Attractive or Ugly Woman? An Ambiguous Figure — a duck or a rabbit An Ambiguous Figure — a kneeling woman or a man’s face Ambiguous Figures
A Figure Ground Experiement Figure Background Demonstration Figure Background Relationship of target to its background influences the perception, and the perceived objects stand out as separable from the background
Principle of Similarity Principle of Proximity Perceptual Grouping Similarity Proximity Objects of similar size, shape, color etc tend to be grouped together Tendency to perceive stimuli which are near one another as belonging together
The Principle of Closure Perceptual Grouping Closure Perceiving on the basis of missing stimuli
An Example of Illusion Perceptual error: Illusion Illusion can be understood as reliable perceptual error (when the constancy doesn’t hold good)
Person Perception: Making Judgments About Others Distinctiveness: shows different behaviors in different situations Consensus: response is the same as others to same situation Consistency: responds in the same way over time Attribution Theory When individuals observe behavior, they attempt to determine whether it is internally or externally caused.
Errors and Biases in Attributions Fundamental Attribution Error The tendency to underestimate the influence of external factors and overestimate the influence of internal factors when making judgments about the behavior of others.
Errors and Biases in Attributions (cont’d) Self-Serving Bias The tendency for individuals to attribute their own successes to internal factors while putting the blame for failures on external factors.
Frequently Used Shortcuts in Judging Others Selective Perception Generally people cannot assimilate all they observe, but rather take in bits and pieces People selectively interpret what they see on the basis of their interests, background, experience, and attitudes etc.
Frequently Used Shortcuts in Judging Others Halo Effect Drawing a general impression about an individual on the basis of a single characteristic Contrast Effects Evaluation of a person’s characteristics that are affected by comparisons with other people recently encountered who rank higher or lower on the same characteristics.
Frequently Used Shortcuts in Judging Others Expectations ( Self-fulfilling prophecy) People’s preconceived expectations and beliefs determine their behavior, thus, serving to make their expectations come true e.g. if a supervisor believes that a new employee will not be able to perform the job, this expectation influences the supervisor’s behavior towards the employee