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Made by:
SHREYAANS M. NAHATA
PODAR INTERNATIONAL SCHOOL,
JALGAON
[10TH RUBY 29]
1
 “Light is an electromagnetic ray that travels in a straight
line”
 Reflection of Light:
◦ When light falls on a surface...
 Incident Ray: The ray of light that falls on the
reflecting surface
 Reflected Ray: The ray of light that is sent back ...
 Angle of Reflection: It is the angle made by the reflected ray
and the normal
 Object: It is the “thing” that forms an ...
 Laws of Reflection of light are:
◦ The angle of incidence is equal to the angle of reflection
◦ The incident ray, the re...
 The image formed in a plane is mirror is…
1. Virtual and Erect
2. Of the same size as of the object
3. At the same dista...
 Concave Mirror: A spherical mirror that has its reflecting surface
curved inwards
 Convex Mirror: A spherical mirror th...
 Center of curvature (C): It is the centre of the
sphere of which the mirror is a part
 Radius of curvature (CP): It is ...
Copyright © Shreyaans Nahata
[10th Ruby 29] 9
 Principal Focus:
◦ Focus of Concave Mirror: It is a point
on the principal axis, where all the rays
parallel to the prin...
 If in a concave mirror, a ray of light parallel to the principal
axis after reflection will pass through the focus or ap...
 A ray passing through the centre of curvature, after reflection
is reflected back along the same path
 A ray incident o...
 We can place the object at six positions
from the mirror:
◦ At infinity
◦ Beyond C
◦ At C
◦ Between C and F
◦ At F
◦ Bet...
1. At infinity:
 The image formed is:
◦ Real and Inverted
◦ Highly diminished, Point-sized
◦ Formed at F
2. Beyond C:
 T...
3. At C:
 The image formed is:
◦ Real and Inverted
◦ At C
◦ Of the same size as the object
4. Between F and C:
 The imag...
5. At F:
 The image formed is:
◦ Real and Inverted
◦ At infinity
◦ Highly magnified
6. Between F and P:
◦ Virtual and Ere...
Copyright © Shreyaans Nahata
[10th Ruby 29] 17
 Concave mirrors are used as:
◦ Shaving mirrors
◦ Torches, search lights, and vehicle headlights
◦ Used by dentist to get...
1. At Infinity:
 The image formed is
◦ Virtual and Erect
◦ Behind the mirror (at F)
◦ Highly diminished
2. Between Infini...
 Convex mirrors are used in:
◦ Vehicles as rear-view mirrors to see traffic at the
rear-side
◦ Used as a device to check ...
 Object is placed left to the mirror and the pole is taken as the origin
 Distance to the right of origin (+ve X-axis) i...
 The mirror formula is:
1
𝑣
+
1
𝑢
=
1
𝑓
Where, u= Object distance
v= Image distance
f= Focal length
Copyright © Shreyaans...
𝑀𝑎𝑔𝑛𝑖𝑓𝑖𝑐𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 𝑚 =
ℎ𝑒𝑔ℎ𝑡 𝑜𝑓 𝑖𝑚𝑎𝑔𝑒 (ℎ2)
ℎ𝑒𝑖𝑔ℎ𝑡 𝑜𝑓 𝑜𝑏𝑗𝑒𝑐𝑡 (ℎ1)
=
−𝐼𝑚𝑎𝑔𝑒 𝑑𝑖𝑠𝑡𝑎𝑛𝑐𝑒 (−𝑣)
𝑂𝑏𝑗𝑒𝑐𝑡 𝑑𝑖𝑠𝑡𝑎𝑛𝑐𝑒 (𝑢)
 For Virtual image...
 The phenomenon of bending of light when it travels
from one medium to another is called as ‘refraction’
 Laws of refrac...
 The refractive index of a medium gives an indication of light
bending ability of that medium
 Where n21 is the refracti...
Copyright © Shreyaans Nahata
[10th Ruby 29] 26
 There are two types of lenses:
◦ Convex Lens:
◦ Concave Lens:
Copyright © Shreyaans Nahata
[10th Ruby 29] 27
 The centre point of a lens is known as its Optical Focus
 A line passing through the optical centre is the Principal Ax...
1. A ray of light parallel to the principal axis
passes through the focus after refraction
2. A ray of light passing throu...
1. Between O and F:
 Image formed is:
◦ Virtual and Erect
◦ Behind the object (on the left side)
◦ Magnified
2. Between F...
Copyright © Shreyaans Nahata
[10th Ruby 29] 32
Copyright © Shreyaans Nahata
[10th Ruby 29] 33
 The sign conventions for lenses are same as those
for spherical mirrors except all the distances are
measured from the o...
Copyright © Shreyaans Nahata
[10th Ruby 29] 35
 The power of a lens is the reciprocal of its
focal length, i.e.
𝑃 =
1
𝑓
 S.I. unit for power of lens is called Dioptre
...
That’s it folks…
37
38
Light - Reflection and Refraction Class 10 Physics Complete
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Light - Reflection and Refraction Class 10 Physics Complete

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Light - Reflection and Refraction Class 10 Physics Complete

  1. 1. Made by: SHREYAANS M. NAHATA PODAR INTERNATIONAL SCHOOL, JALGAON [10TH RUBY 29] 1
  2. 2.  “Light is an electromagnetic ray that travels in a straight line”  Reflection of Light: ◦ When light falls on a surface and is reflected back into the same medium, we say reflection has taken place  Refraction of Light: ◦ When light travels from one medium to another it bends from its original path ◦ This phenomenon is called refraction Copyright © Shreyaans Nahata [10th Ruby 29] 2
  3. 3.  Incident Ray: The ray of light that falls on the reflecting surface  Reflected Ray: The ray of light that is sent back by the reflecting surface  Normal: The normal is a line at right angle to the reflecting surface to the point of incidence  Angle of Incidence: It is the angle made by the incident ray and the normal Copyright © Shreyaans Nahata [10th Ruby 29] 3
  4. 4.  Angle of Reflection: It is the angle made by the reflected ray and the normal  Object: It is the “thing” that forms an image on the screen  Image: It is the reflection of the object on the screen  Virtual Image: The image that cannot be obtained on a screen (a surface where image is formed)  Real Image: The image that is formed directly on the screen Copyright © Shreyaans Nahata [10th Ruby 29] 4
  5. 5.  Laws of Reflection of light are: ◦ The angle of incidence is equal to the angle of reflection ◦ The incident ray, the reflected ray and the normal to the mirror at the point of incidence all lie in the same plane ◦ The incident ray and the reflected ray lie on either side of the normal Copyright © Shreyaans Nahata [10th Ruby 29] 5
  6. 6.  The image formed in a plane is mirror is… 1. Virtual and Erect 2. Of the same size as of the object 3. At the same distance from the mirror as the object is in front of it 4. Laterally inverted Copyright © Shreyaans Nahata [10th Ruby 29] 6
  7. 7.  Concave Mirror: A spherical mirror that has its reflecting surface curved inwards  Convex Mirror: A spherical mirror that has its reflecting surface curved outwards  There are some important terms to be explained first in terms of Spherical mirrors. They are: ◦ Centre of Curvature ◦ Focus ◦ Principal Axis ◦ Pole ◦ Focal length ◦ Radius of Curvature Copyright © Shreyaans Nahata [10th Ruby 29] 7
  8. 8.  Center of curvature (C): It is the centre of the sphere of which the mirror is a part  Radius of curvature (CP): It is the radius of the sphere of which the mirror is a part  Pole (P): It is the centre of the spherical mirror  Principal axis (X-Y): It is the straight line passing through the centre of curvature and the pole Copyright © Shreyaans Nahata [10th Ruby 29] 8
  9. 9. Copyright © Shreyaans Nahata [10th Ruby 29] 9
  10. 10.  Principal Focus: ◦ Focus of Concave Mirror: It is a point on the principal axis, where all the rays parallel to the principal axis converge ◦ Focus of Convex Mirror: It is a point on the principal axis, where the reflected rays appear to converge  Focal length of Spherical Mirrors: ◦ The distance between the pole and the principal focus is called the focal length of the spherical mirror  The Radius of Curvature is two times the Focal Length of any spherical mirror Copyright © Shreyaans Nahata [10th Ruby 29] 10
  11. 11.  If in a concave mirror, a ray of light parallel to the principal axis after reflection will pass through the focus or appear to diverge from the focus in case of convex mirror  A ray passing through the focus of a concave mirror, after reflection, will emerge parallel to the principal axis Copyright © Shreyaans Nahata [10th Ruby 29] 11
  12. 12.  A ray passing through the centre of curvature, after reflection is reflected back along the same path  A ray incident obliquely to the principal axis towards the pole on the spherical mirrors is reflected back obliquely Copyright © Shreyaans Nahata [10th Ruby 29] 12
  13. 13.  We can place the object at six positions from the mirror: ◦ At infinity ◦ Beyond C ◦ At C ◦ Between C and F ◦ At F ◦ Between F and P Copyright © Shreyaans Nahata [10th Ruby 29] 13
  14. 14. 1. At infinity:  The image formed is: ◦ Real and Inverted ◦ Highly diminished, Point-sized ◦ Formed at F 2. Beyond C:  The image formed is: ◦ Real and Inverted ◦ Between F and C ◦ Diminished Copyright © Shreyaans Nahata [10th Ruby 29] 14
  15. 15. 3. At C:  The image formed is: ◦ Real and Inverted ◦ At C ◦ Of the same size as the object 4. Between F and C:  The image formed is ◦ Real and Inverted ◦ Beyond C ◦ Magnified Copyright © Shreyaans Nahata [10th Ruby 29] 15
  16. 16. 5. At F:  The image formed is: ◦ Real and Inverted ◦ At infinity ◦ Highly magnified 6. Between F and P: ◦ Virtual and Erect ◦ Behind the mirror ◦ Magnified Copyright © Shreyaans Nahata [10th Ruby 29] 16
  17. 17. Copyright © Shreyaans Nahata [10th Ruby 29] 17
  18. 18.  Concave mirrors are used as: ◦ Shaving mirrors ◦ Torches, search lights, and vehicle headlights ◦ Used by dentist to get large images of patient’s teeth ◦ In solar furnaces to concentrate heat Copyright © Shreyaans Nahata [10th Ruby 29] 18
  19. 19. 1. At Infinity:  The image formed is ◦ Virtual and Erect ◦ Behind the mirror (at F) ◦ Highly diminished 2. Between Infinity and P:  The image formed is: ◦ Virtual and Erect ◦ Behind the mirror (between P and F) ◦ Diminished Copyright © Shreyaans Nahata [10th Ruby 29] 19
  20. 20.  Convex mirrors are used in: ◦ Vehicles as rear-view mirrors to see traffic at the rear-side ◦ Used as a device to check thefts in shops 20
  21. 21.  Object is placed left to the mirror and the pole is taken as the origin  Distance to the right of origin (+ve X-axis) is positive while that to its left (-ve X-axis) is negative  Distances above the principal axis (+ve Y-axis) are positive while those below it (-ve Y-axis) are negative Copyright © Shreyaans Nahata [10th Ruby 29] 21
  22. 22.  The mirror formula is: 1 𝑣 + 1 𝑢 = 1 𝑓 Where, u= Object distance v= Image distance f= Focal length Copyright © Shreyaans Nahata [10th Ruby 29] 22
  23. 23. 𝑀𝑎𝑔𝑛𝑖𝑓𝑖𝑐𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 𝑚 = ℎ𝑒𝑔ℎ𝑡 𝑜𝑓 𝑖𝑚𝑎𝑔𝑒 (ℎ2) ℎ𝑒𝑖𝑔ℎ𝑡 𝑜𝑓 𝑜𝑏𝑗𝑒𝑐𝑡 (ℎ1) = −𝐼𝑚𝑎𝑔𝑒 𝑑𝑖𝑠𝑡𝑎𝑛𝑐𝑒 (−𝑣) 𝑂𝑏𝑗𝑒𝑐𝑡 𝑑𝑖𝑠𝑡𝑎𝑛𝑐𝑒 (𝑢)  For Virtual image, m is positive Real image, m is negative  If m>1, image is bigger than the object  If m=1, image is of the same size as of the object  If m<1, image is smaller than the object  If m is positive, then the image is virtual and erect  If m is negative, then the image is real and inverted Copyright © Shreyaans Nahata [10th Ruby 29] 23
  24. 24.  The phenomenon of bending of light when it travels from one medium to another is called as ‘refraction’  Laws of refraction of light: ◦ The incident ray, the normal and the refracted ray, all lie in the same plane ◦ sin 𝑖 sin 𝑟 = 𝑐𝑜𝑛𝑠𝑡𝑎𝑛𝑡 where, i= Angle of incidence r= Angle of reflection constant= Refractive index Copyright © Shreyaans Nahata [10th Ruby 29] 24
  25. 25.  The refractive index of a medium gives an indication of light bending ability of that medium  Where n21 is the refractive index of medium 2 with respect to medium 1 Copyright © Shreyaans Nahata [10th Ruby 29] 25
  26. 26. Copyright © Shreyaans Nahata [10th Ruby 29] 26
  27. 27.  There are two types of lenses: ◦ Convex Lens: ◦ Concave Lens: Copyright © Shreyaans Nahata [10th Ruby 29] 27
  28. 28.  The centre point of a lens is known as its Optical Focus  A line passing through the optical centre is the Principal Axis  Focus is the point where rays converge (or appear to) after refraction in lens Copyright © Shreyaans Nahata [10th Ruby 29] 28
  29. 29. 1. A ray of light parallel to the principal axis passes through the focus after refraction 2. A ray of light passing through the focus becomes parallel to the principal axis after refraction 3. A ray of light passing through the optical centre goes straight without changing its path Copyright © Shreyaans Nahata [10th Ruby 29] 29
  30. 30. 1. Between O and F:  Image formed is: ◦ Virtual and Erect ◦ Behind the object (on the left side) ◦ Magnified 2. Between F and 2F:  Image formed is: ◦ Real and Inverted ◦ Beyond 2F ◦ Magnified Copyright © Shreyaans Nahata [10th Ruby 29] 31
  31. 31. Copyright © Shreyaans Nahata [10th Ruby 29] 32
  32. 32. Copyright © Shreyaans Nahata [10th Ruby 29] 33
  33. 33.  The sign conventions for lenses are same as those for spherical mirrors except all the distances are measured from the optical centre  Distance to the right of origin (+ve X-axis) is positive while that to its left (-ve X-axis) is negative  Distances above the principal axis (+ve Y-axis) are positive while those below it (-ve Y-axis) are negative Copyright © Shreyaans Nahata [10th Ruby 29] 34
  34. 34. Copyright © Shreyaans Nahata [10th Ruby 29] 35
  35. 35.  The power of a lens is the reciprocal of its focal length, i.e. 𝑃 = 1 𝑓  S.I. unit for power of lens is called Dioptre (D) Copyright © Shreyaans Nahata [10th Ruby 29] 36
  36. 36. That’s it folks… 37
  37. 37. 38

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