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India , officially theIndia , officially the
Republic of India, is aRepublic of India, is a
country incountry in South AsiaSouth Asia. It. It
is theis the seventh-largestseventh-largest
country by geographicalcountry by geographical
area, thearea, the
second-most populoussecond-most populous
country and the mostcountry and the most
populous democracy in thepopulous democracy in the
Physical FeaturesIndia is bounded to the southwest by theIndia is bounded to the southwest by the
Arabian SeaArabian Sea, to the southeast by the, to the southeast by the
Bay of BengalBay of Bengal, and to the south by the, and to the south by the
Indian OceanIndian Ocean.. KanyakumariKanyakumari is the southernis the southern
tip of the Indian peninsula. Thetip of the Indian peninsula. The
southernmost point in India issouthernmost point in India is Indira PointIndira Point,,
in thein the Andaman and Nicobar IslandsAndaman and Nicobar Islands.. TheThe
Maldives,Maldives, Sri LankaSri Lanka andand IndonesiaIndonesia areare
island nations to the south of India. Sriisland nations to the south of India. Sri
Lanka is separated from India by theLanka is separated from India by the
Gulf of MannarGulf of Mannar and the narrow channel ofand the narrow channel of
Palk StraitPalk Strait. The territorial waters of India. The territorial waters of India
extend into the sea to a distance of 12extend into the sea to a distance of 12
nautical milesnautical miles (13.8 mi; 22.2 km) measured(13.8 mi; 22.2 km) measured
from the appropriatefrom the appropriate
baseline. Climate across India ranges from equatorial in the far south, tobaseline. Climate across India ranges from equatorial in the far south, to alpinealpine in thein the
upper reaches of the Himalayas.upper reaches of the Himalayas.
Political FeaturesIndia's borders run a total length ofIndia's borders run a total length of
15,106.70 km (9,387 mi). Its borders with15,106.70 km (9,387 mi). Its borders with
Pakistan and Bangladesh were delineatedPakistan and Bangladesh were delineated
according to theaccording to the Radcliffe LineRadcliffe Line, which was, which was
created in 1947 duringcreated in 1947 during Partition of IndiaPartition of India. Its. Its
western border with Pakistan extends up towestern border with Pakistan extends up to
3,323 km (2,065 mi), dividing the3,323 km (2,065 mi), dividing the
Punjab regionPunjab region and running along theand running along the
boundaries of the Thar Desert and theboundaries of the Thar Desert and the
Rann ofRann of Kutch. Both nations delineated aKutch. Both nations delineated a
Line of ControlLine of Control (LoC) to serve as the informal(LoC) to serve as the informal
boundary between the Indian and Pakistan-boundary between the Indian and Pakistan-
administered areas of Kashmir. According toadministered areas of Kashmir. According to
India's claim, itIndia's claim, it
also shares a 106 km (66 mi) border with Afghanistan in northwestern Kashmir, which isalso shares a 106 km (66 mi) border with Afghanistan in northwestern Kashmir, which is
under Pakistani control.under Pakistani control.
Indian DressFor men, traditional clothes are theFor men, traditional clothes are the kurtakurta. In. In
south India men wear long, white sheets of cloth.south India men wear long, white sheets of cloth.
In north Indian languages likeIn north Indian languages like HindiHindi,, MarathiMarathi
andand OriyaOriya these are calledthese are called
dhoti, while indhoti, while in TamilTamil they arethey are
called veshti. Over the dhoti,called veshti. Over the dhoti,
men wear shirts, t-shirts, ormen wear shirts, t-shirts, or
anything else.anything else.
Traditional Indian clothing for women are the saris or the
salwar kameez and also gaghra cholis (lehengas). Saris
made out of silk are the considered the most elegant.
Mumbai, formerly known as Bombay, is one of India's
fashion capitals. In some village parts of India, traditional
clothing is worn. Women wear a sari, a long sheet of
colorful cloth with patterns.
Indian Food Indian cuisineIndian cuisine consists of thousandsconsists of thousands
of regional cuisines which date backof regional cuisines which date back
thousands of years. The dishes ofthousands of years. The dishes of IndiaIndia
are characterized by the extensive useare characterized by the extensive use
of variousof various Indian spicesIndian spices,,
andand fruitfruit. Indian cuisine. Indian cuisine
is also known for the widespreadis also known for the widespread
practice ofpractice of vegetarianismvegetarianism in Indianin Indian
society. Each family of Indian cuisinesociety. Each family of Indian cuisine
includes a wide assortment of dishesincludes a wide assortment of dishes
and cooking techniques.and cooking techniques.
As aAs a consequence, it varies from region to region, reflecting theconsequence, it varies from region to region, reflecting the varied demographicsvaried demographics ofof
the ethnically-diverse subcontinent.the ethnically-diverse subcontinent.
Hindu beliefsHindu beliefs andand cultureculture have played an influential role in the evolution of Indianhave played an influential role in the evolution of Indian
However, cuisine across India also evolved as a result of the subcontinent'sHowever, cuisine across India also evolved as a result of the subcontinent's
large-scale cultural interactions withlarge-scale cultural interactions with MongolsMongols andand BritainBritain making it a unique blend ofmaking it a unique blend of
some various cuisines.some various cuisines.
Sports in India include cricket, chess,
badminton, field hockey, tennis,
association football and golf. Field Hockey
is the official national sport in India, and
the country has eight olympic gold medals
in field hockey, though cricket is the most
popular. Other popular sports include
football, tennis, volleyball, and badminton.
After the 1982 Asian
Games hosted in New Delhi, the capital city now has modern sports facilities, and similar
facilities are also being developed in other parts of the country. Besides sports and games
included in the international sporting agenda, there are many which have developed
Throughout the country a wide variety of sports are played. India is home toThroughout the country a wide variety of sports are played. India is home to
several traditional sports which originated in the country and continue to remain fairlyseveral traditional sports which originated in the country and continue to remain fairly
Indian DanceDance in IndiaDance in India covers a widecovers a wide
range ofrange of dancedance andand dance theatredance theatre
forms, from the ancient classical orforms, from the ancient classical or
temple dance to folk and moderntemple dance to folk and modern
Three best-knownThree best-known HinduHindu deities,deities,
ShivaShiva,, KaliKali andand KrishnaKrishna, are, are
typically represented dancing.typically represented dancing.
There are hundreds ofThere are hundreds of
Indian folk dancesIndian folk dances such assuch as
BhangraBhangra,, BihuBihu,, Ghumura DanceGhumura Dance,,
ChhauChhau andand GarbaGarba and special dances observed in regional festivals. India offers aand special dances observed in regional festivals. India offers a
number ofnumber of classical Indian danceclassical Indian dance forms, each of which can be traced to different parts offorms, each of which can be traced to different parts of
the country. The presentation of Indian dance styles in film,the country. The presentation of Indian dance styles in film, Hindi CinemaHindi Cinema, has exposed, has exposed
the range of dance in India to a global audience.the range of dance in India to a global audience.
Indian FestivalsIndia presents a cultural potpourriIndia presents a cultural potpourri
of number of religions with theirof number of religions with their
own festivals and celebrations butown festivals and celebrations but
the four major religions followed inthe four major religions followed in
India are Hinduism, Islam,India are Hinduism, Islam,
Christianity and Sikhism in theChristianity and Sikhism in the
descending order. There are adescending order. There are a
number of regional festivals whichnumber of regional festivals which
are celebrated in particular areasare celebrated in particular areas
only. Bright colors, brightly litonly. Bright colors, brightly lit
religious places, illuminated houses, sweets and traditional dresses and dances andreligious places, illuminated houses, sweets and traditional dresses and dances and
unwavering enthusiasm are the characteristics of all the festival holidays in India.unwavering enthusiasm are the characteristics of all the festival holidays in India.
Cuisine, dresses and ornaments, especially of the Indian women, with the profusion ofCuisine, dresses and ornaments, especially of the Indian women, with the profusion of
golden, red and yellow colors, cultural and traditional performances and music, chariotgolden, red and yellow colors, cultural and traditional performances and music, chariot
and car procession of the deities and interesting folklores give the Indian festivals theirand car procession of the deities and interesting folklores give the Indian festivals their
universal appeal.universal appeal.
Indian ArchitecturesTheThe architecture of Indiaarchitecture of India is rooted inis rooted in
itsits historyhistory,, cultureculture andand religionreligion..
architecture progressed with time andarchitecture progressed with time and
assimilated the many influences thatassimilated the many influences that
came as a result ofcame as a result of IndiaIndia's global's global
discourse with other regions of the worlddiscourse with other regions of the world
throughout its millennia-old past.throughout its millennia-old past.
architectural methods practiced in Indiaarchitectural methods practiced in India
are a result of examination andare a result of examination and
implementation of its established buildingimplementation of its established building
traditions and outside culturaltraditions and outside cultural
Though old, thisThough old, this EasternEastern tradition has also incorporated modern values as India became atradition has also incorporated modern values as India became a
modern nation state.modern nation state.
The economic reforms of 1991 further bolstered the urbanThe economic reforms of 1991 further bolstered the urban
architecture of India as the country became more integrated with the world's economy.architecture of India as the country became more integrated with the world's economy.
TraditionalTraditional Vastu ShastraVastu Shastra remains influential in India's architecture during theremains influential in India's architecture during the
contemporary era.contemporary era.
Depending upon the historian, India'sDepending upon the historian, India's
modern age may have begun in 1848,modern age may have begun in 1848,
when the appointment ofwhen the appointment of LordLord
DalhousieDalhousie as Governor General of theas Governor General of the
Company rule in IndiaCompany rule in India inauguratedinaugurated
changes essential to the development ofchanges essential to the development of
a modern state: the demarcation anda modern state: the demarcation and
consolidation of sovereignty; theconsolidation of sovereignty; the
surveillance of the population; thesurveillance of the population; the
education of citizens; and theeducation of citizens; and the
construction of railways, canals, andconstruction of railways, canals, and
telegraph lines, which were introducedtelegraph lines, which were introduced
not long after they had taken root innot long after they had taken root in