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A industrial training Report
“Pneumatics System and Inventory Management”
Amity School, Of Engineering
Submitted to- Submitted by-
Mr. Mahender Kumar Verma Shubhang Jadia
HOD Roll no. A12405412044
B tech 7thSEM.
Amity School of Engineering
I hereby declare that the project work is an authentic record of my work carried out at
Honda Cars India Ltd. as requirements of project summer training for the award of degree of
B.Tech (Mechanical Engineering), Amity School of Engineering, Amity University, Noida,
Under the guidance of Mr.Anand, Honda Cars India Ltd. from 25th May 2015 to 4th July June
Roll. No. – A12405412044
ASE, Amity University Noida
It is certified that the above statement made by the student is correct to the best of my
knowledge and belief.
MR. MAHENDER KUMAR VERMA
HEAD OF DEPARTMENT
There is number of people to whom all I am indebted for the support they provided me during
my summer training.
I am deeply grateful to my mentor, for teaching me the importance of determination,
dedication, perseverance, honesty and every other professional quality necessary to work in
such a renowned organization. It is because of my mentor I have gained so much practical
experience about welding, pneumatics system and inventory method and have been able to
complete my project successfully. I thank my family for their encouragement. I present my
sense of gratitude to one and all who, directly or indirectly lent their helping hand in this
Table of contents:
1. Company profile
2. Introduction to welding department
3. Project objective
Objective of inventory
Existence of inventory
This Project Report introduces the projects undertaken and completed during the on-going
industrial training at Honda Cars India Limited (Weld Department). The main aim of this
project is to understand the maturation process of a New Model in welding department. The
focus was checking and maintaining the quality of Spot Welds as specified by the R&D
department and incorporating it in mass production of the same model.
Honda, as worldly known for their safety and quality require a perfectly manufactured or
assembled product. To ensure this, every New Model which is introduced undergoes a lot of
process work before actually mass producing it. The objective of this Study is to understand
the whole process of introduction of a New Model of a Car and go along with till the
production of its first batch.
This report explains all the quality checks required to be done before the New Model is added
to the Assembly Plant. Its main area of focus is Resistance Spot Welding. The quality and
quantity of spot welds were extensively checked and ensured during this training.
All the defects that usually occur in resistance spot welding have been clearly explained in
this extract. Their causes, effects and counter-measures have been studied and applied during
the whole process
Introduction to HCIL
Honda Cars India Ltd (HCIL) is a subsidiary of the Honda of Japan for the production,
marketing and export of passenger cars in India. Formerly known as Honda Siel Cars India
Ltd, it began operations in December 1995 as a joint venture between Honda Motor
Company and Usha International of Siddharth Shriram Group. In August, 2012, Honda
bought out Usha International's entire 3.16 percent stake for 1.8 billion in the joint venture.
The company officially changed its name to Honda Cars India Ltd (HCIL) and became a
100% subsidiary of Honda.It operates production facilities at Greater Noida in Uttar
Pradesh and at Bhiwadi in Rajasthan. The company's total investment in its production
facilities in India as of 2014 was over 21 billion.HCIL's first manufacturing unit at Greater
Noida commenced operations in 1997. Setup at an initial investment of over 4.5 billion, the
plant is spread over 150 acres (0.61 km2). The initial capacity of the plant was 30,000 cars per
annum, which was thereafter increased to 50,000 cars on a two-shift basis. The capacity has
further been enhanced to 100,000 units annually as of 2008. This expansion led to an
increase in the covered area in the plant from 107,000 m² to over 130,000 m².
Models assembledin HCIL (GreaterNoida Unit)
Honda Brio (Launched 2011)
Honda CR-V (Imported since 2003; 2013 model locally assembled)
Honda Amaze (launched April 2013)
Honda Mobilio (launched July 2014)
1.The Honda Brio is a five-door subcompact hatchback produced by Honda in India,
Thailand and Indonesia. The car was introduced in 2011. (Fig.1)
The Brio is powered by a 4-cylinder, 1.2 L (73 cu in) L12B i-VTEC gasoline engine
delivering 88 PS (64.7 kW; 86.8 bhp). It is available with either a 5-speed manual or a
continuously variable transmission. The car is certified to deliver a combined mileage of
19.4 km/L and16.5 km/L with manual and automatic transmission respectively on the Indian
Safety equipment includes dual front airbags, anti-lock braking system, electronic brake force
distribution and front pretension seat belts. The driver's side airbag feature multi-stage
inflation. The front body is designed to absorb impact energy for better pedestrian protection.
2. The Honda CR-V is a compact SUV (now called crossover in North America),
manufactured since 1995 by Honda. It was loosely derived from the Honda Civic. There are
discrepancies as to what "CR-V" stands for
In India, the 4th generation CR-V was launched in February 2013 with 2 variants, a 2.0 litre
petrol and a 2.4 litre, 185 bhp petrol. The 2.0 liters variant will be equipped with a six-speed
manual or a five-speed automatic gearbox. The 2.4 litre variant will come with an automatic
gearbox, Honda's on demand 4 wheel drive system and an Econ-mode to increase fuel
efficiency. The Honda Amaze, also known as the Honda Brio Amaze, is a four-door
subcompact sedan produced by Honda. It is the sedan version of the Brio. Honda launched
the Amaze in India on April 11, 2013 and was
s developed at Honda R&D Asia Pacific Co., Ltd. located in Bangkok, Thailand. The Amaze
is available in petrol and diesel engine.
The Amaze is being manufactured at the company’s facility in Greater Noida, with a
localization level of more than 90 %.( Fig.3)
The petrol version is available in seven variants and the diesel version is available in five
variants. Honda Car India is to introduce the face lifted version of the Amaze compact sedan,
which is to be launched by the end of 2015. Honda Cars India Ltd. (HCIL), introduced a new
CNG trim known as '1.2 S MT Plus' as a fresh addition to its offering in the Indian Car
corporate - Engine of the year - Honda eco technology(HET) 100cc engine
Best Indian Company (unlisted) by Business Standard Group
Manufacturer of the Year by NDTV Profit-Car India
Manufacturer of the Year by CNBC-TV 18 Auto car India
No 1 Mid-Size Car (Honda City); No 1 Entry Luxury Car (Honda Accord) and No 1
Premium SUV (Honda CR-V) by TNS
Best Mid-size Car in Initial Quality (Honda City) and Most Appealing Mid-size car
(Honda City) by JD Power.
CNBC Auto car CAR of the year 2004 - Honda City
ICICI Overdrive SUV of the Year 2004 - Honda CR-V
ICICI Overdrive Car of the Year 2004 - Honda City
Business Standard Motoring Car of the Year 2004 - Honda City
Departments in HONDA
1. Parts Logistic Control (PLC)
2. Welding (WE)
3. Paint (PA)
4. Plastic Objects (PO)
5. Assembly Engine (AE)
6. Assembly Frame (AF)
7. Vehicle Quality (VQ)9
THE KEY TO SUCCESS
SEIRI (Sort Out):-This means sorting and organizing the items as critical, important,
frequently used items, useless, or items that are not need as of now. Unwanted items can be
salvaged. Critical items should be kept for use nearby and items that are not be used in near
future, should be stored in some place. For this step, the worth of the item should be decided
based on utility and not cost. As a result of this step, the search time is reduced.
SEITION (Organize):- The concept here is that "Each item has a place, and only one
place". The items should be placed back after usage at the same place. To identify items
easily, name plates and colored tags has to be used. Vertical racks can be used for this
purpose, and heavy items occupy the bottom position in the racks.
SEISO (Shine the Workplace):- This involves cleaning the work place free of burrs,
grease, oil, waste, scrap etc. No loosely hanging wires or oil leakage from machines
SEIKETSU (Standardization):- Employees has to discuss together and decide on
standards for keeping the work place / Machines / pathways neat and clean. These standards
are implemented for whole organization and are tested / inspected randomly.
SHITSUKE (Self Discipline):- Considering 5S as a way of life and bring about self-
discipline among the employees of the organization. This includes wearing badges, following
work procedures, punctuality, dedication to the organization
INTRODUCTION TO WELD DEPARTMENT
Welding is a fabrication or sculptural process that joins materials, usually metals or
thermoplastics, by causing coalescence. This is often done by melting the work pieces and
adding a filler material to form a pool of molten material (the weld pool) that cools to become
a strong joint, with pressure sometimes used in conjunction with heat, or by itself, to produce
HCIL Plant Layout
One of the most valuable things, which the founders of HONDA gave to the company, was
philosophy that serves as the basis of business endeavors of HONDA now & in future.
“Action without philosophy is a lethal weapon, philosophy without action is worthless”. The
center of HONDA philosophy is the company principle, which was written in 1956 under
lining the company principle.
HONDA’S WORK CULTURE
Total Quality Management (TQM) in all its processes and operations
Data based decision making
PDCA practices (Plan, Do, Check & Act); Strong focus on ‘P’
3-S Approach (Simplicity, Concentration & Speed) to work
NH Circle Activities / Kaizen / 5-S practices / San-Gen-Shugi
Openness / Trust / Approachability
It stands for PLAN-DO- CHECK-ACT. This is a cyclic process& continues in reiterating
if the proposed solution doesn’t work or taking up a new problem & implementing
Welding is a fabrication or sculptural process that joins materials, usually
metals or thermoplastics, by causing coalescence.
Welding department is mainly divided into 4 zones and they are as follows:
1. A Zone (Floor Comp Line)
2. B Zone (Side Panel, Roof Comp Line, Re-spot)
3. C Zone (Small Part Fitment, Door, Hood, Trunk Installation, Metal Finish Line)
4. D Zone (manufacturing of Doors, Hood, Trunk, Tailgate)
This sub zone has 4 stations with each station has separate jigs and spot-welding guns are:
1. Front Comp W/H Jig
2. Front Comp Jig
3. Front Comp Respot-1
4. Front Comp Respot-2
FRONT FLOOR: For Assembly of front floor of outer body
This sub zone has 4 stations and it also has separate jigs, welding guns and they are:
1. Front Floor Jig-1
2. Front Floor Jig-2
3. Front Floor Respot-1
4. Front Floor Respot-2
REAR FLOOR: For Assembly of Rear floor of outer body
This sub zone has 5 stations and the guns used in this sub zone are as follows:
1. Rear Floor Frame Jig
Pneumatic system use air for working as air is abundantly available. Air should be
compressed as without compressing it is of no use.
Figure 1 Pneumatic Circuit
This circuit is showing how air passes through first air regulator and there is air filter which
filters the air and air is compressed. It also measures the pressure of air. Then it is a valve
which is used for further flow of air by rotating it. There are ports through which air is passes
Also there is speed control port in which inlet and outlet flow of air is controlled.
Basic components of pneumatic system:
1) Air filter: These are used to filter out the contaminants in air so that flow of air
will be smooth and without any disturbance.
2) Compressor: Compressed air is generated by compressor. They are diesel or
electrically operated. Based on the requirement of air compressor are used.
3) Air Cooler: During compression temperature of air increases, so to cools the air
or decrease the temperature air cooler are used.
4) Dryer: water vapor or moisture is separated by using dry.
5) Control valves: they are used for control, regulate and monitor for controlled
direction of flow.
6) Air Actuators: air cylinders and motor are used to obtain the require movements
of mechanical elements of pneumatic system.
7) Electric motor: It transforms electrical energy into mechanical energy and used
to drive the compressor.
8) Receiver tank: It stores the compressed air coming from the compressor.
It is a mechanical device which converts mechanical energy into fluid energy. The
compressor increases the air pressure by reducing its volume which also increases the
temperature of the compressed air. The compressor is selected based on the pressure it needs
to operate and the delivery volume.
The compressor can be classified into two main types
a. Positive displacement compressors and
b. Dynamic displacement compressor
It produce single acting cylinder which consist of one side movement of piston. It produces
one pulse of air per stroke. As the piston moves up the inlet valve closes and the exhaust
valve opens which allows the air to be expelled. The valves are spring loaded. The single
cylinder compressor gives significant amount of pressure pulses at the outlet port. The
pressure developed is about 3-40 bar.
Double acting cylinder
The pulsation of air can be reduced by using double acting compressor as shown
in Figure 6.1.4. It has two sets of valves and a crosshead. As the piston moves, the
air is compressed on one side whilst on the other side of the piston, the air is
sucked in. Due to the reciprocating action of the piston, the air is compressed and
delivered twice in one piston stroke. Pressure higher than 30bar can be produced.
Air Treatment and Pressure Regulation
For satisfactory operation of the pneumatic system the compressed air needs to be cleaned
and dried. Atmospheric air is contaminated with dust, smoke and is humid. These
particles can cause wear of the system components and presence of moisture may cause
corrosion. Hence it is essential to treat the air to get rid of these impurities
Inlet filter control the large size particle from entering in the compressor. Air leaving the
compressor may be humid and at high temperature. In the next stage air is cooled by
using cooler and dryer is used to dry the air. Also an inlet filter is provided to remove any
contaminated particle present in the air.in the next stage oil lubricator is provided which
provide a mist of oil in compressed air.
Lubricator provides mist of oil in compressed air. It is done in order to provide lubrication
to mating components. Its velocity increases due to a pressure differential between the
upper and lower changer (oil reservoir). Due to the low pressure in the upper chamber the
oil is pushed into the upper chamber from the oil reservoir through a siphon tube with
check valve. Valve functions to control the amount of oil present in the air. The air comes
with high velocity and oil drop also has high velocity. The air breaks the oil drops and
forms the mist forming in tiny particles. Pressure is adjusted by a needle valve.
When compressed air flows there is a flow dependent pressure drop between load and air
flow. Therefore pressure in receiver tank is kept higher to avoid reduction of pressure.
During the preparation of compressed air, various processes such as filtration, regulation and
lubrication are carried out by individual components. The individual components are:
separator/filter, pressure regulator and lubricator. Preparatory functions can be combined into
one unit which is called as ‘service unit’. Figure shows symbolic representation of various
processes involved in air preparation and the service unit.
They convert energy coming from pressurized hydraulic oil into the required form.
Actuators can be classified into three types:
1) Linear actuators: They convert hydraulic energy into linear motion.
2) Rotary actuators: they convert hydraulic energy into rotary motion.
1. Single acting cylinder:
They work in one direction motion that’s way they are called single acting cylinder.
The compressed air pushes the piston located in the cylindrical barrel causing the
desired motion. The return stroke takes place by the action of a spring. Generally the
spring is provided on the rod side of the cylinder.
2. Double acting cylinder:
Main parts of double cylinder are piston, piston tube, end caps. The piston rod is
connected to piston head and the other end extends out of the cylinder. The piston
divides the cylinder into two chambers namely the rod end side and piston end side.
The seals prevent the leakage of oil between these two chambers. The cylindrical tube
is fitted with end caps. The pressurized oil, air enters the cylinder chamber through
the ports provided. In the rod end cover plate, a wiper seal is provided to prevent the
leakage of oil and entry of the contaminants into the cylinder. The combination of
wiper seal, bearing and sealing ring is called as cartridge assembly. The end caps may
be attached to the tube by threaded connection, welded connection or tie rod
For an actuator, operational speed is determined by fluid flow rate and cylinder displacement
area. As speed can only be control by fluid flow rate because physical dimension are fixed.
The word inventory means simply a stock of idle resources of any kind having an economic
value. In other words “Inventory means a physical stock of goods, which is kept in hand and
smooth and efficient running of future affaires of an organization”. Inventories are essential
resources of the firm that require investment and involve the assurance of firm’s resources.
Inventories are not an idle asset but these are a vital part of firm’s operations. If the
inventories are at the large scale, they became a strain or damage on the resources and if they
are at the small scale the firm may go down the sales. Therefore, by taking all things into
mind, the firm must have an optimum level of inventories.
Most companies want to have just an adequate amount of inventories to meet current orders.
Having too many products suffering in a warehouse can make a company look less appealing
to investors. If the inventory numbers are high and sales are low then a company will offer
significant discounts. In normally seen in new car dealerships as the manufacturers release
the next year's models before the recent model of vehicles on the lot have been sold.
Furniture companies may also offer 'inventory reduction sales' in order to clear out their
showrooms for newer merchandise.
The raw materials, work-in-process goods and completely finished goods those are
considered ready or will be ready for sale. Inventory represents one of the most essential
material goods that most businesses possess, because the turnover of inventory represents one
of the primary sources of revenue generation and successive earnings for the company's
Block diagram of inventory system at HCIL:
Product In Product Out
Part no., Name and
Gate bill entry
stamp gate no.2
Stock reg. po,
amount, and item
Objective of inventory:
The objective of an inventory-control system is to make inventory decisions that minimize
the total cost of inventory, which is distinctly different from minimizing inventory. It is often
more expensive to run out of an item (and thus be forced to obtain it through more expensive
channels) than simply to keep more units in stock. Most pharmacy inventory decisions
involve replenishment—how much to order, when to decide to order, and when to place the
order. There are three costs associated with pharmacy inventory: (1) carrying costs, (2)
shortage costs, and (3) replenishment costs. A fundamental objective of good inventory
control is able to place an order at right time from the right source to acquire the right quality
at the right price and of right quality. James Lundy has suggested following objectives of
To Ensure Adequate stock: An endeavor is made by inventory control to see that any
department will get the raw material or other necessary item as and when required.
Hence an effective system of purchasing, storage and maintenance is effectively arranged
so that enough stock is available on hand.
T0 minimize inventory on hand: The next objective of inventory control is to minimize
inventory on hand. It has to be ensured that excessive stock is kept and unnecessary
capital in not locked up. But it must be consistent with adequate stock, so the production
is not disrupted.
To maintain continuity in production: The supplies of material spare parts;
consumable stored etc. must be stocked to the optimum level so the continuity of
operation is maintained. The inventory control system should ensure that production
completed as per schedule.
Minimizing the cost of purchasing and storage: It is essential that there is economy in
cost of purchasing, cost of receiving and inspection, storage and issue of material etc.
The expenses to be reduced to minimum are interest on capital locked, insurance,
maintenance, and inspection and transportation costs.
To minimize the wastage and loss: In every manufacturing organization, there is a risk
of wastage and theft of stores, wastages and losses are likely occurring during
movements and during production processes. Inventory control ensures that the risk of
theft, wastage and losses are minimized.
To reduce the risk of deterioration: If a considerable time elapses in the storage of
goods, there arise two types of risks (i) the deterioration of goods stored and (ii) the
goods becoming obsolete and out dated. Hence, inventory control ensures that such risk
Effective use of Available capital: Various level like maximum level, minimum level
reordering level etc. are fixed in a system of inventory control, which ensure that
unnecessary capital is not locked up in inventory. Order is placed at right time and in
right quantity, taking into the account the re-ordering level. This will make efficient
To be helpful in efficient purchasing: Maintenance of optimum stock is closely connected
with a system of inventory control. One of the major objectives of inventory control is to
assist in efficient purchasing.
To give maximum satisfaction to customer: The customer satisfaction is a sign of
progressive enterprise. Inventory control assists in supplying goods at proper price and at
Why inventory exists:-
All organization keeps inventories in smaller or larger scale. They exist to smooth out gaps in
the rate or timing of demand and supply. Only if the supply of products occurred exactly
when they are demanded, products would never be stored. With high inventory level many
companies may also cover problems in operations; defective deliveries, poor floor layout,
untrained operators, off standards, re-work, down times, inaccurate quantities etc. or high
stock levels can be consequences of these problems. Either way, these unexposed problems
cause costs and prevent smooth output of operations.
Basic Concept and Terminologies in Inventory:-
An inventory system controls the level of inventory by determining-
How much to order (the level of replenishment)?
When to order?
How much safety stock should be kept?
There are two basics types of inventory systems: a continuous (or fixed order quantity)
system and a periodic (or fixed time period) system. In a continuous system an order is
placed for the same constant amount whenever the inventory hand decreases to a certain
level, whereas in a periodic system an order placed for a variable amount after specific
Following the basics concepts andterminology associatedwith an inventory
Demand is not only depend on the single thing but it is an economic principle that describes a
consumer’s desire and willingness to pay a price for a specific good or service. Holding all
other factors constants, the price of good or service increase as its demand increases and vice-
versa. In other words the amount of a particular economic well or service that a consumer or
group of consumers will want to purchase at a given price. The demand curve is usually
downward sloping, since consumers will want to buy more as price decreases.
An inventory of an item is said to be falling into the category of independent demand for such
as item is not dependent upon the demand for another item.
Finished goods items, which are ordered by external customers or manufactured for stock and
sale, are called independent demand items. Independent demands for inventories are based on
confirmed customer orders, forecasts, estimates and past historical data.
If the demand for inventory of an item is dependent upon another item such demands are
categorized as dependent demand. Raw materials and component inventories are dependent
upon the demand for finished goods and hence can be called as dependent demand
Lead time is the time period between customers is order and delivery of the finish product.
For a real world example of lead time in action, let’s order a pizza. When you as the hungry
customer decide on a preferred local pizza restaurant, you may have already considered such
factors as speed and consistency. The selected restaurant must first receive your custom
orders, based on their pre-stocked ingredients. Once you have placed your order, the
restaurant may tell you to expect the finished pizza in 45 minutes to an hour. This would be
considered lead time. The restaurant bases this time on several factors.
Purchase Lead Time:
This time defined as the time period from placing the order to time by which the materials
arrive at the store. This lead time is use full in deciding upon the level for the reorder point.
Manufacturing Lead Time:
This is defined as the time taken by the manufacturing systems to finish the product. This
time includes the process time taken at each workstation and travel time between the
Delivery Lead Time / Response Time:-
This is the time period from receiving the order to dispatching the finished goods.
The time period, over which the inventory level will be controlled, is called the time horizon.
It may be finite or infinite depending upon the nature of the inventory system of the
Inventory Related Costs:-
Inventory costs are the cost related to storing and maintaining its inventory over a certain
period of time. Typically, inventory costs are described as a percentage of the inventory value
on an annualized basis. They were strongly depending on the business field, but they are
always quite high. It is commonly accepted that the carrying costs alone represent generally
25% of inventory value on hand. First, inventory cost measurement in itself, is a tough
problem there are number of alternative cost accounting systems that can be relevant for
some purpose while being inadequate or dangerous for others.
Working at the Honda Cars India ltd., Greater Noida assembly plant has been a great
learning experience. The training has given me a chance to practically apply a lot of concepts
that I had leant in my B-tech mechanical specifically related to maintenance, inventory
management and system, pneumatics.
The work has taught me that one’s fundamentals must be strong in order to implement
something. Working on actual automobiles, chassis has given me a far more clear
understanding of what is actually manufactured and how the whole process occurs. The
process of how a product starts from its drawing then finally implemented as a mass
production vehicle is clear to me.
Quality is a major factor in any project. And in cars, where it is directly related to the safety
of its occupants, it becomes a far major, concern. To check quality, we need to understand the
problems first and research on them. Then only the defects can be minimized.