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  1. 1. Weathering
  2. 2. Weathering is the physical breakdown and chemical alteration of rocks and minerals. <ul><li>Weathering happens on or near the surface. </li></ul><ul><li>Weathering is caused by </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Atmospheric gases </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Water </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Acids </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Living organisms </li></ul></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Types Of Weathering <ul><li>There are two types of weathering, mechanical and chemical </li></ul><ul><li>Physical Weathering : when rock is broken and disintegrated without any chemical change, the process is called physical weathering or mechanical weathering . </li></ul><ul><li>We look briefly at four physical weathering processes </li></ul><ul><li>which are given below: </li></ul><ul><li>Frost Action/ Freeze-Thaw </li></ul><ul><li>Crystallization </li></ul><ul><li>Hydration </li></ul><ul><li>Pressure-Release Jointing </li></ul>
  4. 5. <ul><li>Frost Action/ Freeze-Thaw </li></ul><ul><li>When water freezes, its volume expands as much </li></ul><ul><li>as 9%. This expansion creates a powerful force </li></ul><ul><li>called frost action or freeze-thaw action, which </li></ul><ul><li>can exceed the tensional strength of rock. </li></ul><ul><li>Repeated freezing and thawing of water break </li></ul><ul><li>rocks apart. </li></ul>
  5. 6. B- Salt-crystal growth (haloclasty) <ul><li>Salt crystallization or otherwise known as Haloclasty causes disintegration of rocks when saline solutions seep into cracks and joints in the rocks and evaporate, leaving salt crystals behind. These salt crystals expand as they are heated up, exerting pressure on the confining rock. </li></ul><ul><li>Salt crystallization may also take place when solutions decompose rocks (for example, limestone and chalk ) to form salt solutions of sodium sulfate or Sodium carbonate , of which the moisture evaporates to form their respective salt crystals. </li></ul>
  6. 7. Salt weathering of sandstone near Qobustan, Azerbaijan. <ul><li>Salt weathering of building </li></ul><ul><li>stone on the island of Gozo, </li></ul><ul><li>Malta </li></ul>
  7. 8. C- Hydration/Hydraulic action <ul><li>This is when water (generally from powerful waves) rushes into cracks in the rockface rapidly. This traps a layer of air at the bottom of the crack, compressing it and weakening the rock. When the wave retreats, the trapped air is suddenly released with explosive force. The explosive release of highly pressurized air cracks away fragments at the rockface and widens the crack itself. </li></ul>
  8. 9. <ul><li>D- Pressure release: </li></ul><ul><li>This common in intrusive rocks that were formed deep under ground. E.g. granite batholiths. </li></ul><ul><li>When this rock is exposed to the surface by uplift and erosion the rock expands and sheet joints form parallel to the rock surface. This is also called exfoliation. </li></ul>
  9. 10. <ul><li>2- Chemical weathering </li></ul><ul><li>Chemical weathering involves the change in the composition of rocks, often leading to a 'break down' in its form.This is done through a combination of water and various chemicals to create an acid which directly breaks down the material. This type of weathering happens over a period of time. </li></ul><ul><li>We look breifly at three chemical weathering processes, which are given below: </li></ul><ul><li>Hydrolysis </li></ul><ul><li>Oxidation </li></ul><ul><li>Dissoloution/Carbonation </li></ul>
  10. 11. <ul><li>1- Hydrolysis </li></ul><ul><li>Hydrolysis is a chemical weathering process affecting Silicate minerals. In such reactions, pure water ionizes slightly and reacts with silicate minerals. An example reaction: </li></ul><ul><li>Mg2SiO4 + 4H2O ⇌ 2Mg2+ + 4OH- + H4SiO4 </li></ul><ul><li>Olivine (fortserite) + four ionized water molecules ⇌ ions in solution + silicic acid in solution </li></ul><ul><li>Aluminosilicates when subjected to the hydrolysis reaction produce a secondary mineral rather than simply releasing cations. </li></ul><ul><li>2KAlSi3O8 + 2H2CO3 + 9H2O ⇌ Al2Si2O5(OH)4 + 4H4SiO4 + 2K+ + 2HCO3- </li></ul><ul><li>Orthoclase (aluminosilicate feldspar) + carbonic acid + water ⇌ Kaolinite (a clay mineral) + silicic acid in solution + potassium and bicarbonate ions in solution </li></ul>