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Habitat Fragmentation

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Habitat Fragmentation

  1. 1. Wildlife - habitat Term: Habitat Fragmentation
  2. 2. Fragmentation <ul><li>Habitats which were once continuous become divided into separate fragments. </li></ul><ul><li>The separate fragments tend to be very small islands isolated from each other by crop land, pasture, pavement, or even barren land. </li></ul><ul><li>Major habitat problem for wildlife in Fauquier County </li></ul>
  3. 3. Fragments <ul><li>Population problems </li></ul><ul><li>No immigration or emigration </li></ul><ul><li>Reduced reproductive pool </li></ul><ul><li>Decreasing species diversity </li></ul><ul><li>Increased edge to core ratio </li></ul>
  4. 4. Edge <ul><li>At the forest edge, wind and sun light result in dryer conditions than are found in the interior of the forest patch. </li></ul><ul><li>Forest edges are also more accessible to predators and parasites that may occur in adjacent fields or developed areas </li></ul><ul><li>Interior Species can only live in the core of a forest </li></ul>
  5. 5. Arrangement <ul><li>Fragments </li></ul><ul><li>Corridors </li></ul>
  6. 6. Wildlife Corridors <ul><li>Provide a covered route between fragmented habitats </li></ul><ul><li>Unknown effectiveness </li></ul><ul><li>Low tech best </li></ul>
  7. 7. Riparian Buffers improve habitat by: <ul><li>Functioning as wildlife corridors </li></ul><ul><li>Provides cover for animals to move from one area to another. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Provide cover & edge habitat <ul><li>Provides food, cover, & nesting sites </li></ul>Edge No edge
  9. 9. <ul><li>Trees & shrubs provide roosting sites for birds </li></ul><ul><li>Increased humidity provides habitat for amphibians, snakes, & turtles </li></ul>
  10. 10. Shade <ul><li>Supplies cover and cool temperatures for fish and aquatic insects </li></ul>
  11. 11. Habitat Requirements of Wildlife <ul><li>Food </li></ul><ul><li>Cover </li></ul><ul><li>Water </li></ul><ul><li>Space (Range) </li></ul><ul><li>Arrangement </li></ul>
  12. 12. Food <ul><li>Quality & Quantity </li></ul><ul><li>Seasonality </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Not just during hunting season </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Supplementation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Plantings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Trees </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Cover <ul><ul><li>From elements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>From predators </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Edge </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Water <ul><li>Flowing water </li></ul><ul><li>Standing water </li></ul><ul><li>Dew </li></ul><ul><li>Temperature </li></ul><ul><li>Sedimentation </li></ul>
  15. 15. Space or Range <ul><li>Bears: 10 miles </li></ul><ul><li>Crayfish: 2 feet </li></ul><ul><li>Adaptations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Deer will live in a very small range </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bears ranges getting smaller </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Niche & Habitat <ul><li>Habitat </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Place in nature </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Where </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Biological & physical resources </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Flora & Fauna </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Climate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Terrain </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Applies to all species </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Niche </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Role in nature </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What & how </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Position in the foodweb </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Physiological & behavioral adaptations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Unique to each species </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Habitat & Niche work together <ul><li>Biological Need: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Female ducks need to supply all fat, minerals & protein needed in egg w/in 24 hours </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Niche: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ducks usually eat seeds – lower protein, higher fat </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>During laying ducks eat invertebrates – high protein </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Habitat: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ducks seek shallow wetlands because they warm quickly in the spring & provide abundant invertebrates </li></ul></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Habitat Project <ul><li>Select and describe an ecosystem from the guide </li></ul><ul><li>Describe the management activities needed to create or improve its wildlife habitat </li></ul><ul><li>Include a section on management of invasives </li></ul><ul><li>Supplement with management strategies for one other (non-avian) wildlife species. </li></ul><ul><li>Make a powerpoint to display your results. </li></ul><ul><li>Have a spokesperson present your management strategies to the class on Wed. </li></ul>
  19. 19. Habitats <ul><li>Agricultural </li></ul><ul><li>Grasslands </li></ul><ul><li>Shrubland </li></ul><ul><li>Forest </li></ul><ul><li>Savanna </li></ul><ul><li>Wetland </li></ul><ul><li>Developed </li></ul><ul><li>No more than 2 people per group </li></ul>
  20. 20. Catfish <ul><li>Feed fish at 3% of body weight </li></ul><ul><li>Table 4-2 in book, relates length to weight </li></ul><ul><li>5” = 35.3 lbs/1000 </li></ul><ul><li>We have 200, how much do they weigh? </li></ul><ul><li>What is 3% of that? </li></ul><ul><li>How much is that? </li></ul>