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Department of oral pathology 
Risk factors for periodontitis 
Presented by, 
Shiji margaret 
CRRI
Introduction 
Historically, it was believed that 
all individuals were uniformly 
susceptible to developing 
periodontal d...
classification 
Risk factors 
 smoking 
Diabetes mellitus 
Pathogenic bacteria 
Risk derminants 
Genetic factor 
Age ...
Risk indicator 
osteoporosis 
Risk markers 
Previous history of periodontal disease 
Bleeding on probing
Smoking 
Smoking causes periodontitis
Smoking 
 smoking is a well established risk factor of 
periodontitis. 
 smockers will be having less bleeding than 
non...
Diabetes mellitus 
Diabetes is a modifiable factor in the sense 
that though it cannot be cured, it can be 
controlled. 
...
Diabetic parameters examined include 
glycemic control, duration of disease, presence 
of other diabetes-associated compl...
Finally, studies have been done which 
suggest that poorly controlled diabetics 
respond less successfully to periodontal...
Micro-organims and periodontal disease 
 Micro-organisms that colonize mouth 
1. Tanerella forsythus 
2. Porphyromonas gi...
 the presence of periodontal pathogens, though 
necessary to cause disease 
 The presence of A. actinomycetemcomitans 
c...
Physiological factors 
•stress
 individuals under psychological stress are 
more likely to develop clinical attachment loss 
and loss of alveolar bone 
...
Genetic factors 
Although bacterial infection is the etiologic 
agent in periodontal disease. 
 studies of identical twi...
Age 
The aging process itself is suggested to be an 
independent risk factor for periodontal diseases 
The extent of sev...
Healthy gingiva 
Pockets formed 
between tooth and 
gum 
Can cause destruction 
of bone support 
Increase in pocket depth ...
Gender 
Disease susceptibility may increased due to 
hormone related alterations in women 
• gingival blood flow 
• compo...
Osteoporosis 
Osteoporosis is a bone disease in which 
bone loss occurs, so that bones become 
weak and are more likely t...
Without prevension or treatment, 
osteoporosis can progress whithout pain or 
symptoms until a bone breaks. 
Fractures f...
Anorexia ,Diets low in calcium, 
phosohate and vitamin D are risk factors 
for osteoporosis 
Women are more likely to ha...
conclusion 
“ Measurement, Assessment, 
Elimination or reducing as many risks 
as possible will improve disease 
preventio...
reference 
 Journal of International Acadamy 
of Periodontolgy. 2005 January ; 
7(1): 3–7. 
 Carranza 10th edision
Risk Factors For Periodontitis
Risk Factors For Periodontitis
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Risk Factors For Periodontitis

Risk Factors For Periodontitis

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Risk Factors For Periodontitis

  1. 1. Department of oral pathology Risk factors for periodontitis Presented by, Shiji margaret CRRI
  2. 2. Introduction Historically, it was believed that all individuals were uniformly susceptible to developing periodontal disease and that accumulation of plaque, poor oral hygiene and perhaps occlusal trauma were sufficient to initiate periodontitis.
  3. 3. classification Risk factors  smoking Diabetes mellitus Pathogenic bacteria Risk derminants Genetic factor Age gender
  4. 4. Risk indicator osteoporosis Risk markers Previous history of periodontal disease Bleeding on probing
  5. 5. Smoking Smoking causes periodontitis
  6. 6. Smoking  smoking is a well established risk factor of periodontitis.  smockers will be having less bleeding than non smokers With increased use of tobacco, patients show higher periodontal probing depths, increased clinical attachment loss, more alveolar bone resorption, a higher prevalence of gingival recessions, and a higher risk for tooth loss
  7. 7. Diabetes mellitus Diabetes is a modifiable factor in the sense that though it cannot be cured, it can be controlled. Diabetes is a clear risk factor for periodontitis. Prevelence and severity of periodontitis is higher in patients with type1 and type2 diabetes
  8. 8. Diabetic parameters examined include glycemic control, duration of disease, presence of other diabetes-associated complications and population studied. Periodontal parameters examined have included gingivitis, clinical attachment loss, and alveolar bone loss. Studies have shown increased risk of ongoing periodontal destruction in diabetics as compared to nondiabetics with an odds ratio of 4.2.
  9. 9. Finally, studies have been done which suggest that poorly controlled diabetics respond less successfully to periodontal therapy relative to well-controlled and non-diabetics
  10. 10. Micro-organims and periodontal disease  Micro-organisms that colonize mouth 1. Tanerella forsythus 2. Porphyromonas gingivalis 3. Actinobaccilus actinomycetemcomitans
  11. 11.  the presence of periodontal pathogens, though necessary to cause disease  The presence of A. actinomycetemcomitans confers no additional risk of developing localized aggressive periodontitis in adults  It has been shown that Prevotella intermedia, P gingivalis, and Fusobacterium nucleatum may be risk indicators for periodontal disease in a diverse population, though they are not risk factors
  12. 12. Physiological factors •stress
  13. 13.  individuals under psychological stress are more likely to develop clinical attachment loss and loss of alveolar bone  One possible link in this regard may be increases in production of IL-6 in response to increased psychological stress  individuals under stress are less likely to perform regular good oral hygiene and prophylaxis
  14. 14. Genetic factors Although bacterial infection is the etiologic agent in periodontal disease.  studies of identical twins suggest 50% of susceptibility to periodontal disease is due to host factors (Michalowiczet al., 2000). Similarly, indigenous and relatively isolated populations have been shown to develop periodontal disease that differ from group to group (Dowsettet al., 2001; Ronderos et al., 2001).
  15. 15. Age The aging process itself is suggested to be an independent risk factor for periodontal diseases The extent of severity of periodontal diseases are shown to increase with age increased level of periodontal destruction observed with aging is the result of cumulative destruction rather than a result of increased rates of destruction.
  16. 16. Healthy gingiva Pockets formed between tooth and gum Can cause destruction of bone support Increase in pocket depth cause Disease progression and lead to surgery
  17. 17. Gender Disease susceptibility may increased due to hormone related alterations in women • gingival blood flow • composition of saliva Men are found with worse periodontal health
  18. 18. Osteoporosis Osteoporosis is a bone disease in which bone loss occurs, so that bones become weak and are more likely to break.
  19. 19. Without prevension or treatment, osteoporosis can progress whithout pain or symptoms until a bone breaks. Fractures from osteoporosis commonly occurs in the hip, ribs, spine, ribs and wrist. Osteoporosis can occur in any age It is more common in people above 50 years of age
  20. 20. Anorexia ,Diets low in calcium, phosohate and vitamin D are risk factors for osteoporosis Women are more likely to have osteoporosis than men People who are small and have thin bones are at great risk. If a persons parents are having osteoporosis he or she may be at risk
  21. 21. conclusion “ Measurement, Assessment, Elimination or reducing as many risks as possible will improve disease prevention and treatment outcomes”
  22. 22. reference  Journal of International Acadamy of Periodontolgy. 2005 January ; 7(1): 3–7.  Carranza 10th edision

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