, gothic-style) 10. Cusped Arch (gothic-style) Detail of Each arch is in its age in next papers 1. Semi circular arch Gothic arches
  8. 8. Types of Arches. Some Arch types
  9. 9. 2.2 History And Types of Vaults. In ancient Egypt brick vaulting was used, chiefly for drains. The Chaldeans and Assyrians used vaults for the same purpose but seem also to have made architectural use of high domes The vaulting technique of the Etruscans was absorbed by the Romans, who started in the 1st cent. A.D. the development of a mature vaulting system. The semicircular arch was universally employed in Romanesque vaulting throughout Europe, and the Roman cross vault was the type used for covering square or rectangular compartments. the Gothic structure is a skeletal system that transfers roof loads down to the ground at discreet points Ribs to strengthen the groins and sides of a cross vault were first employed in the Church of Sant'Ambrogio, Milan (11th cent.).When the system of using ribs to form a complete organic supporting skeleton was developed, it became one of the basic principles of perfected Gothic architecture. The use of ribs led to increasing complexity, beginning in the 12th cent., in vault forms.
  10. 10. Types of Vaults. 1 Barrel vault (semi-circular vault) 2 Groin vaults ( cross vaults) 3 Rib vault 4 Fan vault 5 Dome
  11. 11. 2.3 History And Types of Domes. Roman domes are found in baths, villas, palaces, and tombs. Oculi are common features.They are customarily hemispherical in shape and partially or totally concealed on the exterior. In order to buttress the horizontal thrusts of a large hemispherical masonry dome, the supporting walls were built up beyond the base to at least the haunches of the dome and the dome was then also sometimes covered with a conical or polygonal roof The earliest discovered may be four small dwellings made of Mammoth tusks and bones. The first was found by a farmer in Mezhirich, Ukraine, in 1965 while he was digging in his cellar and archaeologists unearthed three more. They date from 19,280 - 11,700 BC. The Dome developed through centuries and transferred to Europe through ancient Roman Pantheon Rome Venice S. lorez dome
  12. 12. Types of Domes. (sphere).1. Semi Circular Domes 2. Segmental Domes (semi-sphere) (these two types are from Roman architecture-style) 3. Simple Dome 4. Compound Dome 5.Dome with Circular drum (these two types are from byzantine architecture-style) 6. Dome vaults (this style where used it some gothic cathedras by using a ribbed vault as a dome )
  13. 13. 3.Ancinest Greek Architecture. Historians divide Ancient Greek civilization into two eras, the Hellenic period (from around 900 BC to the death of Alexander the Great in 323 BC), and the Hellenistic period (323 BC to 30 AD).During the earlier (Hellenic) period, substantial works of architecture began to appear (around 600 BC). During the later (Hellenistic) period, Greek culture spread widely, initially as a result of Alexander's conquest of other lands, and later as a result of the rise of the Roman Empire, which adopted much of Greek culture
  14. 14. 3.1 Arches and roofing systems. Greeks didn’t use Arches in there structure , the used (the trabeated style) which th Greeks approved and developed, and which is recognised as the special Grecian typ This style was essentially columnar and trabeated (trabs = abeam), and the character was largely influenced by the use offinely-dressed marble. Stability was achieved solely by the judicious observance of the laws of gravity ; the weights acting only vertically, and consequently needing but vertical resistances. And the roofs where made of wood in a tri angular shape and the transferred the loads to the beams then to the coloumns which was 3 orders (Doric , lonic , Corinthian )
  15. 15. 4. Ancient Roman Architecture. Roman Architecture covers the period from the establishment of the Roman Republic 509BC, to about the 4th century, after which it becomes reclassified as Late Antique or Byzantine architecture. The Romans adopted the columnar and trabeated_style of theGreeks, and joined to it the Arch,the Vaulte and the Dome, which it is presumed they borrowed from the Etruscans, and this union of beam and arch is the keynote of the style in its earliest developments.
  16. 16. 4.1 Arches in Roman Architecture. Arches with a circular form, also referred to as rounded arch, were commonly employed by the builders of ancient history, heavy masonry arches. Ancient Roman builders relied heavily on the rounded arch to span large, open areas. Several rounded arches placed in-line, end-to-end, form an arcade, such as the Roman aqueduct.
  17. 17. 4.2 Roofing systems in Roman architecture. Roman vaults were the basis on which more complex and varied forms were developed in the Middle Ages. The barrel vault spans between two walls, like a continuous arch. The cross, groined, vault is formed by the intersection at right angles of two barrel vaults, producing a surface that has arched openings for its four sides and concentration of load at the four corner points of the square or rectangle. the main types are: 1. Barrel Vault (semi circular vault) 2. Groin Vault (cross vault) 3. The dome (semispherical and semi domes).
  18. 18. 4.3 Examples of Roman architecture. The Colosseum at Rome is a good example of this union in which the pires_ between the arches on the different stories are strengthened by the semi- attached columns which act the part of buttresses ; thus becoming part of the wall, and no longer carrying the entablature unaided. The Pantheon, Rome The 4,535 metric tons weight of the Roman concrete dome is concentrated with 43.3 diameter on a ring of voussoirs 9.1 metres (30 ft) in diameter that form the oculus, while the downward thrust of the dome is carried by eight barrel vaults in the 6.4 metres (21 ft) thick drum wall into eight piers. The thickness of the dome varies from 6.4 metres (21 ft) at the base of the dome to 1.2 metres (3.9 ft) around the oculus. 43.3m
  19. 19. 4.4 The effect of using arches . (comparing Greek & Roman architecture) The columns in Greek Parthenon are near to each other , because they used huge stones as beams to transfer the loads from the roof to the columns . And maximum span was 2.5 m . As linear stone beams cannot support high tensile Romans could build a larger spans using semi-circular stone arches . As arches can redirect the horizontal and vertical loads to the supports better than linear stone beams Roman aqueduct near Nimes, France The Parthenon , Athena
  20. 20. 5. Early Christian Architecture The Early Christian period is generally taken as lasting from Constantine to Gregory the Great, or from A.D. 300 to 604. The Teutonic invasions of Italy commenced about A.D. 376, and Teutonic settlements took place within the empire about this time, these movements being caused by the incursions of the Huns into Germany. Saint petro church
  21. 21. 5.1 Arches and Roofing Early Christian architecture The earlier basilican churches had their columns closely spaced, and were crowned with the entablature which supported the main wall, on which rested the wooden roof but as the arch came more into general use these columns were spaced further apart, being connected by semicircular arches The basilican church with three or five aisles, covered by a wooden roof, is the special type of the style as opposed to the vaulted types of Cross vaults & Barrel vaults Saint petro church
  22. 22. 5.2 Examples of Early Christian architecture The plans of the basilicas, or Roman halls of justice were copied by the early Christians for their places of worship Santa. Clemente, Rome, Which although rebuilt in the eleventh century, contains the original internal arrangement of the churches of the fifth century. An atrium or forecourt, being an open space surrounded by arcades, formed an imposing approach in most of the Basilican churches.
  23. 23. 6. Byzantine Architecture. Byzantine architecture is that which was developed at Byzantium on the removal of the capital from Rome to that city. It includes not only the buildings in Byzantium but also those which were erected under its influence, as at Ravenna and Venice, also in Greece, Russia, and elsewhere. During the reign of Justinian (A.D. 527-565) Italy was recovered to the Eastern Empire, accounting for the style of some of the buildings.
  24. 24. 6.1 Arches in Byzantine architecture In Byzantine churches The high ceiling of the nave was held up by semi-circular arch and columns The semi circular arch was the most used arch type in byzantine architecture
  25. 25. 6.2 Roofing in Byzantine architecture. The general architectural character depends on the development of the dome, induced by the adoption of circular and polygonal plans for churches, tombs and baptisteries. This is in contrast with the Romanesque style, which developed the vault in Western and Northern Europe . Byzantine architecture innovated the pedentive domes Which provided the Byzantine architects with a unique way of adjusting the circular form of a dome roof to a square or polygonal plan.
  26. 26. Domes was mostly used in the Eastern part of the Byzantine empire. While in west the roofs (some times domes) where covered by wood. Types of Domes: Simple Dome: It is a type of byzantine dome in which the curve (arch) of the pedentive and the Dome are the same . Compound Dome : In this type the pedentives and the Dome have deferent curvature Dome with Circular drum (support) : In this type of domes , a ring of concrete lies between the dome and the pendentives .. 6.2 Roofing in Byzantine architecture.
  27. 27. 6.3 Examples of Byzantine architecture The church of Holly wisdom was constructed on a scale unprecedented in human history. Under the rule of Justinian the Emperor, and with a force of 10,000 workers, divided by two teams of 5000 men leaded by 50 master. The main ground plan of the building is a rectangle, 70 meter (230 ft) in width and 75 meter (246 ft) In length. The are covered by a central dome with a diameter of 31 meter and height of 56 meter. vaults Dome Dome half
  28. 28. 6.3 Examples of Byzantine architecture The effect of using pendentived ( comparing Roman & Byzantine Architecture) The central dome is the dominant theme of the building. Unlike earlier domed buildings which were circular in plan, such as the Pantheon in Rome, the dome of the holly wisdom rests above a rectilinear ground plan. This design requires an architectural element to accomplish the transition from square to circle. To solve this problem, pendentives, or spherical triangles, are used to bridge the space between the four supporting corner piers and the circular base of the dome. It is estimated that 105 tons of pressure per square meter are exerted on the major piers. pendentives
  29. 29. 7. Romanesque Architecture. Romanesque architecture derives its name from the similarity to ancient roman buildings. Most notable its reliance on rounded arch and stress in individual parts to create unity. Romanesque style arises during the early middle ages (5th – 9th centuries). During those time Europe becomes Christianized and the church exerts more spiritual, economic and political influence. Signified building, with exception of monasteries and churches before 11th c. is rare because of constant warfare and poor economic conditions. Later the expansion of towns, commerce, industry and population creates a building boom. Christian influence continued to spread through Europe.
  30. 30. 7.1 Arches in Romanesque architecture The arches used in Romanesque architecture are nearly always semicircular, for openings such as doors and windows, for vaults and for arcades. Wide doorways are usually surmounted by a semi- circular arch, except where a door with a lintel is set into a large arched recess and surmounted by a semi-circular "lunette" with decorative carving. These doors sometimes have a carved central jamb. Narrow doors and small windows might be surmounted by a solid stone lintel. Larger windows are nearly always arched and may be paired with two arches separated by a column, or occur as paired windows framed by a single larger arch. Ocular windows are common in Italy, particularly in the facade gable and are also seen in Germany. Later Romanesque churches may have wheel windows or rose windows with plate tracery.
  31. 31. 7.2 Roofing in Romanesque architecture. Groin Vault is created by two barrel vaults intersecting at right angles. The arches of groin vaults are round or pointed. It is also known as a cross vault. Rib Vault A vault reinforced by masonry ribs is known as a rib vault. When this type of vault has two masonry ribs dividing it into four sections, it is called a quadripartite rib vault. A vault divided by three masonry ribs that make six sections is called a sexpartite rib vault. barrel vault of Saint-Savin-sur-Gartempe
  32. 32. 7.3 Examples of Romanesque architecture Ribbed groin vaults replace barrel vaults and allow the addition of clerestory windows. Rib vaults are groin vaults reinforced with extra stone ribbing. These vaults at St. Etienne are some of the earliest ribbed vaults. They are supported by large complex piers covered with pilasters and engaged columns. St. Etienne
  33. 33. The effect of Romanesque architecture on gothic arches Romanesque architecture had already established the basic architectural forms and units that were to remain in slow evolution throughout the medieval period. The basic structure of the cathedral church, the parish church, the monastery, the castle, the palace, the great hall and the gatehouse were all established. Ribbed vaults, pointed arches , buttresses, clustered columns, ambulatories, wheel windows, spires and richly carved door tympanums were already features of ecclesiastical architecture. The nave of the abbey church of Saint- Georges de Boscherville Saint-Étienne, Caen, both the nave and the tower are covered by ribbed vaults.
  34. 34. 8. Gothic Architecture. Gothic Architecture is a style of architecture which flourished during the high and late medieval period. It evolved from Romanesque architecture and was succeeded by Renaissance architecture. Originating in 12th-century France and lasting into the 16th century, Gothic architecture was known during the period as "the French Style" (Opus Francigenum), with the term Gothic first appearing during the latter part of the Renaissance as a stylistic insult. Its characteristic features include the pointed arch, the ribbed vault and the flying buttress. Milano cathedral
  35. 35. 8.1 Arches in Gothic architecture Semi circular Arch : Arches with a circular form, also referred to as rounded arch, were commonly employed by the builders of ancient history, heavy masonry arches. In gothic style the arch wasn’t used in wide range . Pointed Arch Pointed arches were most often used by builders of Gothic-style architecture. The advantage to using a pointed arch, rather than a circular arch, is that the arch action in a pointed arch produces less thrust at the base. This innovation allowed for taller and more closely spaced openings, typical of Gothic architecture . It has 4 main types: 1. Equilateral arch 2. Lancet Arch 3. Flamboyant arch 4. Depressed Arch
  36. 36. 8.1 Arches in Gothic architecture Trefoil Arch is an arch incorporating the shape or outline of a trefoil — three overlapping rings. It has been widely used for its symbolic significance in gothic architecture A pointed arch having cusps in the intrados on either side of the apex. Its decorative and not structural Used less than the pointed arch Ogee Arch shaped somewhat like an S, consisting of two arcs that curve in opposite senses, so that the ends are parallel. It is a kind of sigmoid curve. In architecture, the principal use of the term is to describe an arch composed of two ogees, mirrored left- to-right and meeting at an apex. Ogee arches were a feature of English Gothic architecture in the later thirteenth century.
  37. 37. Tudor Arch Tudor arch, is a low, wide type of arch with a pointed apex. It is much wider than its height and gives the visual effect of having been flattened under pressure. Its structure is achieved by drafting two arcs which rise steeply from each springing point on a small radius and then turn into two arches with a wide radius and much lower springing point. horseshoe Arch This type of arch was designed and developed in Islam It’s suggested that the horseshoe arch was derived from the symbolic use of the horseshoe in earlier ages. This arch allowed more height than the classical semi-circular arch . 8.1 Arches in Gothic architecture
  38. 38. 8.1 Arches in Gothic architecture Blind Arch arches that has no actual openings and that is applied to the surface of a wall as a decorative element: i.e. the arches are not windows or openings but are part of the masonry face. It is designed as an ornamental architectural element, and has no load-bearing function. Whereas a blind arch is usually a single arch or a series of joined arches Blind arcades are a common decorative features on the facades of Romanesque and Gothic buildings throughout Western Europe Cusped Arch A cusped arch having five foliations worked on the intrados. Architecture A design having five sides composed of converging arcs, usually used as a frame for glass or a panel in gothic-style
  39. 39. 8.1 Arches in Gothic architecture Cinquefoil Arch A cusped arch having five foliations worked on the intrados. Its found later than the trefoil arch. Used mainly in Islamic architecture, but also seen in gothic style. four-foiled Arch Typical in gothic and moorish architecture It is based on 4 circles with in a circle
  40. 40. 8.1 Arches in Gothic architecture Rose windows is often used as a generic term applied to a circular window, but is especially used for those found in churches of the Gothic architectural style and being divided into segments by stone mullions and tracery. The name “rose window” was not used before the 17th century and according to the Oxford English Dictionary, among other authorities, comes from the English flower name rose. Circular windows and decorative circular recesses are a feature of many Romanesque churches and cathedrals, particularly in Germany and Italy where the style existed for a prolonged period, overlapping the development of Gothic in France and its arrival with French architects in England. Strassburg Rose window exterior
  41. 41. 8.2 Roofing in Gothic architecture. Ribbed Vault The intersection of two or three barrel vaults produces a rib-vault or ribbed vault when they are edged with piped masonry often carved in decorative patterns. mechanics of the weight of a groin vault and its transmission outwards to the supporting pillars remains, the new use of rib vaults demonstrates the skill of the masons and the grandeur of the new ideas circulating at the introduction of Gothic architecture in the end of the eleventh century
  42. 42. 8.2 Roofing in Gothic architecture. Types of Ribbed vaults: Reticulated vault Stellar vault Stellar vault (wooden) Cell vault Umbrella vault Hanging key-s
  43. 43. 8.2 Roofing in Gothic architecture. Fan vault A fan vault is a form of vault used in the Perpendicular Gothic style, in which the ribs are all of the same curve and spaced equidistantly, in a manner resembling a fan. The initiation and propagation of this design element is strongly associated with England. The earliest example, dating from about the year 1351,[1] may be seen in the south walk of the cloisters of Gloucester Cathedral,[2] built by Thomas of Cambridge. In the fourteenth century the structure was known as the Abbey Church at Gloucester. A fine later example, from 1640, is the vault over the staircase at Christ Church, Oxford. The largest fan vault in the world, however, can be found in the chapel of King's College, Cambridge
  44. 44. 8.1 Arches in Gothic architecture Flying buttresses: A further development of arches were the flying buttress which arched externally from the springing of the vault across the roof of the aisle to a large buttress pier projecting well beyond the line of the external wall. These piers were often surmounted by a pinnacle or statue, further adding to the downward weight, and counteracting the outward thrust of the vault and buttress arch as well as stress from wind loading.
  45. 45. 8.3 Examples of Gothic architecture St. Roman Church This church is located in Spain, effected by Islamic architecture Cologne Cathedral
  46. 46. 8.3 Examples of Gothic architecture St. Mary Westwell Church- Canterbury The chancel, by far the most elaborate part of the building, is separated from the nave by a screen of three trefoil headed arches supported on very tall cylindrical pillars. The depressed arch supported by fan vau at King's College Chapel, England.
  47. 47. 9. Renaissance Architecture. *Renaissance architecture is the architecture between the early 15th and 17th centuries in different regions of Europe. *In which there was a conscious revival and development of certain elements of ancient Greek and Roman thought and material culture. *Renaissance architecture followed Gothic architecture and was succeeded by Baroque architecture. *Renaissance style places emphasis on symmetry, proportion, geometry and the regularity of parts. *Orderly arrangements of columns, pilasters and lintels. *Use of semicircular arches, hemisphererical domes, niches and aedicule which replaced the more complex proportional systems and irregular profiles of medieval buildings.
  48. 48. 9.1 Arches and Roofing Renaissance architecture Arches are semi-circular. Arches are often used in arcades, supported on piers or columns with capitals. There may be a section of entablature between the capital and the springing of the arch. Alberti was one of the first to use the arch on a monumental scale at the St. Andrea in Mantua. Windows may be paired and set within a semi- circular arch. They may have square lintels and triangular or segmental pediments, which are often used alternately. Emblematic in this respect is the Palazzo Farnese in Rome, begun in 1517.
  49. 49. 9.1 Arches and Roofing Renaissance architecture Vaults Vaults do not have ribs. They are semi-circular or segmental and on a square plan, unlike the Gothic vault which is frequently rectangular. The barrel vault is returned to architectural vocabulary as at the St. Andrea in Mantua. Domes The Dome of St Peter's Basilica, Rome. The dome is used frequently, both as a very large structural feature that is visible from the exterior , and also as a means of roofing smaller spaces where they are only visible internally . After the success of the dome in Brunelleschi’s design for theBasilica di Santa Maria del Fiore and its use in Bramante’s plan for St. Peter's Basilica ( 1506emoR ni ), the dome became an indispensable element in church architecture and l ater even for secular architecture, such as Palladio's Villa Rotonda
  50. 50. 9.2 Examples of Renaissance architecture St. Peter‘ is a Late Renaissance church located within Vatican City. Designed principally by Donato Bramante, Michelangelo, Carlo Maderno and Gian Lorenzo Bernini, St. Peter's is the most renowned work ofRenaissance architecture and remains one of the largest churches in the world. While it is neither the mother church of the Catholic Church nor the Catholic Roman Rite cathedral of the Diocese of Rome, St. Peter's is regarded as one of the holiest Catholic sites. It has been described as "holding a unique position in the Christian world" and as "the greatest of all churches of Christendom"
  51. 51. 9.2 Examples of Renaissance architecture The dome of St. Peter's rises to a total height of 136.57 metres (448.1 ft) from the floor of the basilica to the top of the external cross. It is the tallest dome in the world.[ Its internal diameter is 41.47 metres (136.1 ft), slightly smaller than two of the three other huge domes that preceded it, those of the Pantheon of Ancient Rome, 43.3 metres (142 ft), and Florence Cathedral of the Early Renaissance, 44 metres (144 ft). It has a greater diameter by approximately 30 feet (9.1 m) than Constantinople's Hagia Sophiachurch, completed in 537. It was to the domes of the Pantheon and Florence duomo that the architects of St. Peter's looked for solutions as to how to go about building what was conceived, from the outset, as the greatest dome of Christendom.
  52. 52. 8.4 Difference between Romanesque and Gothic arches The primary characteristics of Romanesque architecture were Roman in origin: large internal spaces, covered by barrel vaults, rounded arches on doors and windows, and thick walls. In Gothic architecture, none of the style elements such as the pointed arch, ribbed groin vault, and the pilgrimage choir plan are really new. They can be found separately in various Romanesque structures, but never in the same building. Gothic style has three main characteristics that make it its own unique style: highness, vertical lines and flying buttresses.
  53. 53. 10 . Conclusion *All the cultures and styles were effecting each other since the Islamic architecture, so there is no Basic difference in using the arches everywhere.. The semi circular arch where used from Roman architecture till the gothic came with the pointed arch and other types of gothic arch. *Round arches were used in the early Christians after the remains of roman architecture also in byzantine architecture. *Arches in early Christianity and Byzantines were simple and plain with no textures. *In Romanesque architecture different textures and ornaments are used to give a different style. *Arches in gothic architecture are pointed and slim because of the long and vertical elements in gothic style. *Each country uses different structure to form the arches and that depends on the geological factors of that place. *The Barrel and cross vault where used in Roman architecture then byzantine , Romanesque and Renaissance and the ribbed and fan vaulted used by the gothic – style architecture The Dome started with the Roman sphere and semi sphere domes , then the simple , compound and dome on ring (drum) which was used in byzantine –style , gothic's preferred using vaults on using domes , while domes was widely used in Renaissance style And become a part of churches
  54. 54. 11. References Sir Banister Fletcher --History of Architecture – Rolf Toman -- The Art of Gothic— John Mansbridge _ Graphic History of Architecture. First edition. Marco Bussagli _ Rome Art & Architecture . Franck dk. ching_ Graphic History of Architecture Internet: - www.wikipedia.com image.google.com

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