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SEZ Hit on Democracy

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{deof Am{W©H$ joÌ - bmoH$V§Ì na KmVH$ h_bm!
boIZ Ed§ g§nmXZ :
_mZer Amea, [a$V _w_VmμO$
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SEZ Hit on Democracy

  1. 1. {deof Am{W©H$ joÌ bmoH$V§Ì na KmVH$ h_bm ! Z¡eZb g{ÝQ>a $m°a ES>dm{H$gr ñQS>rO μ 1
  2. 2. {deof Am{W©H$ joÌ - bmoH$V§Ì na KmVH$ h_bm! boIZ Ed§ g§nmXZ : _mZer Amea, [a$V _w_VmμO$ g§nmXZ gh`moJ$ : g§O` g§JdB©, _{V`g ^|Jam AZwdmX : `moJe nmbrdmb o gh`moJ : _Yw_§Vr, g§nV H$mbo {gH§$Xa Hw$edmhm, í`m_bVm Mmha, _¡Ìo`r XogmB© grarO E{S>Q>a : A{_Vm^ ~ohma H$ìha {S>μOmB©Z : OwZwH$m Xoenm§S>o _wÐH$ : AemoH$ XmZdo, {H«$EQ>g© 759/97 gr, à^mV amoS>, nwUo 4 àH$meH$ : Z¡eZb goÝQ>a $m°a ES>>dmoH$gr ñQ>S>rμO goao{ZQ>r H$m°åßboŠg, am_ZJa H$mbmoZr, nmfmU, nwUo 411 021. _hmamï´> $moZ : 020-22952003/4 B-_ob : ncas@vsnl.com Bg XñVmdoμO H$mo OZg§JR>Z, OZ{hV _o§ H$m_ do~gmBQ> : www.ncasindia.org H$aZo dmbr g§ñWmAm| Ed§ ì`{º$`mo§ Ûmam d{Hª$J nona grarμO 25 OZ{hV Ho$ H$m`m] Ho$ {bE Cn`moJ {H$`m Om àH$meZ : $adar 2007 gH$Vm h¡Ÿ& H¥$n`m Cn`moJ H$aZo na àH$meH$ g§ñWm H$m Zm_ {ZX}e {H$`m OmE & {ZOr {dVaU Ho$ {bE 2
  3. 3. AZwH«$_ 1. àñVmdZm ----------------------------------- 5 2. Am{W©H$ Am¡a Am¡Úmo{JH$ joÌ- ZdCn{ZdoedmXr Xm¡a _| ---------- 9 Cn{ZdoedmXr {damgV I Xw{Z`m _| Am{W©H$ joÌm| H$m B{Vhmg II. ^maVr` g§X^© _| EgB©μOoS> III. ^maV _| {deof Am{W©H$ joÌ : _m¡OyXm ñdê$n 3. ^maV _| {deof Am{W©H$ joÌm| na {N>‹S>r ~hg Am¡a {damoY --------- 22 I. EgB©μOoS> Ho$ Am{W©H$ VH©$ na CRo> gdmc II. μO_rZr g§Kf©, {damoY Am¡a H$m`©H$Vm©Am| Ho$ Ûmam CR>mE JE _wÔo III _μOXyam| Ho$ emofU Ho$ _wÔo IV {deof Am{W©H$ joÌm| _| n`m©daU g§~§Yr _wÔo V àemgZ Am¡a ñdemgZ Ho$ _wÔo 4. MrZ _| {deof Am{W©H$ joÌ - MH$mMm¢Y Ho$ nrNo> H$s Ag{c`V ----- 39 5. {d{^ÝZ amÁ`m| _| {deof Am{W©H$ joÌm§ H$moo coH$a Ja_m`m _mhm¡c ---- 45 6. {deof Am{W©H$ joÌ - {dZme H$s amOZr{V, {dH$mg H$m ^«_ ------ 64 n[a{eï> ------------------------------------- 69 I 13 {Xg§~a 06 VH$ A{Ygy{MV {deof Am{W©H$ joÌm| H$s gyMr II {deof Am{W©H$ joÌ na dm{UÁ` _§Ìmc` Ûmam n«ñVwV OmZH$m[a`m§ III g§nH©$ gyMr 3
  4. 4. 4
  5. 5. àñVmdZm {nN>co 50 gmcm| _| {díd ~mμOma Ho$ {dH$mg Ho$ g~go Img cjUm| _| go EH$ h¡, "{dH$mgerc' Xoem| _| Am{W©H$ joÌm| H$m {Z_m©U& BÝh| _wº$ ì`mnma joÌ («$s Q>´>oS μOmoZ>FTZ), {Z`m©V àg§ñH$aU joÌ EŠñnmoQ>© àmogo{g§J μOmoZ (B©μnrOoS>) Am¡a AmOH$c {deof Am{W©H$ joÌ (Special Economic Zone 'EgB©μOoS>.' /goO ) H$hm OmVm h¡& A_o[aH$s l_ {d^mJ Ho$ EH$ AÜ``Z _| B©μnrOoS> Ho$ {cE 19 μ eãX {XE JE h¢, {OZHo$ cjU nyar Xw{Z`m _| dmñVd _| EH$ O¡go hr h¢&1 `o joÌ Am¡Úmo{JH$ CËnmXZ H$mo nyar Xw{Z`m Am¡a Kaocy ~mμOma _| InmZo Ho$ {cE ^m¡Jmo{cH$ `m ^m¡{VH$ ê$n go {MpÝhV {deof Am¡Úmo{JH$ joÌ hmoVo h¢& BZH$s Im{g`V hmoVr h¡ BZ joÌm| _| ñWm{nV hmoZo dmcr BH$mB`m| H$mo {_cZo dmcr H$am| H$s ^mar Ny>Q>& BgHo$ Acmdm l_ Am¡a n`m©daU g§~§Yr {Z`_m| H$s J¡a-_m¡OyXJr BZHo$ {cE gw{ZpíMV H$s OmVr h¡ & BZH$m A§{V_ cú` hmoVm h¡, ~hþamï´>r` Am¡a Kaocy {ZJ_m| H$mo Bg Cå_rX _| {Zdoe Ho$ {cE AmH${f©V H$aZm {H$ do Cg Xoe Ho$ Am{W©H$ {dH$mg _| `moJXmZ X|Jo& {nN>co H$B© gmcm| _| `o joÌ ImgH$a Jar~ Xoem| _| "Aën{dH$mg’ Am¡a ~oamoμOJmar H$s g_ñ`m Ho$ OmXwB© g_mYmZ Ho$ ê$n _| C^a H$a AmE h¢& Bgr g_mYmZ H$mo cmJy H$aZo H$s H$mo{ee _| ^maV gaH$ma Zo {nN>co 45 gmcm| _| 8 amÁ`m| _| {Z`m©V àg§ñH$aU joÌ (B©μnrOoS>) ~ZmE& BZgo hþE {dH$mg Am¡a {Zdoe Ho$ Xa go Ag§Vwï> hmoZo Ho$ H$maU d 1990 Ho$ XeH$ _| Am{W©H$ Zr{V`m| Ho$ CXmarH$aU Ho$ gmW gaH$ma Zo n«Ë`j {dXoer {Zdoe na μOmoa XoZm ewê$ {H$`m& gZ² 2000 _| {deof Am{W©H$ joÌm| Ho$ {cE ~ZmB© JB© ZB© Zr{V Bgr {gc{gco H$s EH$ H$‹S>r h¡& 2005 _| EgB©μOoS> Zr{V H$mo ~‹T>mdm XoZo Ho$ {cE EH$ H|$Ðr` H$mZyZ "{deof Am{W©H$ joÌ H$mZyZ 2005' cm`m J`m {OgHo$ AmZo Ho$ ~mX H|$Ð Ho$ ñVa na dm{UÁ` _§Ìmc` Zo EH$ gmc go ^r H$_ g_` _| ({Xg§~a 2006 VH$) Xoe _| 237 EgB©μOoS> àñVmdm| H$mo BOmμOV Xo Xr h¡& XoIVo hr XoIVo EgB©μOoS> Ho$ _wÔo na EH$ μO~aXñV ~hg {N>>‹S> JB© – O~ amÁ` gaH$mam| Am¡a 5
  6. 6. {ZOr H$ånZr`m| Zo ñWmZr` g_wXm`m| Ho$ {damoY Ho$ ~mdOyX ~hþV gmar IoVr H$s Am¡a VQ>r` μO_rZ A{YJ«{hV H$aZo H$s H$mo{ee| Omar aIr; O~ AW©em{ó`m| Am¡a {dícofH$m| Zo BZHo$ Am{W©H$ VH©$ na cJmVma gdmc CR>mE Am¡a BÝh| ar`c EñQo>Q> Ho$ KmoQ>mco H$ama {X`m; O~ dm_n§Wr Xcm| Zo _μOXyam| Ho$ A{YH$mam| H$s ajm Ho$ {cE H$mZyZ _| g§emoYZ H$s _m±J H$s Am¡a O~ OZ A{YH$ma H$m`©H$Vm©Am| Zo 2005 Ho$ {deof Am{W©H$ joÌ A{Y{Z`_ go Xoe H$s g§à^wVm Am¡a cmoH$Vm§{ÌH$ ~ZmdQ> H$mo IVam hmoZo H$m _wÔm CR>m`m& 2006 Ho$ IË_ hmoVo-hmoVo Eg.B©.μOoS>. Ho$ {cE O~aZ ^y-A{YJ«hU Ho$ {Icmμ$ _hmamï´>, h[a`mUm Am¡a CËVan«Xoe _| {H$gmZm| Ho$ {damoY go _mhm¡c J_m©© MwH$m Wm& OZdar 2007 _| Z§XrJ«m_, npíM_ ~§Jmc _| hþE ^y-A{YJ«hU H$mo coH$a EgB©μOoS> Ho$ {Icm$ {damoY Am¡a qhgH$ P‹S>n Ho$ ~mdOyX amÁ` gaH$ma H$m ê$I ñWmZr` g_wXm`m| Ho$ à{V Ag§doXZerc ahm& EgB©μOoS> Ho$ {Icm$ CRo> gdmcm| Zo Z {g©$ npíM_ ~§Jmc H$s gaH$ma na X~md ~Zm`m, ~pëH$ H|$X« gaH$ma H$mo ^r EgB©μOoS> na nwZ©{dMma H$aZo H$mo _O~ya {H$`m& gmW hr n§Om~, CÎmamI§S> Am¡a CÎma n«Xoe _| AmZo dmco _hrZm| _| hmoZo dmco MwZmdm| Zo ^r _w»` amOZr{VH$ Xcm| H$mo EgB©μOoS> Am¡a Cggo Ow‹So> _wX²Xm| na AnZm nj aIZo _| gV©H$ H$a {X`m h¡& BgHo$ A{V[aŠV Xoe Ho$ n«YmZ_§Ìr lr. _Z_mohZ qgh Zo ^r A§VV… _O~yar _| `h ~`mZ {X`m h¡ {H$ nwZdm©g Zr{V Ho$ AmZo go nhco Z`r n[a`moOZmAm| H$mo _§Oyar Zht Xo§Jo& dmñVd _o§ EgB©μOoS> Zr{V go CRo> {ddmX H$s amOZr{V Š`m h¡ ? `h XñVmdoμO Bg gdmc Ho$ Odm~ Ho$ {d{^ÝZ njm| H$mo g_PZo H$m EH$ n«`mg h¡μ& BgH$m CÔoí` nyao Xoe _| EgB©μOoS> Ho$ Zm_ na {ZaW©H$ Am¡Úmo{JH$ Zr{V`m| Am¡a H$mZyZm| H$mo MwZm¡Vr XoZo Ho$ {cE ~Z aho _mhm¡c H$m Ñ{ï>H$moU ~VmZm h¡& Hw$N> cmoJm| Ho$ $m`Xo Ho$ {cE Am{W©H$ {dH$mg Ho$ Zm_ na h_mao g_mO Ho$ Jar~ V~H$m| Ho$ Am{W©H$, gm_m{OH$ Am¡a n`m©daU g§~§Yr A{YH$mam| H$mo ~oMZo na `h XñVmdoO gdmc CR>mVm h¡& XñVmdoμO Ho$ nhco ^mJ _|, ~hþV g§jon _|, Xw{Z`m _| Am{W©H$ joÌm| Ho$ {dH$mg Am¡a `h Zr{V AnZmZo dmco Xoem| _| H$m_ H$aZo dmco nhcyAm| na àH$me S>mcZo H$s H$mo{ee H$s JB© h¡& Xygao ^mJ _|, ^maV Ûmam MrZ _| cmJy {H$`o JE EgB©μOoS> Ho$ _m°S>c H$mo AnZmZo Am¡a EgB©μOoS> H$mZyZ Ho$ g§X^© _| A^r Ho$ hmcmV na MMm© H$s JB© h¡& Vrgao ^mJ _| gaH$ma Ho$ nj Am¡a VH$m] Ho$ gmW-gmW CZHo$ {dnj Ho$ VH$m] H$mo gm_Zo aIZo H$m n«`mg {H$`m h¡& nyao Xoe Ho$ OZ A{YH$ma g§JR>Zm| Am¡a g_wXm`m| Ûmam EgB©μOoS> H$mZyZ Ho$ g§X^© _| μOm{ha H$s JB© qMVmAm| H$m {dñVma go {dícofU ^r {H$`m h¡& {nN>co 20 gmcm| _| MrZ Ho$ Am{W©H$ {dH$mg Ho$ dhm§ Ho$ cmoJm| Am¡a n`m©daU na hþE n«^mdm| na 6
  7. 7. amoeZr S>mcZo H$m n«`mg {H$`m J`m h¡& Mm¡Wo ^mJ _| AcJ-AcJ àXoem| _| ~Z aho EgB©μOoS> Ho$ {dH$mg Am¡a CZHo$ {damoY H$mo gm_Zo aIZo H$m n«`mg {H$`m h¡& XñVmdoμO H$mo {cIZo Ho$ Xm¡amZ EgB©μOoS> Ho$ _wX²Xo na ~Zr h_mar g_P Am¡a {d{^ÝZ OZ Am§XmocZm| Ûmam CR>mE JE gdmcm| H$mo Am{Iar ^mJ "EgB©μOoS> H$s amOZr{V - {dH$mg H$m ^«_' _| g_oQ>m J`m h¡& h_| Cå_rX h¡ {H$ `h XñVmdoμO EgB©μOoS> Ho$ {damoY _| Mc aho Am§XmocZm| Am¡a Bg _wX²Xo na {N>‹S>r ~hg H$mo _μO~yVr XoJm& Bg XñVmdoμO Ho$ _mÜ`_ go EgB©μOoS> Am¡a Cggo Ow‹S>r hþB© _hËdnyU© OmZH$m[a`m| H$mo Á`mXm go Á`mXm cmoJm| Am¡a OZ g_whm| VH$ nhþ§MmZo H$s H$mo{ee H$s J`r h¡& _mZer Amea [a$V _w_VmμO 1 Á`m§-nm°c _¡hm©oμO Am¡a _mg©ocm {Oμ_m§ñH$s H$s AmB©grE$Q>r`y [anmoQ©> -{~hmB§S> X dm`a- E§Q>r `y{Z`Z [aàoeZ BZ X EŠgnmoQ©> àmogoqgJ μOmoÝg-Aà¡c 1996 7
  8. 8. 8
  9. 9. Am{W©H$ Am¡a Am¡Úmo{JH$ joÌ ZdCn{ZdoedmXr Xm¡a _| Cn{ZdoedmXr {damgV I Xw{Z`m _| Am{W©H$ joÌm| H$m B{Vhmg `{X h_ Bg {dMma H$mo Cn{ZdoedmXr `wJ Ho$ nwamZo Cn{Zdoem| Ho$ {cE n¡Xm hþAm Zht _mZ|, Vmo AcJ go Am{W©H$ joÌ ~ZmZo H$m {dMma 20 dt gXr Ho$ _Ü` _| Am`m Wm& A§Va {Z{üV ê$n go `hr h¡ {H$ n{hbm Cn{ZdoerH$aU $m¡O H$s VmH$V go hþAm Wm Ohm± Am¡Úmo{JH$ ê$n go {dH${gV `yamo{n`Z Xoem| Zo AnZo Am{W©H$ {hVm| Am¡a amOZr{VH$ X~X~o Ho$ {cE N>moQo> Am¡a Jar~ Xoemo§ na hþHy$_V H$s Wr& ZE Cn{ZdoedmXr Xm¡a _|, `o Am{W©H$ joÌ Xoe Ho$ ^rVa N>moQo> {dXoer n[ajoÌ hmoVo h¢Ÿ& d¡pídH$ Am{W©H$ T>m±Mo _| BÝh| T>mcZo Ho$ {cE "Zr{V`mo§' H$m dmVmdaU ~ZmZm, CXmarH$aU Ho$ `wJ _|, $m¡Or VmH$V H$m EH$ {dH$ën h¡ Omo "Vrgar "AZw^dhrZ {dXoer Xw{Z`m' Ho$ Xoem| H$s gaH$ma| ñd§` AnZm ahr h¢& {ZdoeH$ Ho$ {cE `h d¡gm hr h¡ O¡gm {H$ AmB©EcAmo H$s [anmoQ©> Ho$ AZwgma nhcm A{YH¥$V Am{W©H$ joÌ EH$ gVH©$ n`©Q>H$ Ho$ ñnoZ _| 1929 _| ~Zm& AmB©grE$Q>r`y (B§Q>aZ°ebZ H$Ýo$S>aoeZ Am°$ {cE n¡Ho$O hm°{cSo> {«$ Q´>oS> `w{Z`Ýg) H$s EH$ [anmoQ©> Ho$ AZwgma, ImgVm¡a na {Z`m©V hmoVm h¡' Am{W©H$ CËnmXZ Ho$ {cE nhcm {Z`m©V (Xoe Ho$ ~mha ~oMm OmZo dmbm CËnmX) joÌm| na A§Va©mï´>r` àg§ñH$aU joÌ (B©μnrOoS>)"1960 Ho$ XeH$ H$s ewéAmV _| Am`ac¢S> l_ g§JR>Z H$s Ho$ e¡ZZ hdmB©AÈo> Ho$ Amgnmg Ho$ joÌ _| ewê$ hþAm& Bgo Zm¡H$[a`m| Ho$ [anmoQ©>Ÿ& 9
  10. 10. e¡ZZ : {díd H$m nhcm EgB©μOoS> AQ>cm§{Q>H$ gmJa H$mo nma H$aHo$ OmZo dmco OhmμO B§YZ ny{V© Ho$ {cE e¡ZZ E`anmoQ>© na ê$H$Vo Wo & naVw§ ~mX _| A{YH$ j_Vm dmco OhmμOm| Ho$ AmZo na A{YH$V_ OhmμOm| H$m e¡ZZ E`anmoQ>© na ê$H$Zm H$_ hmo J`m& Bg dOh go E`anmoQ©> Ho$ H$_©Mm[a`m| Ho$ ~oamoOJma hmoZo H$s g§^mdZm ~‹T> JB©& Bg pñW{V go ~MZo Ho$ {cE E`anmoQ>© na {Z`m©V Ho$ {cE H$a _wŠV dñVwAm| H$m CËnmXZ joÌ ~Zm`m J`m& _m¡Ho$ ~‹T>mZo H$m Am¡a {Z`m©V H$s MrμOm| na H$a MwH$mZo H$s Zm¡H$aemhr àUmcr go ~MZo H$m EH$ gñVm VarH$m _mZm J`m Wm& ~hahmc Bg AmH$f©H$ {dMma _| ewê$ go hr EH$ ~‹S>r Im_r Wr& BgHo$ {cE joÌ H$mo `m {MpÝhV H$maImZm| H$mo grc H$aZm hmoVm Wm Vm{H$ {~Zm H$a dmcr MrμO| VñH$ar go Xoe H$s AW©ì`dñWm _| em{_c Z hmo OmE±&'1 `h EH$ Vah go Eogo Am¡Úmo{JH$ joÌm| H$s ewê$AmV Wr {Ogo gm_mÝ` joÌm| go n¥WH$ H$a AcJ ~Zm`m OmZo cJm& O~ `o joÌ ~‹T>Zo cJo, Vmo ZE-ZE _m°S>cm| Ho$ VOw~©o gm_Zo AmZoo cJo {OZ_| H§$n{Z`m| Ho$ {cE Am¡a μÁ`mXm AmH$f©U Am¡a $m`Xo Wo& 1995 _|, H$ar~ 70 Xoem| _| 230 go μÁ`mXm Am¡Úmo{JH$ joÌ Wo, {OZ_| go 100 go μÁ`mXm c¡{Q>Z A_o[aH$m Am¡a H¡$[a{~`Z _|, Am¡a 64 E{e`m Am¡a 31 A«$sH$m _| Wo& AmB©grE$Q>r`y Ho$ AZwgma 2002 _| `h Am±H$‹S>m 116 Xoem| _| 3000 joÌm| VH$ nhþ±M J`m h¡&2 {nN>cr gXr Ho$ A§V _| Am¡Úmo{JH$ H«$m§{V, Am{W©H$ joÌm| H$s d¥{Õ H$s _w»` YmamE§ CgHo$ ~mX {nN>cr gXr Ho$ A§V _|, Am¡Úmo{JH$ H«$m§{V Ho$ H$maU Am¡a CgHo$ Cn{ZdoedmX Ho$ ~mX Cn{ZdoedmX Ho$ {dñVma Am¡a {$a CXma AW©ì`dñWmAm| Ho$ {dñVma Am¡a {$a {dœ ~¢H$ Am¡a A§Vamï´>r` _wÐm H$mof O¡gr A§Vamï´>r` {dVr` ghm`Vm © © CXma AW©ì`dñWmAm| Ed§ F$U XoZo dmcr ~‹S>r g§ñWmE§ {OZH$m Vrgar Xy{Z`m Ho$ Xoem| _| Ho$ d¡œrH$aU Ho$ CXmadmX H$mo ~‹T>mdm XoZo _| ~hþV ~‹S>m hmW h¡, BZ g§ñWmAm| Zo ^r H$maU _wº$ ì`mnma AnZr `moOZmAm| _| "Am{W©H$ joÌm|' H$mo {dH$mgerc Xoem| Ho$ joÌ ~ZZo cJo& CXmarH$aU H$m Oê$ar {hñgm _mZm h¡& μ 10
  11. 11. d¡œrH$aU Ho$ H$maU _wº$ ì`mnma joÌ ~ZZo cJo& e¡ZZ (Am`ac¢S>) Ho$ VOw~©o Ho$ ~mX g§`wº$ amï´> g§K Zo ^r {díd {Z`m© V n« g § ñ H$aU jo Ì g§ K (dëS>© EŠnmo Q >© àmo g o q gJ μ O mo Z Agmo{gEeZ) H$m JR>Z H$aHo$ {dH$mgerc Xoem| _| B©μnrOoS> Ho$ {dH$mg H$mo ~‹T>mdm {X`m& {dH$mgerc Xoem| Ho$ {Z`m©V na My§{H$ [a`m`Vr H$a cJVm Wm Bg{cE ^r {dH${gV (CÎma Ho$) Am¡Úmo{JH$ Xoem| Zo BZ Xoem| _| Am{W©H$ E§d ì`dgm{`H$ joÌm| H$mo ~‹T>mdm {X`m& gmW hr `h cmJV KQ>mZo H$s EH$ ì`mnH$ `moOZm H$m ^r {hñgm ahm {Og_| {dH${gV Xoem| Zo AnZo `h§m go hQ>mH$a {dH$mgerc Xoem| Ho$ Eogo joÌm| _| AnZm {Z`m©V CËnmXZ joÌ {dH${gV {H$`m& Bg n«H$ma Ohm§ EH$ Amoa {dH${gV Xoem| Zo CËnmX cmJV H$_ H$s dht CZ CËnmXm| na AnZm ~«m§S> Zm_ gwa{jV aIm h¡ Am¡a ~mOma na AnZo {Z`̧U aIZo Ho$ gmW _wZm$m ^r ~‹T>m`m& Am¡Úmo{JH$ {dXoer {Zdoe Am¡a {dH$mgerc Xoem| H$mo {dÎmr` ghm`Vm XoZm "n«W_ Xw{Z`m' Ho$ A_ra Xoem| _| Jar~ Xoem| go amoμOJma H$s Vcme _| AmZodmco _μOXyam| Ho$ àdmg H$mo amoH$Zo H$m g~go AÀN>m VarH$m ^r _mZm OmVm h¡& Vrgar Xw{Z`m _| H$maImZo cJmZm Am¡Úmo{JH$ Xoem| Ho$ ~mμOmam| _| "A{V[aº$' _μOXyam| H$mo KwgZo go amoH$Zo H$s aUZr{V ^r Wr& ~hahmc, Bg VH©$ _| H$moB© X_ Zht h¡ BZ joÌm| H$mo H$mZyZr Š`m|{H$ {H$gr CÚ_ H$m CÔoí` Zm¡H$[a`m± n¡Xm H$aZm Z hmoH$a Vm¡a na "n[ajoÌ' BgHo$ eo`aYmaH$m| Ho$ {cE $m`Xm H$_mZm hmoVm h¡, Am¡a Bg{cE Kmo{fV H$aHo$ ~mH$s ^r {H$ {dXoer CÚ_m| _| {_cZo dmcr Zm¡H$[a`m± _μOXyam| H$s g§»`m Xoe go ^m¡{VH$, H$s VwcZm _| ~hþV H$_ hmoVr h¢& Am{W©H$ Am¡a gm_m{OH$ ê$n go Xygar Va$, Jar~ Xoem| H$s gaH$mam| Zo ^r {dXoer {Zdoe H$mo n¥WH$ H$a {X`m AmH${f©V H$aZo Ho$ {cE B©μnrOoS> Am¡a EgB©μOoS> H$mo ~‹T>mdm XoZm ewê$ OmVm h¡& 11
  12. 12. {H$`m& gaH$mar àñVmdm| _| μO_rZ Am¡a nmZr na H$am|, Am`mV (~mha Xoem| go IarXm J`m CËnmX) Am¡a {Z`m©V ewëH$m| _| Ny>Q> XoZo go coH$a, l_ H$mZyZm| Am¡a n`m©daU g§~§Yr {Z`_Zm| _| Ny>Q> XoZm ^r em{_c hmo J`m& 1990 Ho$ XeH$ _| H$B© gaH$mam| Zo, CXmhaU Ho$ Vm¡a na {${cntg Zo, Am{W©H$ joÌm| go Ow‹So> H$mZyZ noe {H$E& `h nyar Xw{Z`m Ho$ McZ H$m {hñgm Wm, Ohm± {nN>co 20 gmcm| _| VmH$Vda H$m°nm©oaoQ> BH$mB`m| Ho$ H$mZyZr A{YH$ma ZmQ>H$s` ê$n go ~‹To> & Bg_| {dœ ì`mnma g§JR>Z Am¡a joÌr` Ed§ {Ûnjr` ì`mnma g_Pm¡Vm| H$m hmW n«_wI ê$n go ahm h¡& Xygar Va$, Jar~m|, _μOXyam| Ed§ H$m°nm©oaoQ> {hVm| Ho$ {cE {dñWm{nV hmoZo dmco cmoJm| Ho$ A{YH$mam| H$s ajm go Ow‹So> hþE H$mZyZm| H$mo H$_μOmoa ~Zm`m J`m&3 BZ joÌm| Ho$ {cE Omo H$mZyZ ~ZmE JE CZ_| {ZdoeH$m| H$mo AmH${f©V H$aZo dmcr Am¡a ^r H$B© njm| _| (H$a cm^ Ho$ Acmdm) go EH$ `h ^r h¡ {H$ BZ joÌm| H$mo H$mZyZr Vm¡a na "n[ajoÌ' Kmo{fV H$aHo$ ~mH$s Xoe go ^m¡{VH$, Am{W©H$ Am¡a gm_m{OH$ ê$n go n¥WH$ H$a {X`m OmVm h¡& à{V`mo{JVm ~‹T>Zo Ho$ gmW H§$n{Z`m± Eogr OJh| XoIVr h¢ Ohm± H$m_ BZ joÌm| _| Cn`moJ H$aZm μÁ`mXm go μÁ`mXm $m`Xo_§X hmo& {deof g§Hw$cm| H$s CncãYVm _| cmB© OmZo dmcr na AmYm[aV Eogm CÚ_r dmVmdaU Omo à{V`mo{JVm H$mo ~‹T>mdm Xo& VH$ZrH$ H$m `h dh gyÌ h¡ {Og na AmO μÁ`mXmVa ~hþamï´>r` H§$n{Z`m± E§d hñVm§VaU dmñVd _| {ZdoeH$ Ü`mZ Xo aho h¢& CXmhaU Ho$ {cE, gyMZm Ed§ n«m¡Úmo{JH$ Zht hmoVm h¡ Š`m|{H$ nmH©$ (IT) godmAm| Ho$ {cE g_W©Z godmE± Am¡a $_m] _| gh`moJ ñWmZr` CËnmXH$m| go godmAm| H$m EH$ ñWmZ na hmoZm& BZH$m H$moB© coZmXoZm Zht hmoVm, Bg{cE `o g^r H$maU {dH$mgerc Xoem| _| EgB©μOoS> Ho$ {dH$mg H$m AmYma ñWmZr` VH$ZrH$s aho h¡§& Xw{Z`m Ho$ gm_Zo {XImZo Ho$ {cE Am¡a ^maV O¡go Xoe _| AnZmZo j_VmE± ~‹T>Vr Zht Ho$ {cE E{e`mB© _hmaWr Xoem| X{jU H$mo[a`m, B§S>moZo{e`m, _co{e`m h¢& Am¡a qgJmnwa H$m CXmhaU noe {H$`m OmVm h¡& ~hþV nhco 1990 _| 12
  13. 13. Vrgar Xw{Z`m Ho$ {Z`m©V CËnmXZ _| 61 à{VeV `moJXmZ BZ Xoem| H$m Wm O~{H$ AHo$co B§S>moZo{e`m, _co{e`m Am¡a WmB©c¢S> H$s {VH$‹S>r H$m 12 à{VeV Wm& Ohm§ EH$ Amoa Eogo {Z`m©V n[ajoÌm| _| {dXoer {Zdoe Am¡a ~‹S>r H§$n{Z`m| Ho$ {Zdoe go {Z`m©V, gH$c Kaocy CËnmX E§d Am` ~‹T>r, dht Xygar Va$ BZ joÌm| Ho$ _mÜ`_ go hþE Am{W©H$ {dH$mg Ho$ Am¡a Xmo _hËdnyU© nhcy ahoŸ& Am`.gr.E$.Q>r.`y. H$s EH$ [anmoQ©>, "{~hmB§S> X dm`g© - E§Q>r `y{Z`Z [aàoeZ BZ B©nrμOoS>' Ho$ AZwgma : Am{W©H$ joÌm| H$s Am` XaAgc ~hþV μÁ`mXm Zht h¡& AmB©grE$Q>r`y Zo 1995 _| 6 E{e`mB© Xoem| Ho$ EH$ AÜ``Z _| nm`m {H$ "Am{YH$m[aH$ Am±H$‹S>m| _| {Z`m©V H$s Am_XZr H$mo AŠga ~‹T>m-M‹T>m H$a ~Vm`m OmVm h¡&' CXmhaU Ho$ {cE, lrc§H$m Zo B©μnrOoS> go 250 {_{c`Z S>m°ca H$s Am` XO© H$s O~{H$ BgH$m Am`mV 174 {_{c`Z S>m°ca H$m Wm& Bg Vah BZ joÌm| go hþB© ewÜX Am` ~hþV μÁ`mXm Zht Wr& BgH$m Xygam Am`m_ `h h¡ {H$ _oO~mZ Xoe Ho$ {bE H$am| _| àmoËgmhZ Am¡a gpãgS>r XoZm ~hyV _h±Jm hmoVm h¡Ÿ& CXmhaU Ho$ {bE, ~m§½bmXoe BZ joÌm| _| amoμOJma nmZodmbo ha ì`{º$ Ho$ {bE 6000 S>m°ca IM© H$a ahm h¡ Am¡a Bgo dmng nmZo _| Cgo Xg gmc cJ|Jo& BgHo$ Abmdm BZ joÌm| _o Cn`moJ _| bmB© OmZo dmbr VH$ZrH$ H$m hñVm§VaU dmñVd _| Zht hmoVm h¢, Š`m|{H$ ñWmZr` CËnmXH$m| go BZH$m H$moB© boZm XoZm Zhr§ hmoVm, Bg{bE ñWmZr` VH$ZrH$s j_VmE§ ~T>Vr Zht h¢Ÿ& Bg Vah BZ joÌm| H$mo ~ZmZo na ^r _oO~mZ Xoe H$s AW©ì`dñWm H$mo H$moB© Img _μO~yVr Zhr§ {_bVr h¢Ÿ& gñVr _μOXyar, H$m_ H$s Iam~ XemE± Am¡a J¡a-`y{Z`ZdmXr VarHo$& nyar Xw{Z`m _| BZ joÌm| _| 430 cmI go μÁ`mXm cmoJ H$m_ H$aVo h¢&hm§cm{H$, BZ joÌm| Ho$ amoμOJma n¡Xm H$aZo _| `moJXmZ na J§^raVm go gdmc CR>m H$a CZH$m {dûcofU em`X Zht {H$`m J`m h¡& BZ joÌm| Ho$ ~mao _| g~go μÁ`mXm {Og {deoîmVm H$m àMma {H$`m OmVm h¢ dh h¡ gñVr _μOXyar H$s CncãYVm& O~{H$, H$m_ H$s A_mZdr` XemE§, H$_ doVZ H$s Zm¡H$[a`m§ Am¡a H$m_ na go {ZH$mcZo H$s KQ>ZmE± BZ joÌm| _| ~hþV Am_ h¢& ImgH$a _opŠgH$mo, Ec-gmëdmS>moa, ~«mμOrc O¡go c¡{Q>Z A_o[aH$s Xoe, A«$sH$m Am¡a MrZ Ho$ EgB©μOoS> _| `h g_ñ`mE§ C^aH$a gm_Zo AmB© h¡& {OZ na AmJo {dñVma go MMm© H$s JB© h¡& 13
  14. 14. BZ joÌm| _| `y{Z`Z| ~ZZo H$s Xa ^r ~hþV Yr_r h¡Ÿ& _opŠgH$mo Ho$ _{H$cmS>moamμO H$ho OmZo dmco ì`mnma joÌm| _| VOw~m© `h ahm h¡ {H$ l_ {ZarjH$m| H$mo BZ joÌm| _| KwgZo hr Zht {X`m OmVm h¡& _m{cH$m| Zo `y{Z`Z {damoYr à^mdr VarHo$ AnZmE hþE h¢& Bg n«H$ma {díd ~mμOma H$m Omc {~N>mZo H$s n«{H«$`m "d¡ídrH$aU' H$s amOZr{V Ho$ VhV {dH$mgerc Xoem| _| {dXoer {Zdoe Ho$ Zm_ na gñVm _μOXya E§d g§gmYZm| Ho$ cyQ>-_ma Ho$ {cE ZE Am{W©H$ joÌm| H$m {dñVma VoμOr go hþAm& II. ^maVr` g§X^© _| EgB©μOoS> ^maV gaH$ma Zo EgB©μOoS> na nhcm H$mZyZ 2005 _| ~Zm`m J`m, na ^maV Zo Am¡Úmo{JH$ joÌm| H$s ewéAmV XaAgc 1960 Ho$ XeH$ _| hr H$a Xr Wr& `h B©μnrOoS> Ho$ ê$n _| ewê$ hþAm {OZH$m _w»` CÔoí` Xoe _| {Z`m©V CËnmXZ H$mo ~‹T>mdm XoZm Wm& nhcm {Z`m©V àg§ñH$aU joÌ H$m§S>cm (JwOamV) _| 1965 _| ~Zm, CgHo$ ~mX _wå~B© H$m grßμO 1972 _| ~Zm& BgHo$ ~mX 1984 _| ZmoES>m (C. à.), $mëQ>m (n{ü_ ~§Jmc), H$mo{MZ (Ho$ac), MoÞB© (V{_cZmSw>) Mma joÌ ~Zo Am¡a {demImnÅ>Z_ (Am§Y« àXoe) _| 1989 _| Am¡a 1997 _| gyaV B©μnrOoS> ~Zm& ^maV gaH$ma Zo EgB©OS> na nhcm μ o ^maV go B©nrμOoS> H$m {Z`m©V 1966 Ho$ 10 cmI é. go ~‹T> H$a H$mZyZ 2005 _| 2002 _| 97.727 cmI é. go μÁ`mXm hmo J`m& Bgr Xm¡amZ, BZ_| ~Zm`m J`mŸ& na Hw$c amoμOJma 70 go ~‹T> H$a H$ar~ 89,000 Hw$c {dXoer _wÐm H$s Am` ^maV Zo Am¡Úmo{JH$ 0.16 cmI é. go ~‹T> H$a 43. 195 H$amo‹S> é. Am¡a _yë` g§dY©Z joÌm| H$s ewéAmV (d¡ë`y E{S>eZ) 21% go ~‹T> H$a 44% hmo J`m&4 XaAgc 1960 Ho$ XeH$ _| hr H$a Xr Ohm± `o ~‹So> Am±H$‹So> à^mdemcr cJVo h¢, dht H$ar~ go XoIZo na H$B© Wr& J§^ra g_ñ`mE± {XImB© XoVr h¢… 14
  15. 15. B©nrμOoS> _| _yë` g§dY©Z H$s Am¡gV dm{f©H$ {dH$mg Xa Ho$dc 2.9% Wr& BgH$m _Vc~ `h h¡ {H$ BZ joÌm| _| H$m_ H$aZo dmcr H§$n{Z`m± _yc ê$n go Omo Hw$N> ^r Am`mV H$a ahr Wt CgHo$ CËnmX Ho$ H$s_V _| {~Zm H$moB© Img ~‹T>moVar {H$E Cgo cJ^J CVZo hr Xm_ na {Z`m©V ^r H$a ahr Wt& Bg Vah B©nrμOoS> Zo Kaocy ~mμOma H$s Hw$ecVmAm| H$mo ~‹T>mZo `m VH$ZrH$s OmZH$mar Ho$ hñVm§VaU _| _m_wcr `moJXmZ {H$`m h¡& B©nrμOoS> go {Z`m©V Ho$ Hw$c ~‹T>V Ho$ ~mdOyX, XaAgc Hw$c amï´>r` {Z`m©V Am¡a {Z{_©V {Z`m©V _| CZH$m {hñgm 1973 Ho$ H«$_e… .07% Am¡a .14% go 2001 _| 4.3% Am¡a 5.6% hþAm& amoμOJma Ho$ _m_bo _o§, ewéAmV _| B©nrμOoS> _| cmoJm| H$mo AÀN>r g§»`m _| Zm¡H$[a`m± {_cZo Ho$ ~mX Am_Vm¡a na `h g§»`m KQ>r h¡ Am¡a Bg_| R>hamd ^r Am`m h¡& CXmhaU Ho$ {cE 1966 Am¡a 1970 Ho$ ~rM B©nrμOoS> _| amoμOJma 50.2% go μÁ`mXm H$s Xa na ~‹T>m co{H$Z 2000 Am¡a 2002 Ho$ ~rM `h KQ> H$a Ho$dc 5.2 % ah J`m&5 1990 Ho$ XeH$ Ho$ Am{Ia _| ^maV gaH$ma Zo EgB©μOoS na {dMma H$aZm ewê$ H$a {X`m Wm& ^mOnm àUrV amï´>r` n«OmVm§{ÌH$ JR>~§YZ-am. n«. J. (NDA) gaH$ma Zo Am{IaH$ma Aà¡c 2000 _| {deof Am{W©H$ joÌ Zr{V noe H$s& 1997-2002 H$s Am`mV-{Z`m©V Zr{V, {Z`m©VH$m| Ho$ {cE ~mYH$ {Z`m©V-Am`mV {Z`_Zm| H$mo Xya H$aZo Am¡a Bgo ^maV H$s {dœ ì`mnma g§JR>Z H$s eVm§} Ho$ _wVm{~H$ ~ZmZo na H|${ÐV Wr& `h em`X ^maV _| nhco go H$m_ H$a aho B©nrμOoS> Ho$ Acmdm amï´>r` n«OmVm§{ÌH$ EgB©μOoS Ho$ {cE amñVm ImocZo H$s nhcr H$mo{ee Wr& am. n«. J. gaH$ma JR>~YZ (NDA) § Ho$ dm{UÁ` _§Ìr lr _wamgmocr _maZ Zo, Omo nyar Vah MrZr EgB©μOoS na gaH$ma Zo Aàoc _w½Y Wo, Bgo ghr R>hamVo hþE H$hm Wm {H$ `h Zr{V ""h_| {Z`m©V Ho$ 2000 _| {deof ZH$mamË_H$ AZw^d Am¡a CXmgrZVm go {ZH$mcVr h¡' Am¡a "{Z`m©V Am{W©H$ joÌ Zr{V {dH$mg H$m B§OZ" h¡&'' noe H$s& 15
  16. 16. EgB©μOoS> _| Zr{V Ho bmJy hmoVo hr 2000 _| Mma {Z`m©V àg§ñH$aU joÌ/ {XbMñnr aIZo dmbo E$Q>rμOoS> H$m§S>cm, Eg.B©.B©.nr.μOoS> _wå~B©, H$mo{MZ Am¡a gyaV EgB©μOoS H$ar~ H$ar~ g^r _| ~Xc {XE JE&6 hmcm±{H$, MrZ Zo Am¡Úmo{JH$ joÌm| H$m `h amñVm amÁ`m| Zo gmb 1970 Ho$ XeH$ Ho$ Am{Ia _| MwZm, 1999 VH$ MrZ H$m {Z`m©V 2003 VH$ 190 {~{c`Z S>m°ca go μÁ`mXm Wm Omo ^maV Ho$ 34.5 {~{c`Z S>m°ca EgB©OS Ho$ {bE μ o go ~hþV μÁ`mXm Wm& MrZ H$s `h CN>mc BgHo$ nm±M ~Soμ> EgB©μOoS Ho$ A{YgyMZmE±, AmXoe H$maU _mZr OmVr h¡ - e|μOoZ, μOwhmB©, g¢Q>mo, {Oμ`m{_Z Am¡a h¡ZZ - Omo `m Zr{V`m± ~Zm br MrZ Ho$ Hw$c {Z`m©V Ho$ 40 à{VeV H$m CËnmXZ H$aVo h¢& WrŸ& III. ^maV _| {deof Am{W©H$ joÌ : _m¡OyXm ñdê$n ^maV _| EgB©μOoS ~ZmZo Ho$ {cE gm$ {Xem-{ZX©oe SEZ Zr{V, 2000, _| {XE JE Wo& amÁ`m| H$mo BgHo$ {cE ZmoS>c EO|{g`m± {Z`wº$ H$aZo Ho$ {ZX©oe {XE JE Wo& EgB©μOoS _| {XcMñnr aIZo dmco H$ar~- H$ar~ g^r amÁ`m| Zo gmc 2003 VH$ EgB©μOoS Ho$ {cE A{YgyMZmE±, AmXoe `m Zr{V`m± ~Zm cr Wt& `h XoIZm _hËdnyU© h¡ {H$ _m¡OXm SEZ {Z`_m| Am¡a A{Y{Z`_ Ho$ y VhV {XE Om aho àcmo^Z amÁ`m| H$s Zr{V`m|/A{YgyMZmAm| _| nhco go _m¡OyX Wo& BZ_| go Hw$N> h¢… • EgB©OS "{dXoer n[ajoÌ' Ho$ ê$n _| μ o • EgB©OS "OZ Cn`moJr godm' Ho$ ê$n _| μ o • EgB©OS Ho$ {cE EH$c {I‹S>H$s {ZnQ>mao μ o • EgB©OS H$mo ~‹T>mdm XoZo Am¡a BZHo$ {dH$mg Ho$ {cE EH$ "{dH$mg μ o Am`wº$' H$s {Z`wŠV • EgB©OS H$mo nmZr, {~Ocr Am¡a H$am| _| [a`m`V| μ o EgB©μOoS H$mZyZ H$mo g§`wº$ àJ{Verc JR>~§YZ gaH$ma (`ynrE) Zo _B© 2005 H$mo g§gX _| noe H$aHo$ nm[aV H$adm`m Am¡a 29 OyZ 2005 H$mo Bgo amï´>n{V H$s _§Oyar {_c JB©& BgHo$ ~mX 10 $adar 2006 go {dñV¥V {Z`_ cmJy {H$E JE& 2006 H$s ewéAmV VH$ 15 amÁ`m| Am¡a 2 H|$Ð em{gV àXoem| _| 117 EgB©μOoS H$mo ({OZ_| 3 «$s Q´o>S> do`ahmCqgJ μOmoZ em{_c Wo) _§Oyar Xo Xr JB©, {OZ_| go 7 EgB©μOoS 16
  17. 17. nhco go hr H$m_ H$a aho Wo& A~ gdmc CR>Vm h¡ {H$ O~ g^r amÁ`m| _| Zr{V`m± h¢ Am¡a do CÝh| AnZm ^r aho h¢ Vmo EH$ "H|$Ðr` {deof Am{W©H$ joÌ H$mZyZ, 2005, H$s μOê$aV Š`m h¡& Am¡a H$mZyZ Ho$ AmZo Ho$ ~mX AMmZH$ EgB©μOoS> n[a`moOZm Ho$ n«ñVmdm| H$s ~m‹T> Š`m| AmB©?' {deof Am{W©H$ joÌ H$mZyZ H$s Img ~mVm| _| go EH$ h¡, Omo {H$ EgB©μOoS Zr{V _| Zht Wr, dh h¡ EgB©μOoS> H$s AcJ-AcJ lo{U`m| Ho$ {cE Ý`yZV_ ^y{_ ApYJ«hU H$aZo H$s Amdí`H$Vm - ~hþ-CËnmX EgB©μOoS> Ho$ {cE 1000 hoŠQo>`a `m Bggo μÁ`mXm μO_rZ& godm joÌ EgB©μOoS> Ho$ {cE 100 hoŠQo>`a `m Bggo μÁ`mXm μO_rZ& Eogo joÌm| H$mo _XX> {OZ_| ^maV Xygam| go AmJo h¡, O¡go OdmhamV Am¡a JhZo, gyMZm àm¡Úmo{JH$s, O¡d àm¡Úmo{JH$s _|, BZHo$ {cE 10 hoŠQo>`a `m Bggo μÁ`mXm μO_rZ na goŠQ>a AmYm[aV _XX Ho$ {cE EgB©μOoS ~ZmE Om gH$Vo h¢& AÝ` g^r joÌm| Ho$ {cE, μO_rZ H$_ go H$_ 100 hoŠQo>`a hmoZr Mm{hE& {deof Am{W©H$ joÌ Hw$N> amÁ`m| (Ag_, _oKmc`, ZmJmc¢S>, AéUmMc àXoe, H$mZyZ H$s {_μOmoa_, _{Unwa, {Ìnwam, {h_mMc àXoe, CÎmamI§S>, {g{¸$_, "{deofVm' Omo {H$ Oå_y-H$í_ra, JmoAm) Am¡a H|$Ð em{gV joÌm| _| μO_rZ Ho$ ~‹So> Zr{V _| Zht Wr, dh Qw>H$‹So> {_cZo _| H${R>ZmB© H$mo XoIVo hþE ~hþ-CËnmX EgB©μOoS Ho$ h¡ EgB©OS H$s μ o {cE Ý`yZV_ μO_rZ KQ>m H$a 200 hoŠQo>`a go coH$a 50 AcJ-AcJ lo{U`m| hoŠQo>`a VH$ H$a Xr JB© h¡& Ho$ {cE Ý`yZV_ ^y{_ ApYJ«hU H$aZo H$s H$mZyZ H$s EH$ Am¡a Img ~mV `h h¡ {H$ Bg_| EgB©μOoS> H$s Amdí`H$VmŸ& 17
  18. 18. _§Oyar, H|$Ð _| dm{UÁ` _§Ìmc` _| ~moS©> Am°°$ Aàydëg XoJm d amÁ` _| {dH$mg Am`wº$ H$s AJwdmB© _| EH$ Aàydëg H${_Q>r XoJr, {OgH$m AÜ`j {dH$mg Am`wº$ hmoJm (`h Cn g{Md go ZrMo Ho$ ñVa H$m Zht hmoJm) `o amÁ` ñVar` g_r{V _§Oyar Am¡a {ZarjU H$s EO|gr ^r hm|Jr Am¡a XoI|Jr {H$… EgB©μOoS> Ho$ {dH$mg, g§MmcZ, Am¡a aIaImd H$s à{H«$`mE± AmgmZ hm| Am¡a BZ_| H$mamo~ma Mco& EgB©μOoS> Am¡a BZ_| H$moB© BH$mB© ewê$ H$aZo Ho$ {cE EH$c {I‹S>H$s {ZnQ>mam hmo& OyZ 2006 VH$ dm{UÁ` _§Ìmc` Zo 150 EgB©μOoS> àñVmdm| H$mo _§Oyar Xo Xr Wr& gaH$ma Ho$ Ûmam EgB©μOoS> _m_cm| na gcmh XoZo Ho$ {cE ~ZmE JE H|$Ðr` {deofm{YH$ma _§Ìr g_yh Ho$ gwPmd, {H$ EH$ gmc _| Ho$dc 150 n[a`moOZmAm| H$mo _§Oyar Xr OmE, Ho$ ~mdOyX dV©_mZ gaH$ma Zo n[a`moOZmAm| H$mo _§Oyar XoZo H$m {gc{gcm Omar aIm& `h Am±H$‹S>m {gV§~a 2006 VH$ 181 Am¡a AŠQy>~a VH$ 237 na nhþ±M J`m& gaH$ma Ho$ Ûmam gaH$mar VH©$ Ho$ AZwgma n[a`moOZmAm| H$s _§Oyar na amoH$, {ZdoeH$m| EgB©OS _m_cm| na μ o Ho$ μO~aXñV CËgmh Ho$ H$maU hQ>m Xr JB© Wr & gcmh XoZo Ho$ {cE ~ZmE JE H|$Ðr` amÁ` dma n[a`moOZmAm| Ho$ Am±H$‹S>m| _| _hmamï´> (48), Am§Y« àXoe {deofm{YH$ma _§Ìr (45), H$Zm©Q>H$ (29), V{_cZmS> (25), JwOamV (18), AmJo {XImB© XoVo g_yhHo$ gwPmd, {H$ h¢& Bggo `o gm$ hmoVm h¡ {H$ nhbo go {dH${gV amÁ`m| _| BZ joÌm| H$s EH$ gmc _| Ho$dc 150 n[a`moOZmAm| ^a_ma hmoJrŸ& MrZ H$s Vah ~§XaJmhm| Am¡a `mVm`mV H$s gw{dYmAm| VH$ H$mo _§Oyar Xr OmE, AmgmZ nhþ±M hmoZo Ho$ H$maU BZ amÁ`m| _| AmZo dmcr n[a`moOZmAm| _| Ho$ ~mdOyX dV©_mZ go H$B© joÌ VQ>r` BcmH$m| _| hm|Jo& gaH$ma Zo n[a`moOZmAm| H$mo {nN>co Xmo XeH$m| _| ^maV _| d¡{œH$ AW©ì`dñWm H$s Amoa ~‹T>Zo H$m _§Oyar XoZo H$m éPmZ ^r {XImB© {X`m h¡ {Og_| ~m¡{ÕH$ g§nXm `h EH$ H$_mB© H$m ~‹S>m {gc{gcm Omar O[a`m ~Z JB© h¡& 1990 Ho$ XeH$ Ho$ Am{Ia go ^maV _| gm°âQ>do`a aIm& Am¡a AmB©Q>r EZo~ëS> g{d©goμO (ITeS) goŠQ>am| H$s Hw$c Am_XZr _| 18
  19. 19. μO~aXñV ~‹T>moVar XO© H$s JB© h¡& Bg VOw~©o H$m BñVo_mc `h VH©$ XoZo Ho$ {cE ^r {H$`m J`m h¡ {H$ gyMZm àm¡Úmo{JH$s H«$m§{V _| {dH$mgerc Xoem| Ho$ {cE godm AmYm[aV (g{d©g-~oñS>) {Z`m©V-H|${ÐV {dH$mg H$aZo Ho$ {cE ZE Adga h¢& OyZ 2006 VH$ _§Oya H$s JB© 150 n[a`moOZmAm| _| go H$ar~ 120 AmB©Q>r Am¡a AmB©Q>r EZo~ëS> g{d©g n[a`moOZmE± Wt& `h éPmZ ~VmVm h¡ {H$ gaH$ma H$m g~go μÁ`mXm Ü`mZ EgB©μOoS> _| {H$g joÌ na h¡& hmcm±{H$, `{X h_ OyZ Ho$ ~mX H$s _§Oy[a`m| H$mo ^r em{_c H$a|, Vmo CZ_| H$B© Vah H$s n[a`moOZmE± h¢ & A~ C‹S>rgm O¡go amÁ`m| _| IZZ AmYm[aV CÚmoJm| Ho$ gmW ~hþ-CËnmX> EgB©μOoS> VoμOr go ~‹T>Vo {XImB© XoVo h¢& hmbm{H$, _m¡OyXm EgB©μOoS> Zr{V _| amÁ` gaH$mam| H$mo EgB©μOoS> {dH$mgH$Vm© ~ZZo H$m n`m©` {X`m J`m h¡ na XoIm Om ahm {H$ μÁ`mXmVa n{a`moOZmE§ {ZOr H§$nZr`m| Ûmam H$s Om ahr h¡Ÿ& BZ_o go [abm`Ýg, {S>EbE$, _{hÝÐm Am¡a {dàmo O¡gr H§$nZr`m§ _w»`V: AmJo h¡Ÿ& ^maV _o ñWm{nV Ed§ AmJo AmZodmbr EgB©μOoS> n[a`moOZmAm| go C^a H$a {XIZo dmbr àd¥Îmr`m§ d¡pídH$aU H$m hr ê$n h¡Ÿ& Ohm§ Bg AÜ`m` _o {díd Ho$ {d^Þ Xoem| _| {dH$mg Am¡a CgHo$ à^mdm| H$m {díbofU {H$`m h¡, AJbo AÜ`m` _| ^maV _| EgB©μOoS> Zr{V Am¡a ì`dñWm H$m AmbmoMZmË_H$ {díbofU {H$`m J`m h¡Ÿ& OyZ 2006 VH$ _§Oya H$s JB© 150 n[a`moOZmAm| _| go H$ar~ 120 AmB©Q>r Am¡a AmB©Q>r EZo~ëS> 1 www.icftu.org 2 g{d©g n[a`moOZmE± Am°°ñH$g©Z n¡{Q´>H$ - B§{S>`Z EQ´o>ŠeZ, àm°{$Qo>~c _ëQ>rZoeZëg EμO gpãgS>r O§H$s - Wt& `h éPmZ A ñQ>S>r Am°°$ B§g|{Q>ìg $m°a BZdoñQ>_|Q> BZ B§{S>`m 3 ~VmVm h¡ {H$ gaH$ma Q´o>qS>J Ado Ada amBQ²>g - Am°°Šg¡$_ 4 H$m g~go Á`mXm μ gw§Xa_,X n¡amS>mB©Oμ Am°$ H¡${nQ>{cÁ._ 5 Ü`mZ EgB©OS _| μ o EpŠμO_ nm°{cgr… EŠgnopŠQ§>J Qy> _M, B©nrS>ãcy g§nmXH$s`, Aà¡c 2002 6 http://www.cbec.gov.in/cae/customs/cs-manual/manual_22(c).htm {H$g goŠQ>a na h¡& 19
  20. 20. ^maV _| {deof Am{W©H$ joÌm| Ho$ {cE AmH$f©U {deof Am{W©H$ joÌ Ho$ {Z_m©U (construction) goŠQ>a H$s BH$mB`m| _| Am°°Q>mo_¡{Q>H$ ê$Q> go 100 à{VeV àË`j {dXoer {Zdoe {Z`m©V Ho$ cm^ H$mo 12 _hrZo _| ZH$X Ho$ ê$n _| dmng co OmZo H$s gw{dYm 5% VH$ Ho$ ^wJVmZ Z {H$E JE {Z`m©V {~cm| H$s “_m$s” cm^m§e H$mo g§Vw{cV {H$E {~Zm cm^ H$mo _wº$ ê$n go dmng co OmZo H$s BOmμOV {dXoem| _| g~H$m°ÝQ´¡>pŠQ§>J H$s BOmμOV g{hV g~H$m°ÝQ´¡>pŠQ§>J H$s nyar Ny>Q> nm±M gmcm| Ho$ EH$ ãcm°H$ Ho$ {cE Am`H$a go 100% Ny>Q>, Xmo gmcm| Ho$ {cE 50% H$s Ny>Q> Am¡a AJco 3 gmcm| VH$ H$_mB© H$mo AnZo Xoe co OmZo H$s BOmμOV ñWmZr` ì`mnma joÌm| go {deof Am{W©H$ joÌm| H$mo AmnyVu H$mo {Z`m©V _mZm OmEJm ZwH$gmZ H$mo H¡$ar $m°adS©> {H$`m OmEJm {dXoer ~¢qH$J BH$mB`m| H$mo 3 gmcm| VH$ Am`H$a go 100% Am¡a 2 gmcm| VH$ 50% H$s Ny>Q> ny±OrJV dñVwAm|/H¡${nQ>c JwS>, H$ƒm _mc, Cn^moº$m ñno`g© Am{X ñWmZr` ~mμOma go coZo na H|$Ðr` CËnmX ewëH$ go Ny>Q> Kaocy IarX na ^wJVmZ {H$E JE {~H«$s H$a H$m nwZ^©wJVmZ dm{UÁ` _§Ìmc` H$s do~gmBQ> na ~Vm`m J`m h¡ {H$ {ZOr joÌ Ho$ àñVmd H$mo _XX> H$aZo dmcr `m IwX AnZo {deof Am{W©H$ joÌ ~ZmZo dmcr amÁ` gaH$mam| H$mo `o MrμO| gw{ZpíMV H$aZr hm|Jr… `h {H$ àñVm{dV {deof Am{W©H$ joÌ _| {c`o J`o joÌ _| n`m©daU g§~§Yr H$moB© éH$mdQ|> Zht h¢; `h {H$ μOê$aV Ho$ _wVm{~H$ nmZr, {~Ocr Am¡a Xygar godmE± _wh¡`m H$admB© OmE±Jr; `h {H$ BH$mB`m| H$mo IwX Ho$ BñVo_mc Ho$ {cE ~ZmB© JB© Am¡a IarXr JB© {~Ocr na ewëH$ go nyar Ny>Q> {_coJr; {deof Am{W©H$ joÌm| Ho$ ^rVa {~Ocr ~ZmZo Am¡a {dVaU H$aZo H$s BOmμOV hmo; S>mo_opñQ>H$ Q¡>[a$$ E[a`m go {deof Am{W©H$ joÌ H$s BH$mB`m| _| AmnyVu {H$E OmZo dmcr MrμOm| H$mo amÁ` Ho$ {~H«$s H$a, Mw§Jr, _§S>r H$a, Q>Z©Amoda Q¡>Šg Am¡a Xygar S>çyQ>r/A{Y^ma/gog `m codr go Ny>Q>; `h {H$ joÌ Ho$ ^rVa H$s BH$mB`m| Ho$ {cE, Am¡Úmo{JH$ {ddmX A{Y{Z`_ H$s e{º$`m± {dH$mg Am`wº$ H$mo Xo Xr OmE±Jr Am¡a `h {H$ BH$mB`m| H$mo Am¡Úmo{JH$ {ddmX A{Y{Z`_ Ho$ VhV cmoH$ Cn`moJr godm Kmo{fV {H$`m OmEJm& 20
  21. 21. SEZ n«ñVmdm| H$mo Xr JB© _§Oyar (AŠVy~a 06 VH$ H$s amÁ`dma gyMr) A. amÁ` H$o Zm_ Am¡nMm[aH$ g¡Õm§{VH$ AZw_{V g§»`m AZw_{V 1. Am§Y« àXoe 45 09 54 2. N>ÎmrgJS> - 02 02 3. XmXam ZJa-hdobr - 01 01 4. M§S>rJ‹T> 02 - 02 5. {X„r 01 01 02 6. Jmodm 04 - 04 7. JwOamV 18 12 30 8. h[a`mUm 19 27 46 9. {h_mMb àXoe - 03 03 10. PmaI§S> 01 - 01 11. H$Zm©Q>H$ 29 17 46 12. Ho$ab 10 02 12 13. _Ü`àXoe 04 06 10 14. _hmamï´> 48 27 75 15. CS>rgm 05 07 12 16. nm°ÊS>rMoar 01 - 01 17. n§Om~ 04 07 11 18. amOñWmZ 03 08 11 19. V_rbZmSy> 25 12 37 20. CÎmamIÊS> 03 01 04 21. CÎmaàXoe 08 10 18 22. n§. ~§Jmb 07 14 21 Hw$b 237 166 403 21
  22. 22. ^maV _| {deof Am{W©H$ joÌm| na {N>‹S>r ~hg Am¡a {damoY ^maV _| EgB©μOoS> H$s AmbmoMZm Am¡a Bg na CR>o gdmbm| Ho$ nrN>o Ho$ H$maUm| H$mo _w»`V: nm§M YmamAm| _| ~m§Q>m Om gH$Vm h¢Ÿ: 1. EgB©μOoS go Am{W©H$ {dH$mg H$m ^«_& 2. μO_rZ Am¡a àmH¥${VH$ g§gmYZm| H$m {ZOrH$aU Am¡a CgH$m ñWmZr` g_wXm`m| na à^md& 3. EgB©μOoS H$mo "gmd©O{ZH$ godm' gw{dYm H$m XOm© XoZo Am¡a _μOXya H$mZyZm| Ho$ gabrH$aU go _μOXyam| Ho$ emofU Ho$ ~‹T>Vr g§^dZm& 4. EgB©μOoS go μOw‹S>o Vrd« Am¡Úmo{JH$aU go n`m©daU na hmoZodmbo n[aUm_& 5. EgB©μOoS Ho$ '{dXoer n[ajoÌ' ~ZZo go ñWmnrV ñWmZr` àemgZ Ed§ Xoe H$s g§à^wVm na n‹S>Zodmbo à^mdŸ& gdmb CR>mZo Am¡a {damoY H$aZo dmbo g_yhm| _| ñWmZr` g_wXm`, {H$gmZ, _Nw>Ama|, ~[wÕOr{d, AW©emór, gm_m{OH$ Am¡a amOZ¡{VH$ H$m`©H$Vm©, n`m©daUdmXr bmoH$g_yh Am¡a dm_n§Wr Xb ^r h¢Ÿ& I. EgB©μOoS Ho$ Am{W©H$ VH©$ na CRo> gdmc... Ohm± dm{UÁ` _§Ìmc` EgB©μOoS H$mo coH$a ~hþV Omoe _| h¡, Bg Zr{V H$mo coH$a H$B© Io_m| Zo {damoY Am¡a Ame§H$mE± OVmB© h¢, {OZ_| ñd§` H$m±J«og AÜ`j, {dÎm _§Ìmc` Am¡a `hm± VH$ {H$ A§Va©mï´>r` _wÐm H$mof Am¡a ^maVr` [aμOd© ~¢H$ ^r em{_c h¢& `o Ame§H$mE± H$B© Vah H$s h¢& 22
  23. 23. g~go nhco Vmo SEZ Am¡a EPZ _| VwcZm H$s JB© h¡& {Og_| `h gdmc CR>mE JE - · B©nrμOoS> Ho$ H$m_H$mO Am¡a {Z`m©V ~‹T>mZo _| CZH$s ^JrXmar H$mo Am±H$Zo H$s Oμê$aV · SEZ Am¡a B©nrμOoS> _| $H©$ `m g_mZVmE± ñnï> H$aZmŸ& · Š`m SEZ dmH$B© {Z`m©V H$mo ~‹T>m nmE±Jo? AmBE h_ Hw$N> Am±H$‹So> XoIVo h¢ Omo B©nrμOoS> Ho$ H$m_H$mO na amoeZr S>mc|Jo… • 1996-97 _| IË_ hþE nm±M gmcm| _| B©nrμOoS> BH$mB`m| Ho$ Am`mV na IM© Am¡a _m$ {H$`m J`m Am`mV ewëH$ Hw$c 16461.58 H$amo‹S> é. Wm O~{H$ {Z`m©V go Am` Ho$dc 13563.87 H$amo‹S> é. H$s Wr& • gmV EgB©μOoS Ho$ AJñV 1996 go OwcmB© 1997 Ho$ ~rM Ho$ H$m_H$mO H$m Am§H$cZ {H$`m J`m Wm& BZ joÌm| Ho$ A§VJ©V _§Oya H$s JB© 2333 BH$mB`m| _| go _mM© 1997 VH$ Ho$dc 513 BH$mB`m± H$m_ H$a ahr Wt& • dm{UÁ` _§Ìmc` H$m H$hZm Wm {H$ 1351 BH$mB`m| Ho$ ñdrH¥$V nÌ `m Vmo aÔ H$a {XE JE Wo `m H$m_ Zht hmoZo H$s dOh go IË_ hmo JB©& _§Oya H$s JB© BH$mB`m| _| Ho$dc 58% hr H$m_`m~ aht&1 • B©nrμOoS> na 1998 H$s EH$ Am{YH$m[aH$ [anmoQ©> Ho$ AZwgma “{dXoer _wÐm _| 4,700 H$amo‹S> én`o H$s Hw$c Am` àmá H$aZo Ho$ {cE Am`mV ewëH$ na 7,500 H$amo‹S> én`o H$s Ny>Q> Xr JB© Am¡a Eogm cJVm h¡ {H$ gaH$ma Zo H$moB© cmJV Am¡a cm^ H$m {dûcofU Zht {H$`m&” 2 • 2002 _| Xoe Ho$ {Z`m©V _| B©nrμOoS> H$m {hñgm Ho$dc 4% Wm H|$Ðr` {dÎm _§Ìmb` Ho$ 2005 Ho$ Am§H$bZ Ho$ AZwgma, (B©nrOoS> gpå_{bV) H$mo gaH$ma Ûmam ‹ àË`j Am¡a AàË`j H$am| _| Mma gmbm| _| (01-05) H$ar~ 90,000 H$amo‹S> én`o H$s Ny>Q> XoZr n‹S>rŸ& Ohm± VH$ Am{W©H$ joÌm| H$m gdmc h¡ B©nrμOoS> Am¡a EgB©μOoS H$m {dMma EH$ O¡gm hr, na BZ_| Hw$N> $H©$ ^r h¢ - • {Z`m©V àg§ñH$aU joÌ Zr{V _| BH$mB`m| Ho$ §{cE 100% {Z`m©V CËnmX H$aZm μOê$ar Wm Am¡a [a`m`V| coZo H$s eV] H$ht μÁ`mXm H${R>Z Wt& `h A{Zdm`©Vm EgB©μOoS H$s BH$mB©`m| Ho$ {cE Zht h¡& 23
  24. 24. • {deof Am{W©H$ joÌ Zr{V _| BH$mB`m| H$mo {Z`m©V Ho$ Acmdm Kaocy g^r hmcmV _|, EgB©μOoS _| μÁ`mXm ~mμOma _| gm_mZ ~oMZo H$s BOmμOV XoH$a eVm] H$mo AmgmZ ~Zm`m $m`Xm BH$mB`m| H$mo J`m h¡& Z hmoH$a CZ {dH$mgH$Îmm©Am| H$mo e§H$m `h μOm{ha H$s Om ahr h¡ {H$ `{X EgB©μOoS _| pñWV CÚmoJ hmoJm, {OÝh| gaH$ma BH$mB`m± {Z`m©V H$aZo Ho$ ~Om` Kaocy / Iwco ~mμOma _| gñVm gm_mZ go gñVr O_rZ Ho$ μ ~oMo|Jr Vmo EgB©μOoS Ho$ ~mha H$m`©aV CËnmXH$m| Ho$ ì`dgm` H$mo IVam gmW-gmW _yc^yV hmoJm&3 gw{dYmE§, aIaImd Am¡a H$am| _| ^mar EgB©μOoS H$mZyZ Ho$ AZwgma {H$gr ^r EgB©μOoS H$m cJ^J 65% [a`m`V {_c|Jt& joÌ J¡a Am¡Úmo{JH$ H$m`m}§ (_Zmoa§OZ godmE± Am¡a Q>mCZ{en AmXr) _| BñVo_mc {H$`m Om gH$Vm h¡& `{X `o EgB©μOoS {dH$mgH$Îmm© {Z`m©V AmYm[aV BH$mB`m| H$mo cw^mZo _| ZmH$m_`m~ ^r hmoVo h¢ Vmo ^r `o EgB©μOoS _| J¡a Am¡Úmo{JH$ joÌm| _| Xygao H$m_ H$aHo$ H$_mB© H$a gH$Vo h¢& g^r hmcmV _|, EgB©μOoS _| μÁ`mXm $m`Xm BZ {dH$mgH$Îmm©Am| H$mo hmoJm, {OÝh| gaH$ma go gñVr μO_rZ Ho$ gmW-gmW _yc^yV gw{dYmE§, aIaImd Am¡a H$am| _| ^mar [a`m`V {_c|Jt& EgB©μOoS H$s nhc _| gaH$ma H$s Cå_rX H$am| _| ^mar Ny>Q> Š`m|? `h h¡ {H$ ^maV _| ^maV _| {nN>co Hw$N> gmcm| _| d¡go hr ì`mnma Am¡a {Zdoe Ho$ {Z`_ Ho$dc {dXoer {Zdoe hr {dœ ~mOμma- μÁ`mXm CXma {H$`o JE h¡& {H$gr ^r EgB©μOoS _| Am¡a AÝ` ñWmZr` H|$pÐV {Z`m©V H$mo CÚmoJm| _| EH$ ñWmZr` n«ewëH$ joÌ (S>mo_opñQ>H$ Q>¡[a$$E[a`m) _| {_cZo ~‹T>mdm XoJm& Cå_rXm| dmcr gw{dYmAm| Ho$ ~rM H$m A§Va O~ H$_ hmoVm Mcm OmVm h¡, Vmo {deof Ho$ CcQ> A~ VH$ ê$n go {dÎmr` n«cmo^Z E§d Ny>Q> ({$ñH$c B§g|{Q>d) ~hþV hr _h±Jo Am¡a Á`mXmVa {dXoer μ J¡a Oμê$ar Vmoho$ cJZo cJVo h¢&4 Eogr pñW{V _| `h g_PZm H${R>Z h¡ {Zdoe {Z`m©V H$mo {H$ h_| BZ joÌm| H$s μOê$aV Š`m h¡? ~‹T>mdm XoZo Ho$ ~Om` Kaocy ~mOμma Ho$ {cE EgB©μOoS H$s nhc _| gaH$ma H$s Cå_rX `h h¡ {H$ ^maV _| Ho$dc hþAm h¡ Ÿ& {dXoer {Zdoe hr {dœ ~mOμma-H|$[ÐV {Z`m©V H$mo ~‹T>mdm XoJm& Bg na gdmc Bg{cE CR>mE Om aho h¢ {H$ Cå_rXm| Ho$ CcQ> A~ VH$ μÁ`mXmVa 24
  25. 25. {dXoer {Zdoe {Z`m©V H$mo ~‹T>mdm XoZo Ho$ ~Om` Kaocy ~mOμma Ho$ {cE hþAm h¡&5 ^maV _| BZ joÌm| H$s Oê$aV na cJmVma e§H$m OVmB© JB© h¡& O~ MrZ ñd§` Z`o EgB©μOoS> ~ZmZo na amoH$ cJm MwH$m h¡ Am¡a A~ d¡H$pënH$ _m°S>c Ty>±T> ahm h¡, Vmo Š`m `h AmíM`© Zht {H$ h_ Xoa go OmJo h¡? A_o[aH$m Ho$ EH$ AÜ``Z H|$X« (_m°J©Z ñQ¡>Zcr argM©) H$s OyZ 2006 H$s [anmoQ©> ~VmVr h¡, ""h_ `h _mZVo h¢ {H$ ZE H$mZyZ go AmH${f©V Eogo {ZdoeH$m| Ho$ àñVmd Am aho h¢ Omo Ho$dc H$a H$m $m`Xm CR>mZm MmhVo h¢& ZE EgB©μOoS Ho$ {cE μÁ`mXmVa àñVmd N>moQo> Am¡a _Ü`_ ñVa Ho$ CËnmXZ H$mo μOê$ar ~‹T>mdm Zht Xo gH$Vo&'' A§Vam©ï´>r` _wÐm H$mof Am¡a _m°J©Z ñQ¡>Zcr [anmoQ©> Zo “dmñV{dH$” EgB©μOoS gwPmVo hþE H$hm “H|$Ð gaH$ma H$mo amÁ` gaH$mam| go {_c H$a 5-6 ~‹So> EgB©μOoS ~ZmZo H$s H$mopee H$aZr Mm{hE&” ^maVr` [aμOd© ~¢H$ (RBI) Ho$ {cE ^r `h qMVm H$s ~mV h¡ {H$, hmcm±{H$ EgB©μOoS H$mo {dH$mg Ho$ dmhH$ (J«moW H¡$Q>{cñQ>) H$s Vah H$m_ H$aZm Mm{hE na _w_{H$Z h¡ {H$ `o joÌ H$_ {dH${gV joÌm| go g§gmYZ co OmH$a Ag§Vw{cV {dH$mg H$mo ~‹T>mdm X|& Š`m|{H$ A~ VH$ Ho$ _§Oya EgB©μOoS n«ñVmdm| _| go A{YH$V_ Xoe Ho$ {g©$ 5 amÁ`m| _| hr AmZo dmco [aμOd© ~¢H$ H$m h¢& AZw_mZ h¡ {H$ EgB©μOoS A~ {dÎm _§Ìmc` Am¡a [aμOd© ~¢H$ Zo Xmo _wÔo CR>mE h¢ - nhcm, H$am| n[a`moOZmAm| _| _| Ny>Q> H$s dOh go hmoZo dmco amOñd H$m ZwH$gmZ& [aμOd© ~¢H$ H$m Xr OmZo dmcr H$a AZw_mZ h¡ {H$ SEZ n[a`moOZmAm| _| Xr OmZo dmcr H$a gpãgS>r Ho$ gpãgS>r Ho$ H$maU H$maU 2010 VH$ Xoe H$mo 1,60,000 H$amo‹S> ê$n`o H$m ZwH$gmZ hmo MwH$m 2010 VH$ Xoe hmoJm& Xygam _wÔm h¡ {H$ O~ {H$gr ^r Eogo úmoÌ H$m 65% {hñgm J¡a H$mo 1,60,000 Am¡Úmo{JH$ Cn`moJ, O¡go {H$ _Zmoa§OZ Ed§ ^y-g§n{V {Z_m©U, Ho$ {cE hmo H$amo‹S> ê$n`o H$m ZwH$gmZ hmo MwH$m gH$Vm h¡ Vmo Eogo _| EgB©μOoS "ar`c EñQo>Q'> {~μOZog _| ~Xc gH$Vo h¢& hmoJm& {dÎm _§Ìmc` Zo `h Zht hmo Eogm gw{ZpíMV H$aZo Ho$ {cE gm$-gm$ 25
  26. 26. {dH$mgerc Xoem| _|, {Xem-{ZX©oe XoZo na μOmoa {X`m Wm&6 AmB©Q>r godmAm| _| AmE CN>mc go Bgr Vah H$s Ame§H$mE± AÝ` ~¢H$m| H$s ^r h¢, Omo EgB©μOoS gaH$ma Bg hH$sH$V n[a`moOZmAm| H$mo V~ VH$ CYma Zht XoZm MmhVo O~ VH$ {H$ “g~Hw$N> H$mo ^yc ahr h¡ {H$ gm$” (BZ {Zdoem| H$s Am{W©H$ pñWaVm) Zht hmo OmVm& ^maV _| ar`c Bgr Xm¡a _| _mc EñQo>Q> _| ~‹S>m {Zdoe H$aZo dmco ~¢H$m| _| go EH$, Am`.gr.Am`.gr Am`. CËnmXH$ joÌm| _| ~¢H$ Zo H$hm h¡ {H$ dh ""EgB©μOoS _| {Zdoe H$aZo _| gmdYZr ~aVZm amoμOJma _| ^mar MmhVr h¡&'' {JamdQ> AmB© h¡ hr, gmW hr Bg joÌ _| EgB©μOoS _| gyMZm àmoÚmo{JH$aU Ho$pÝX«V {dH$mg CËnmX ~‹T>mZo Ho$ à{V EgB©μOoS _| gyMZm àmoÚmo{JH$s g§~§{YV n[a`moOZmAm| H$s ~hþVm`V CXmgrZVm ~‹T> hmoZo go ^r ~hþV gr qMVmE± n¡Xm hþB© h¢& {dH$mgerc Xoem| _|, AmB©Q>r ahr h¡& godmAm| _| AmE CN>mc go gaH$ma Bg hH$sH$V H$mo ^yc ahr h¡ {H$ Bgr Xm¡a _| _mc CËnmXH$ joÌm| (Manufacturing sector) _| amoμOJma _| ^mar {JamdQ> Vmo AmB© hr, gmW hr Bg joÌ _| CËnmX ~‹T>mZo Ho$ à{V CXmgrZVm ~‹T> ahr h¡& Bg Vah Ho$ {dH$mg H$mo Om°~cog J«moW qgS´>mo_ (amoOJmahrZ d¥Õr) H$hVo h¢& AmB©Q>r godmE± Ho$dc Bg{cE gH$mamË_H$ _mhm¡c ~ZmVr h¡ Š`m|{H$ `hr AHo$cm joÌ h¡ Ohm± amoOμJma VoμOr go ~‹T> ahm h¡& na `h d¥{Õ, N>moQo> go _Ü`_ dJ© H$mo N>mo‹S> μÁ`mXmVa Am~mXr Ho$ {cE H$moB© _m`Zo Zhr aIVr h¡&7 ~¢Jcmoa Am¡a nwUo O¡go eham| _| {nN>co nm±M gmcm| _| IT joÌ H$m {dH$mg hþAm h¡, na eha Ho$ ^rVa AcJ-AcJ dJmoª _| {df_Vm H$s dOh go ~hþV-gr gm_m{OH$ g_ñ`mE± C^a H$a AmB© h¢& OwcmB© 2005 Am¡a 06 Ho$ ~rM nwUo _| _§hJmB© (J«mhH$ _yë` gyMH$m§H$) _| 8% H$s Am¡a ~¢Jcmoa _| 7% H$s ~‹T>moVar hþB©& Bggo nwUo O¡go eham| _| O_rZ H$s H$s_Vm| Am¡a ZE {Z_m©U _| ^r Oμ~aXñV CN>mc {XImB© {X`m h¡& Am{IaH$ma BgH$m ^ma eha Ho$ _yc^yV gw{dYmAm| na nS>Vm h¡ Ÿ& BZ gw{dYmAm| {H$ H$_r go C^ar g_ñ`mAm| go _hmZJa μ ~ZZo na Vwco `o XmoZm| eha nr{‹S>V h¢& {OZ amÁ`m| _| `o eha h¢, do g~go Á`mXm EgB©μOoS> _§Oya H$aZo dmco amÁ`m| _| go h¢& μ (òmoV - A^` d¡Ú, Q>mBåg Am°°$ B§{S>`m, - grEgAmo) 26
  27. 27. II. O_rZ H$m gdmc ^maV Am¡a MrZ O¡go Xoem| _| Am¡Úmo{JH$ n[a`moOZmAm| Ho$ {cE J«m_rU BcmH$m| _| ~‹So> n¡_mZo na IoVr H$s μO_rZ Ho$ A{YJ«hU go hþB© {H$gmZm| H$s ~oXIcr H$m _wÔm J§^ra ahm h¡& A~ VH$ _§Oya cJ^J 400 EgB©μOoS> n[a`moOZmAm| Ho$ {cE (Am¡nMm[aH$ ê$n go Am¡a {gÕm§V ê$n _| _§Oa XmoZm| Vah Ho$) H$ar~ y 1,25,000 hoŠQo>`a μO_rZ coZo H$m AZw_mZ h¡& _hmamï´>, n§Om~, h[a`mUm, CÎma n«Xe, Am§Y« n«Xe, npíM_ ~§Jmc BZ g^r amÁ`m| _| o o EgB©OS> Ho$ {cE A{YJ«{hV H$s OmZo dmcr Á`mXmVa O_rZ CnOmD$ μ o μ H¥${f H$s O_rZ| h¡& BZ O_rZm| Ho$ OmZo go cmIm| H$s g§»`m _| {H$gmZm| μ μ H$s AmOr{dH$m na Jham n«^md n‹S>Zo dmcm h¡& AmO μO_rZ Ho$ Aì`dpñWV Am¡a _Z_mZo VarHo$ go A{YJ«hU Ho$ {damoY _| O~aXñV OZ AmH««$moe CR> I‹S>m hþAm h¡& {OgHo$ nrNo> Ho$ _w»` gdmc h¡§– • O~aZ {H$`m Om ahm ^y-A{YJ«hU… Z§XrJ«m_ (n. ~§Jmc) Am¡a H$mH$sZm‹S>m (Am§Y« n«Xoe) H$m CXmhaU VmμOm h¡& • gñVo Xm_ _| {H$gmZm| H$mo ~oXIc Am¡a {dñWm{nV H$aZo H$s H$mo{ee Am¡a Am{O{dH$m H$mo IË_ H$aZm _hmamï´>, n§Om~, h[a`mUm, CÎma • _wAmdμOo Ed§ nwZdm©g H$m {ZVm§V A^md Am¡a n«Xoe, Am§Y« • ~‹So> {ZOr Am¡Úmo{JH$ KamZm| H$mo ~‹S>r _mÌm _| μO_rZ XoZm n«Xoe, npíM_ ~§Jmc BZ g^r {damoYm| H$mo XoIVo hþE, {gV§~a 2006 _|, H$m±J«og AÜ`j gmo{Z`m amÁ`m| _| Jm§Yr Zo {deof Am{W©H$ joÌ (EgB©μOoS>) n[a`moOZmAm| Ho$ {cE IoVr H$s EgB©μOoS Ho$ {cE μO_rZ A{YJ«{hV H$aZo na qMVm μOm{ha H$s& BgHo$ Vwa§V ~mX H|$Ðr` A{YJ«{hV H$s dm{UÁ` _§Ìr Zo h‹S>~‹S>mhQ> _| H$B© ~`mZ Am¡a {ZX©oe Omar {H$E, ImgVm¡a OmZo dmcr na amÁ` gaH$mam| H$mo “EgB©μOoS Ho$ {cE IoVr H$s μO_rZ A{YJ«{hV Á`mXmVa μO_rZ CnOmD$ H¥${f H$aZo _| gmdYmZr ~aVZo Am¡a BZ joÌm| H$mo naVr μO_rZ (waste land) H$s μO_rZ| h¡& na ~ZmZ'' H$s ~mV H$hr& 27
  28. 28. Xygam ~`mZ Omo dm{UÁ` _§Ìr AŠga XmohamVo aho h¢, dh h¡ amÁ` gaH$mam| H$mo A{YJ«hU H$s à{H«$`m go Xya ahZo H$s μOê$aV Am¡a Bg_| em{_c njm|, ImgH$a {H$gmZm| Am¡a EgB©μOoS Ho$ “{dH$mgH$Îmm©” H$mo Amng _| gm¡Xm H$aZo XoZm& EH$ Q>rdr M¡Zc na Hw$N> g_` nhco hþE B§Q>aì`y _| lr H$_cZmW go O~ ~‹So> n¡_mZo na μO_rZ Ho$ A{YJ«hU H$s ~mV H$s JB© Vmo CÝhm|Zo `h VH©$ XoH$a Bgo Im[aO H$a {X`m {H$ “`{X CÚmoJ H$mo I‹S>m hmoZm h¡ Vmo dh nmZr `m hdm _| I‹S>m Zht hmo gH$Vm, dh Vmo μO_rZ na hr hmoJm”& `h ~X{H$ñ_Vr h¡ {H$ BZ D±$Mo nXm| na ~¡Ro> OZ à{V{Z{Y AmO ^maV O¡go Xoe _| μO_rZr dmñV{dH$VmAm| Am¡a _m¡OyXm H$mZyZm| H$mo g_Po {~Zm “O_rZ” Am¡a BgHo$ “A{YJ«hU” O¡go _wÔm| na ~mV H$a aho h¢& μ H$mZyZ Am¡a μO_rZr hH$sH$V H$m A§V{d©amoμY {deof Am{W©H$ joÌ na ~Zm H|$Ðr` H$mZyZ μO_rZ Ho$ A{YJ«hU Ho$ _wÔo na Im_moe h¡& VmÁOw~ hmoVm h¡ {H$ O~ `h ~hþV hr gm$ h¡ {H$ n[a`moOZm μO_rZ na hr I‹S>r hmoJr Vmo EgB©μOoS H$mZyZ Ho$ nyao XñVmdoμO _| `μO_rZ Ho$ A{YJ«hU' {H$ à{H«$`m H$m C„oI EH$ ~ma ^r Š`m| Zht Am`m h¡ ? amÁ` gaH$ma H$s ^y{_H$m …- My§{H$ g§{dYmZ Ho$ AZwgma μ"O_rZ' amÁ` H$m {df` h¡ Bg{cE Ho$ÝX« H$s amÁ` gaH$mam| go `h Anojm h¡ {H$ EgB©μOoS ~ZmZo _| do AmJo ah|& H$B© amÁ`m| _| gaH$mamo§ Zo ^y-A{YJ«hU H$mZyZ 1894 {H$ _XX go μO_rZ boZo H$s à{H«$`m AnZmB© h¡Ÿ& O~ Bg na ZH$mamË_ à{V{H«$`m`| Am`r§ Vmo dm{UÁ` _§Ìr H$m `h ~`mZ Am¡a ^r Xw^m©½`nyU© ahm {H$ amÁ` gaH$mam| H$mo μO_rZ Ho$ A{YJ«hU H$s à{H«$`m go Xya ahZm Mm{hE Am¡a H§$nZr grYo hr {H$gmZm| go μO_rZ H$m gm¡Xm H$ao& μOm{ha h¡ Bg ~`mZ Ho$ gmW H$B© {X¸$V| h¢ Š`mo§{H$ ~mhþ~cr H§$n{Z`m| Ho$ gm_Zo {H$gmZ AnZo {hV H$m gm¡Xm H$a nmE§, `o _wpíH$c h¡& Bg n«H$ma h_oem H$s Vah EH$ ~ma {$a μO_rZ H$m A{YJ«hU Am¡a Bggo hmoZo dmco {dñWmnZ Ho$ _wÔo na H$moB© H$mZyZr n«{H««$`m E§d g_mYmZ Zht {X`m J`m h¡& Ho$ÝX« gaH$ma Ho$ A{YH$ma …- g~go _hËdnyU© Vmo `h h¡ {H$ H|$Ðr` H$mZyZ Ho$ AÜ`m` 2 ^mJ 4 _| H$hm J`m h¡ {H$ {H$gr ^r EgB©μOoS H$mo A{Yg{yMV H$aZo Ho$ ~mX, `{X H|$Ð gaH$ma H$mo R>rH$ cJo, Vmo ~mX _| A{V[aº$ joÌ H$mo Cg EgB©μOoS Ho$ {cE A{Ygy{MV H$a gH$Vr h¡& BgH$m _Vb~ {H$ AZw_Vr XoZo Am¡a EgB©μOoS Ho$ {bE {OVZr _μOu μO_rZ A{Ygy{MV H$aZo H$m A{YH$ma H|$Ð gaH$ma Zo AnZr _wÇ>r _o aIm h¡Ÿ& naVr ^y{_ H$m BñVo_mc …- _§Ìmc` Zo EgB©μOoS Ho$ {cE A{YJ«{hV H$s Om ahr μO_rZm| Ho$ 28
  29. 29. àH$ma H$m H$moB© AZw_mZ hr Zht {H$`m h¡ na `h Oê$a H$hm h¡ {H$ EgB©μOoS IoVr _| BñVo_mc Z hmoZo dmcr μO_rZ na cJ gH$Vo h¡& ^maV _| Eogr ^y{_ Ho$ J«m_rU BcmH$m| _| Xmo _w»` n«H$ma h¡ O§Jc-dZ^y{_ Am¡a naVr ^y{_& BZ μO_rZm| _| Á`mXmVa {H$gr Z {H$gr Vah H$s dZñn{V dmco O§Jc hmoVo h¡ `m {$a Mmao dmcr Kmg CJVr h¡& XmoZm| hr Jm§d-Ka H$s BªYZ, cH$‹S>r, Mmam O¡gr Oê$aV| nyar H$aVr h¡& dZm| Ho$ XmohZ Ho$ ZμO[a`o go XoI| Vmo AHo$co _hmamï´> _| 3 ~‹So> EgB©μOoS H$m|H$U joÌ _| ~Z aho h¢ Ohm± nm[apñW{VH$s H$s Ñ{ï> go g§doXZerc "n{ü_r KmQ>' Ho$ O§Jb h¢& H$ht ^r O§Jc H$s μO_rZ ImoZo go Xoe Ho$ n`m©daU H$mo hmoZo dmco AÀNo>-Imgo ZwH$gmZ H$m H$moB© AmH$cZ n«ñVwV Zht {H$`m J`m h¡& naVr ^y{_ - gm_y{hH$ g§gmYZ BªYZ, Mmam, cH$‹S>r Ho$ Acmdm O§Jc H$s Xygar n¡Xmdmam| H$s μOê$aV| {OZ μO_rZm| go nyar hmoVr h¢ CÝh| `gmPm g§nXm g§gmYZ’ loUr _| aIm Om gH$Vm h¡& {OÝh| ñWmZr` ~mo{c`m| _| MamJmh, Jm¡Ma, n{‹S>V ^y{_ H$hm OmVm h¡, na gaH$ma {OÝh| “naVr O_rZ” H$s loUr _| aIVr h¡& `h Xoe μ Ho$ Hw$c ^m¡Jmo{cH$ joÌ H$m H$ar~ 20% h¡& H$B© amÁ`m| _| BZ O_rZm| _| IoVr Ho$ cm`H$ Imcr μ O_rZ|, Jm`amZ O_rZ, MmamJmh `m H$_ KZo O§Jc h¢ Omo ñWmZr` J«m_rU AW©ì`dñWm H$m μ μ A{^Þ A§J h¢& EH$ AÜ``Z Ho$ AZwgma Jar~ n[admam| H$s Am_XZr _| BZ O_rZm| H$m `moJXmZ μ H$ar~ 12% hmoVm h¡& XaAgc _hmamï´>, _Ü` àXoe Am¡a amOñWmZ O¡go amÁ`m| _| newnmcH$ g_wXm`m| H$m EH$ ~‹S>m dJ© AnZo OmZda nmcZo Ho$ {cE nyar Vah go BZ O_rZm| na {Z^©a h¡& μ (òmoV : _mZer Aea "S>moÝQ> H$m©b BQ²> doñQ> b°ÊS>' Q>mB©åg Am°$ B§{S>`m, 12, Aºy$~a 2006) EH$ Am¡a _hËdnyU© _wÔm `h h¡ {H$ H$B© amÁ`m| _| `o naVr μO_rZ| nhco go hr OmoVr Om ahr h¢ {OZ na {H$gmZm| H$mo H$mZyZr hH$ {_cZm ~mH$s h¡& Hw$N> _m_cm| _| `o μO_rZ| "^y-gwYma' H$s à{H«$`m _| "grqcJ' H$s μO_rZ| h¢, {OZna cmoJm| H$mo H$mZyZr H$ãOm A^r VH$ Zht {X`m J`m h¡& _hmamï´> Ho$ am`J‹T> {Oμco _|, Ohm± [acm`§g EH$ ~hþV ~‹S>m EgB©μOoS ~Zm ahm h¡, H$ar~ 12,000 hoŠQo>`a `Xbr' μO_rZ h¡ {Og na Am{Xdmgr XeH$m| go IoVr H$aVo AmE h¢& μÁ`mXmVa n[admam| H$mo hmcm±{H$ A^r VH$ BZHo$ {Z`{_V hmoZo H$m B§VOμma h¡ My§{H$ `h μO_rZ O§Jc H$s loUr _| AmVr h¢& Bgr go {_cVm-OwcVm _m_cm C‹S>rgm H$m h¡, {OgHo$ OJVqghnwa {Oμco _| Ohm± ~hþamï´>r` nmohm§J ñQ>rc H§$nZr Ho$ EgB©μOoS H$s `moOZm h¡, VH$ar~Z 300 n[admam| H$mo H$mZyZr _m{cH$mZo H$m B§VμOma h¡& 29
  30. 30. nÅ>m `m _m{cH$mZm Z hmoZo H$s dOh go, Jm±d dmcm| Ho$ nmg gm¡X~mμOr o `h gm$ h¡ {H$ H$aZo H$s H$moB© JwOmBe Zht h¡ Am¡a `o An`m©á `m {~Zm _wAmdμOo Ho$ § “O_rZ” Ho$ _wÔo na μ {dñWm{nV hmoVo aho h¢& Eogo _m_cm| _| gaH$ma nwZdm©g na {dMma ^r dm{UÁ` _§Ìmc` Zo Zht H$aVr h¡& Xya§Xoer go H$m_ Zht {c`m h¡& Bg _m_co Am{Ia _|, H$B© EgB©μOoS Ho$ AmH$ma H$mo XoIVo hþE cJVm h¡ {H$ `o H$s CZ O{Q>cVmAm| H$B©-gm¡ hoŠQo>`a _| ¡$c|Jo& BZHo$ {cE BH$Æo> c§~o-Mm¡‹So> “~oH$ma” O_rZ μ Am¡a J{VercVmAm| Ho$ Qw>H$‹So> {_cZm _wpíH$c hr hmoJm, ImgH$a V{_cZmSw>, h[a`mUm, C.à. H$mo nyar Vah go ZμOaA§XmO {H$`m h¡ Am¡a _hmamï´> O¡go amÁ`m| _| Ohm± `o joÌ Am aho h¢& Bg{cE BÝh| “~oH$ma” {OZHo$ J§^ra μO_rZ na ~ZmZo H$m gaH$ma H$m VH©$ cJ^J Ag§^d h¡& n[aUm_ Xoe Ho$ J«m_rU g_wXm` Am¡a `h gm$ h¡ {H$ EgB©μOoS _| “O_rZ” Ho$ _wÔo na dm{UÁ` _§Ìmc` μ Am{Iar ~Mo gmPo Zo Xya§Xoer go H$m_ Zht {c`m h¡& Bg _m_co H$s CZ O{Q>cVmAm| Am¡a g§gmYZm| na n‹S>Zo J{VercVmAm| H$mo nyar Vah go ZμOaA§XmO {H$`m h¡ {OZHo$ J§^ra n[aUm_ dmco h¢& Xoe Ho$ J«m_rU g_wXm` Am¡a Am{Iar ~Mo gmPm g§nXm g§gmYZm| na n‹S>Zo dmco h¢& ZB© nwZd©mg Zr{V H$s KmofUm …- AŠVy~a 4, 2006 H$mo J«m_rU {dH$mg _§Ìmc` Zo g_mMma nÌ _| Zmo{Q>g Omar H$s, {Og_| amï´>r` nwZdm©g Zr{V 2006 Ho$ _gm¡Xo na OZVm H$s {Q>ßn{U`m§/n«{V{H««$`m _m§Jr J`r& n«{V{H««$`m ^oOZo Ho$ {c`o Ho$dc 7 {XZ H$m g_` {X`m J`m& _§Ìmc` Ûmam Kmo{fV nwZdm©g Zr{V H$m _gm¡Xm Z {g©$ {deof Am{W©H$ joÌm| Ho$ {cE {H$`o OmZo dmco ^y-A{YJ«hU H$mo AmgmZ ~ZmZo Ho$ {cE gaH$ma H$s H$mo{ee h¡, ~pëH$, OZ g§JR>Zm| Am¡a ~w{ÕOr{d`m| H$mo ^r _gm¡Xm V¡`ma H$aZo H$s n«{H««$`m go ~mha aIZo H$s g{Oe ^r & OZdar 2007 _| Z§XrJ«m_ _| hþE ^y-A{YJ«hU H$mo coH$a EgB©μOoS Ho$ {Icm$ {damoY Am¡a qhgH$ P‹S>n Ho$ McVo amÁ` gaH$mam| Ho$ ad¡æ`o na CRo> gdmcm| Zo Z {g©$ npíM_ ~§Jmc H$s _m.H$.nm. gaH$ma na X~md ~Zm`m, ~pëH$ H|$X« gaH$ma H$mo ^r EgB©μOoS na nwZ©{dMma H$aZo H$mo 30
  31. 31. 8 {deof Am{W©H$ joÌ Ho$ {cE amï´>r` nwZdm©g Zr{V 2006 {nN>co 20 gmcm|§ _| nwZdm©g Zr{V Ho$ H$B© _gm¡Xo AcJ - AcJ _§Ìmc`m| Edo CZH$s ~ZmB© g_r{V`m| Ho$ Ûmam n«ñVwV {H$`o J`o& Am¡a ha ~ma OZ g§JR>Zm| Am¡a ~w{ÕOr{d`m| Zo Z {g©$ BZ _gm¡Xm| na {Q>ßnUr`m§ H$s ~pëH$ d¡H$pënH$ Zr{V H$mo ^r gaH$ma Ho$ gm_Zo Omoa-emoa go aIm & A^r hmc hr _|, _mM©, 2006 _| OZ g§JR>Zm| Ho$ nam_f© go gaH$ma (UPA) Ûmam J{R>V "amï´>r` gcmhH$ma g{_{V' (NAC) Ho$ V¡`ma {H$`o JE amï´>r` nwZdm©g Zr{V Ho$ _gm¡Xo H$mo ^r n«YmZ_§Ìr H$m`m©c` Zo Zm_§Oa H$a {X`m Wm& _§Ìmc` Ûmam Omar dV©_mZ Zr{V 2003 _| Kmo{fV Zr{V hr h¡ y {OgH$s Cg g_` H$‹S>r AmcmoMZm H$s JB© Wr& dV©_mZ 2006 H$s Zr{V _| 2003 H$s Zr{V go Hw$N> n[adV©Z Ho$ A{V[aŠV H$moB© Img gwYma Zht h¡& BgH$s _w»` H${_`m§- § 1 Zr{V A^r ^r {dñWmnZ H$mo AñdrH$ma Zht H$aVr h¡, ~pëH$ 1894 Ho$ ^y-A{YJ«hU A{Y{Z`_ _| amÁ` H$mo ^y{_ na {X`o J`o "loð> A{YH$ma' H$mo `h ~aH$ama aIVr h¡& 2 gmW hr `h Zr{V A^r ^r "gmd©O{ZH$ Cn`moJ' Ho$ Zm_ na ^y-A{YJ«hU H$mo _mÝ`Vm XoVr h¡& Bg g§X^© _| OZ g§JR>Zm| Am¡a NAC Ûmam 1894 Ho$ ^y-A{YJ«hU H$mZyZ _| _m§Jo J`o g§emoYZ H$mo ZH$mam J`m h¡& 3 {dñWmnZ H$s pñW{V _| "nyd© gy{MV gå_{V' O¡go gwPmdm| H$mo ^r dV©_mZ Zr{V _| em{_c Zht {H$`m J`m h¡& dV©_mZ Zr{V Ho$ _gm¡Xo _| H$ht ^r `h gw{ZpíMV Zht {H$`m J`m h¡ {H$ {dñWmnZ E§d nwZdm©g H$s n«{H«$`m nmaXeu, gh^m{JVmnyU© Am¡a gaH$ma H$mo CËVaXm`r R>hamZo dmcr hmo& `h AÝ`m`nyU© h¡ {H$ {deof Am{W©H$ joÌ H$mo ~ZmZo E§d ~‹T>mdm XoZo Ho$ {cE gaH$mar H$mZyZ Vmo ~Zm`m J`m h¡ na§Vw BZgo hmoZo dmco {dñWmnZ Am¡a {dZme na amoH$ cJmZo Am¡a nwZdm©g O¡go _hËdnyU© A{YH$ma H$mo gwa{jV H$aZo H$s {Oå_oXmar H$mo {Z^mZo _| gaH$ma Zo nyar Vah go cmnadmhr ~aVr h¡& _O~ya {H$`m& gmW hr n§Om~, CÎmamI§S> Am¡a CÎma n«Xoe _| AmZo dmco _hrZm| _| hmoZo dmco MwZmdm| Zo ^r _w»` amOZr{VH$ Xcm| H$mo EgB©μOoS Am¡a Cggo Ow‹So> _wX²Xm| na AnZm nj aIZo _| gV©H$ H$a {X`m h¡& Bgr Ho$ McVo H$m±J«og ^r ({OgH$s BZ_| go VrZ amÁ`m| _| ~hþ_V dmcr gaH$ma h¡) {OgZo EgB©μOoS H$mo AnZr `ñdßZ n[a`moOZm’ _mZ {c`m Wm AmO AnZm ê$I Za_ {XIm ahr h¡& 22 OZdar H$mo UPA gaH$ma Ho$ {deofm{YH$ma _§Ìr g_yh Zo AnZr ~¡R>H$ _| SEZ go Ow‹So> ^y-A{YJ«hU, nwZdm©g, Q¡>Šg [a`mAVm| Ho$ Xwén`moJ Ho$ gdmbm| na MMm© H$s Am¡a V` {H$`m {H$ {$chmc EgB©μOoS H$mo Xr OmZo dmcr AZw_{V`m| na amoH$ cJm Xr OmE& BgHo$ A{V[aŠV Xoe Ho$ n«YmZ_§Ìr lr _Z_mohZ qgh Zo ^r A§VV… _O~yar _| `h ~`mZ {X`m h¡ {H$ nwZdm©g Zr{V Ho$ AmZo 31
  32. 32. go nhco Z`r n[a`moOZmAm| (63 A{Ygy{MV n[a`moOZmAm| Ho$ Acmdm {OZH$mo CZH$s gaH$ma Zo nhco hr _§Oyar Xo Xr h¡) H$mo _§Oyar Zht XoJ|& hm±cm§{H$, dV©_mZ nwZdm©g Zr{V H$m n«mê$n nyar Vah go nwZdm©g Am¡a {dñWmnZ go Ow‹So> hþE gdmcm| H$mo hc H$aVm Zht {XIVm h¡& III _μOXyam| Ho$ emofU Ho$ _wÔo nyar Xw{Z`m _| ì`mnma Am¡a {Z`m©V joÌm| _| _μOXyam| Ho$ emofU H$s ~mV| Am_ h¢& ^maV H$moB© ~hþV AcJ Zht h¡& {deof Am{W©H$ joÌ H$mZyZ 2005 Am¡a EgB©μOoS Zr{V AmZo go nhco, H$_ go H$_ g¡Õm§{VH$ ê$n go, gmao l_ Am¡a ¡$ŠQ´>r H$mZyZ B©nrμOoS> _| nyar Vah cmJy Wo& na§Vw {deof Am{W©H$ joÌ H$mZyZ 2005 _| BZ joÌm| H$mo "gmd©O{ZH$ godm joÌ' Kmo{fV {H$`m h¡ {OgH$m grYm Aga BZ joÌm| _| H$m_ H$aZo dmco _OXyam| na n‹S> ahm h¡& 1. `y{Z`Z ~ZmZo na amoH$ – nwamZo B©nrμOoS> (Omo A~ EgB©μOoS H$hcmVo h¢) _| Q´o>S> `y{Z`Z| ~ZmZo H$s H$mo{eem| Ho$ ~mdOyX `o ì`mdhm[aH$ ê$n go _m¡OyX Zht Wt `m H$_ Wt& BgH$s Img dOh `h Wr {H$ B©nrμOoS> _| ^r Ho$dc H$_©Mm[a`m| H$mo hr grYo ¡$ŠQ´>r Ho$ XadmμOo go AmZo-OmZo H$s BOmμOV hmoVr h¡& B©nrμOoS> H$_©Mm[a`m| Zo `h ^r ~Vm`m h¡ {H$ `{X do `y{Z`Z _| em{_c hmoVo h¢ Vmo _¡ZoO_|Q> Ho$ A{YH$mar CÝh| naoemZ H$aV h¡& ZmoES>m {Z`m©V àg§ñH$aU joÌ _| l_ H$mZyZ cmJy H$aZo H$s _m±J H$aZo na H$_©Mm[a`m| H$mo Zm¡H$ar go {ZH$mc {X`m J`m Wm&9 2. h‹S>Vmc H$aZo H$m A{YH$ma Zht – gaH$ma Zo "Am¡Úmo{JH$ {ddmX A{Y{Z`_' Ho$ VhV ""gmd©O{ZH$ godm'' H$m XOm© XoH$a ^maV Ho$ B©nrμOoS> _| go Xmo – _wå~B© Ho$ nmg gm§VmH«y$μO BcoŠQ´>m°{ZH$ EŠgnmoQ©> àmogoqgJ μOmoZ (grßμO>) Am¡a H$m§S>cm _| h‹S>Vmc na amoH$ cJm Xr Wr& Bggo `{X h‹S>Vmc H$aZo go nhco l_ Am`wº$ H$mo em{_c H$aHo$ g_Pm¡Vo H$s H$mo{ee| Z H$s OmE± Vmo h‹S>Vmc J¡aH$mZyZr _mZm OmVr h¡& 3. {deof Am{W©H$ joÌm| gmd©O{ZH$ Cn`moJr godmE± – dV©_mZ EgB©μOoS ì`dñWm _|, l_ H$mZyZm| H$mo AÀN>m-Imgm Z_© ~Zm {X`m J`m h¡& EgB©μOoS Ho$ {Z`_m| Ho$ AÜ`m` 2 I§S> 5(g) _| EgB©μOoS H$mo “cmoH$ Cn`moJr godm” Kmo{fV H$aZo H$m A{YH$ma EgB©μOoS Ho$ {dH$mg Am`wº$ H$mo Xo {X`m J`m h¡& I§S> 5(f) _| H$_©Mmar-_m{cH$ g§~§Ym| H$mo XoIZo H$m A{YH$ma ^r "{dH$mg Am`wº$' H$mo Xo {X`m J`m h¡& l_ Am`wº$ H$s {μOå_oXmar`m§ ^r {dH$mg Am`wº$ H$mo Xo {X JB© h¢& 4. H$m_ H$s Iam~ XemE± Am¡a _{hcm H$_©Mm[a`m| H$m emofU – MrZ Am¡a Xw{Z`m Ho$ Xygao gmao {hñgm| H$s Vah ^maV _| ^r Am{W©H$ joÌm| _| _{hcm H$_©Mm[a`m| H$s g§»`m g~go μÁ`mXm h¡& _{hcmE± ao{S>_oS> H$n‹S>m|, BcoŠQ´>m°{ZŠg AmYm[aV H$m_ Am¡a gm°âQ>do`a CÚmoJm| _| cJr hþB© h¢& 32
  33. 33. g|Q>a $m°a Q´>oS> `y{Z`Ýg (grQy>) Ûmam 2002 _| Am`mo{OV B©nrμOoS>/EgB©μOoS> H$_©Mm[a`m| Ho$ EH$ A{Ic ^maVr` gå_ocZ _| Bg ~mV na MMm© hþB© Wr {H$ BZ joÌm| _| _{hcm H$_©Mm[a`m| H$m emofU hmoVm h¡& amV H$mo Ka OmZo H$m nyam B§VμOm_ {H$E {~Zm _{hcmAm| go amV H$s nm{c`m| _| H$m_ H$adm`m OmVm h¡& CÝh| _mV¥Ëd AdH$me Zht {X`m OmVm h¡ Am¡a J^©dVr hmoZo na _{hcmAm| H$mo H$m_ go {ZH$mc {X`m OmVm h¡& PycmKam| H$m B§VμOm_ Zht hmoVm h¡& Ho$dc `wdm A{ddm{hV _{hcmAm| H$mo H$m_ na aIZm ng§X {H$`m OmVm h¡& Q>m°`coQ> H$m BñVo_mc Q>moH$Z XoH$a H§$Q´>moc {H$`m OmVm h¡& `m¡Z CËnr‹S>Z ~hþV Am_ h¡&10 5. BZ joÌm| _| H$m°ÝQ´¡>ŠQ> l{_H$ – H$m°ÝQ´¡>ŠQ> co~a (aoJwcoeZ E§S> A~m°{ceZ) A{Y{Z`_ 1970 _| _wå~B© Ho$ nmg gm§VmH«y$μO BcoŠQ´>m°{ZŠg EŠgnmoQ©> àmogoqgJ μOmoZ (grßμO>) _|, 90% H$_©Mmar _{hcmE± h¢& `o Am_Vm¡a na `wdm h¢ Am¡a `y{Z`Z ~ZmZo go ~hþV S>aVr h¢& H$m_ H$s XemE± Iam~ h¢ Am¡a AmodaQ>mB_ H$aZm Oê$ar h¡& Eogm hr H$mo{MZ EgB©OS> _| ^r hmoVm h¡& μ μ o ImgVm¡a na Eogo H$m_m| _| H$m°ÝQ´¡>ŠQ> l{_H$ cJmZo na amoH$ cJmB© JB© h¡ Omo “ñWm`r Am¡a h_oem” McZo dmco h¢& h_mao gm_Zo H$B© EgB©μOoS>/B©nrμOoS> Ho$ CXmhaU h¢ Ohm± VH$ar~Z gmar BH$mB`m± Eogo hr ñWm`r H$m_ H$aVt h¢ na _μOXya H$m°ÝQ´¡>ŠQ> na hr aIVt h¢& Xw{Z`m ^a _| dm_n§Wr Xc, Q´>oS> `y{Z`Z Am¡a _μOXya H$ë`mU g§JR>Z, gaH$mam| H$mo EgB©μOoS/ B©nrμOoS> Ho$ _wÔo na MwZm¡Vr XoVo aho h¢, Š`m|{H$ `o joÌ Jar~ Xoem| _| amoμOJma n¡Xm H$aZo dmcr BH$mB`m| Ho$ ê$n _| ~ZmE OmVo h¢& ^maV _|, dm_ Xcm| Am¡a Q´>oS> `y{Z`Zm| Zo ^r {deof Am{W©H$ joÌ H$mZyZ H$m {damoY {H$`m h¡& 10 _B© 2005 H$mo O~ cmoH$ g^m _| `h H$mZyZ aIm J`m, Vmo hmcm±{H$ Bg na H$moB© ~hþV c§~r ~hg Zht hþB©, na dm_ Xcm| Ho$ gm§gXm| Zo _μOXyam| Ho$ emofU Am¡a H$mZyZ Ho$ Hw$N> ^mJm| go Xoe H$s g§Kr` g§aMZm H$mo IVam hmoZo Ho$ _wÔo CR>mE& CXmhaU Ho$ {cE, H$mZyZ Ho$ AZwÀNo>X 50 _| `h àmdYmZ Wm {H$ Am¡Úmo{JH$ {ddmX, _μOXya H$ë`mU, H$m_ H$s pñW{V`m±, d¥ÕmdñWm n|eZ, _mV¥Ëd Ho$ cm^ Am{X gaH$mar cm^ BZ EgB©μOoS na cmJy Zht hm|Jo& grnrAmB© (E_) Am¡a grnrAmB© Ho$ XIc go `h àmdYmZ {ZH$mcm J`m&11 {$a ^r EgB©μOoS A{Y{Z`_ Ho$ _m¡OyXm ñdê$n _| cmJy hmoZo go AmZo dmco g_` _| _μOXyam| H$m _wÔm BZ joÌm| _| EH$ ~‹S>r g_ñ`m ~ZZo dmcm h¡& 33
  34. 34. IV {deof Am{W©H$ joÌm| _| n`m©daU g§~§Yr _wÔo A^r Ohm± ~S>μr g§»`m _| AmZo dmco EgB©μOoS n[a`moOZmAm| Ho$ n`m©daU na n‹S>Zo dmco Aga Ho$ ~mao _| ~mV H$aZm ~hþV OëX~mμOr hmoJr, dht MrZ Ho$ CXmhaU go n`m©daU H$mo hmoZo dmco ZwH$gmZ H$m A§XmOm cJm`m Om gH$Vm h¡& ^maV nhco go hr nmZr H$s H$_r Am¡a O§Jcm| Am¡a O¡d- {d{dYVm Ho$ ZwH$gmZ H$s g_ñ`m go OyP ahm h¡& _wÔm `h h¡ {H$ Am{W©H$ {dH$mg Ho$ _m¡OyXm T>m±Mo _| - O§Jcm| Am¡a gm_w{hH$ μO_rZm| na ~‹T>Vm X~md, Oc g§gmYZm| H$m AË`{YH$ XmohZ; VQ>r` ^y{_ Am¡a VQ> aoImAm|; hdm Am¡a nmZr Ho$ àXyfU; BcoŠQ´>m°{ZH$ H$Mao Ho$ ~ZZo Am{X go hmoZo dmco ZwH$gmZ H$m Am§H$cZ ^r Zht {H$`m Om ahm h¡& {nN>co nm±M gmcm| _| n`m©daUr` g§ajU H$s gaH$mar ì`dñWm H$_μOmoa hr hmoVr {XImB© Xr h¡& Bg g§X^© _| {ZåZ q~XwAm| na Ü`mZ XoZm n‹So>Jm - 2001 _|, 1994 H$s B©.AmB©.E (n`m©daU n«^md Am§H$cZ - EÝdm`aZ_|Q>c Bån¡ŠQ> Agog_|Q>) A{YgyMZm12 _| g§emoYZ {H$`m J`m, {OgHo$ VhV Am{W©H$ joÌm| H$mo OZ gwZdmB©, Omo {H$ n`m©daU g§~§Yr _§Oyar H$s à{H«$`m H$m _hËdnyU© A§J Wr, go Ny>Q> Xr JB©& 1994 H$s B©.AmB©.E A{YgyMZm _| H$m$s ~Xcmd {H$E JE Am¡a g^r n[a`moOZmAm| H$s OëXr _§Oyar Ho$ {cE 2006 _| EH$ ZB© A{YgyMZm Omar H$s JB©& n`m©daU Ed§ dZ _§Ìmc` H$s ZB© B©AmB©E A{YgyMZm 2006 H$s AZwgyMr 1 Ho$ AmBQ>_ 7c _| Am¡Úmo{JH$ joÌ/nmH©$/H$m°åßboŠg/joÌ, {Z`m©V àg§ñH$aU joÌ (B©nrOμoS>), EgB©μOoS, ~m`moQo>ŠZm°cm°Or nmH©$, M_m©oÚmoJ H$m°åßboŠg AmXr H$m C„oI h¢& ZB© A{YgyMZm _| ^r D$na ~VmB© JB© lo{U`m| H$mo OZ gmd©O{ZH$ gwZdmB© go _wº$ aIm J`m h¡& {OgH$m _Vc~ h¡ {H$ ñWmZr` cmoJ Z hr Bg n[a`moOZmAm| no gdmc CR>m gH$Vo h¡ Am¡a Z hr H$mZyZr ê$n go AnZr Amn{Îm`m§ XO© H$a gH$Vo h¡& B©.AmB©.E A{YgyMZm 2006 Ho$ AZwgma, hmcm±{H$ ApYH¥$V Am¡Úmo{JH$ joÌ Ho$ ^rVa AmZo dmco g^r n[a`moOZmAm| `m J{V{d{Y`m| H$mo OZ gwZdmB© H$s à{H«$`m go Ny>Q> {_cr hþB© h¡, na BZH$mo {$a ^r n[a`moOZm Ho$ {cE "n`m©daU n«^md Am§H$cZ [anmoQ>'© àñVwV H$aZr hmoJr& B©.AmB©.E A{YgyMZm 2006 n[a`moOZmAm| H$mo Xmo lo{U`m| _| ~m±Q>Vr h¡ - loUr A Am¡a loUr ~& loUr A _| AmZo dmco n[a`moOZmAm| H$mo H|$Ð gaH$ma Am¡a loUr ~ Ho$ n[a`moOZmAm| H$mo amÁ` gaH$ma| n`m©daUr` _§Oyar XoJr& 34
  35. 35. H|$Ð Ûmam _§Oya H$s OmZo dmcr loUr A Ho$ A§VJ©V “Am¡Úmo{JH$ joÌ (EgB©μOoS>) H$m `{X EH$ CÚmoJ ^r loUr A _| AmVm h¡ Vmo Cg nyao joÌ H$mo loUr A H$m hr joÌ _mZm OmEJm,” Am¡a “500 hoŠQo>`a go μÁ`mXm joÌ$c dmco Eogo Am¡Úmo{JH$ joÌ {OZ_| H$_ go H$_ EH$ CÚmoJ loUr ~ H$m hmo” CÝh| ^r loUr A _| _mZm OmEJm Am¡a H|$Ð go n`m©daUr` _§Oyar coZr hmoJr& loUr ~ Ho$ A§VJ©V, “do Am¡Úmo{JH$ joÌ {OZ_| H$_ go H$_ EH$ CÚmoJ loUr ~ H$m Am¡a joÌ$c 500 hoŠQo>`a go H$_ hmo”; Am¡a “do Am¡Úmo{JH$ joÌ {OZH$m joÌ$c 500 hoŠQo>`a go μÁ`mXm hmo Am¡a {OZ_| H$moB© A `m ~ loUr H$m CÚmoJ Z hmo,” CÝh| amÁ` ñVa na _§Oyar H$s μOê$aV hmoJr& H$moB© Eogm Am¡Úmo{JH$ joÌ Omo {H$ 500 hoŠQo>`a go H$_ hmo Am¡a {Og_| A `m ~ loUr H$m H$moB© CÚmoJ Z hmo Cgo n`m©daU H$s _§Oyar go _wº$ aIm J`m h¡& EgB©OS> Ho$ ^rVa McZo dmcr BH$mB`m| H$mo Am_ Vm¡a na H|$Ð `m amÁ` Ho$ ñVa na, B©.AmB©.E Ho$ μ o AmYma na n`m©daU g§~Yr _§Oar coZm Amdí`H$ h¡, co{H$Z ~hþV Oê$ar hmoZo na “{deof § y μ pñW{V” _|, Bg eV© H$mo nyam {H$E {~Zm _§Oar {_c gH$Vr h¡& eV© `h h¡ {H$ `{X H$moB© Eogm joÌ y {Og_| EH$ O¡go CÚmoJ hm| `m do Am¡Úmo{JH$ joÌ {OZ_| Hw$N> {ZpüV J{V{dpY`m± hmoVr h¢, Am¡a do nhco go hr n`m©daU g§~§Yr _§Oyar co coVo h¢ Vmo Eogo Am¡Úmo{JH$ joÌm|/H$m°åßboŠg _| IwcZo dmcr g^r Am¡Úmo{JH$ BH$mB`m| H$mo n`m©daU g§~Yr _§Oar coZm Amdí`H$ Zht hmoJm& § y EgB©μOoS H$mZyZ Am¡a {Z`_m| _|o n`m©daU Ho$ _wX²X²>mo§ na MwßnrŸ- {deof Am{W©H$ joÌm| H$s H$mZyZ Ho$ {Xem-{ZX©oem| _| ^r n`m©daU Am¡a nm[apñW{VH$s Ho$ {df`m| na Hw$N> Zht H$hm J`m h¡& ~hÿ-CËnmZ>, EH$-CËnmX> joÌm|, n`©Q>Z joÌm| Ho$ gmW-gmW nyao EgB©μOoS Ho$ {cE _§Oyar ~Zm_ BH$mB`m| Ho$ {Z`_Z H$s H$ht H$moB© ~mV Zht H$s JB© h¡& A{Y{Z`_ Am¡a {Z`_ XmoZm| _| hr `h ~mV gm$ Zht hmoVr {H$ {H$g ñVa na Am¡a {H$Z hmcmV _| {H$gr ^r EgB©μOoS Ho$ {cE "n`m©daU g§~§Yr _§Oyar' μOê$ar hmoJrŸ& {deof Am{W©H$ joÌ {Z`_m| _| Ho$dc BVZm H$hm J`m h¡ {H$ ha BH$mB© H$mo n`m©daU g§~§Yr {Z`_m| H$m nmcZ H$aZm hmoJm, Am¡a Ohm± H$ht Oμê$ar hmo dhm± Cgo {dH$mg Am`wº$ H$mo _§Oyar Ho$ {cE AmdoXZ _| àXyfU {Z`§ÌU g§~§Yr _§Oyar H$s AOu ^r XoZr hmoJr & 35
  36. 36. "EH$c-{I‹S>H$s _§Oyar' (single window clearance) H$s ì`dñWm Ho$ H$maU amÁ` Ho$ ñVa na g^r EgB©μOoS BH$mB`m| H$mo _§Oyar XoZm {dH$mg Am`wº$ Ho$ AYrZ _§Oyar g{_{V H$s {Oμå_oXmar h¡ Am¡a `{X _§Oyar H$s H$moB© eVoª hm| Vmo CZH$m nmcZ hmo ahm h¡ `m Zht `h ^r {dH$mg Am`wº$ hr XoIoJm& {deof Am{W©H$ joÌ {Z`_m| Am¡a A{Y{Z`_ _| H$moñQ>c aoJwcoeZ (VQ>r` joÌm| Ho$ g§ajU) g§~Yr àmdYmZm| H$m {OμH$« Zht {H$`m J`m h¡& grAmaμOS> (coastal regulation zone) A{YgyMZm § o 1991 Ho$ g§emoYZ 2002 _| cJ^J {~Zm {H$Ýht eVmoª Am£a {Z`_m| Ho$ EgB©μOoS Ho$ {cE OJh ~ZmB© JB© {OgHo$ AZwgma VQ>r` joÌm| _| AmZo dmco EgB©μOoS H$mo {g©$ EH$ ~ma hr AZw_{V coZr hmoJr Ed§ CgHo$ A§VJ©V AmZo dmcr BH$mB`m| na AZw_{V n«mdYmZ cmJy Zht hmoJm& CgHo$ Acmdm “n«XyfU a{hV” CÚmoJ, AmB© Q>r (gyMZm E§d n«m¡Úmo{JH$) CÚmoJ Am¡a AÝ` _Zmoa§OZ g§~§Yr gw{dYmAm| Ho$ {cE CRZ A{Y{Z`_ cmJy Zht hmoJm& Bg_| gaH$ma H$s `h Zm g_Pr h¡ {H$ n`©Q>Z Am¡a AmB©.Q>r go Ow‹So> CÚmoJ n«XyfU a{hV hmoVo h¡ Am¡a BZgo n«mH¥${VH$ g§gmYZm| na X~md Zht n‹S>Vm& ~§XaJmhm| Am¡a n`©Q>Z CÚmoJm| H$mo ~‹T>mdm {_cZo go, Omo Am{W©H$ joÌ H$s Zr{V`m| H$m ^r {hñgm h¢, VQ>r` BcmH$m| _| cmIm| _Nw>Amam| H$s amoOramoQ>r {N>ZVr Am`r h¡ & n`m©daU g§ajU Ho$ {cE nhco go hr amÁ` E§d {Oμcm ñVa na pñWV àXyfU {Z`§ÌU ~moS>© H$s ^y{_H$m EgB©μOoS> Ho$ g§X^© _| Añnï> h¡& Ho$dc A{YH¥$V ì`pº$`m| H$mo hr EgB©OS> _| OmZo H$s BOmOμV O¡go àmdYmZm| go n`m©daU g§ajU μ o Ho$ `o _wÔo Am¡a J§^ra hmo OmVo h¢& Bggo {Z{üV ê$n go ñdV§Ì emoYH$Vm©Am| H$mo Cg joÌ _| OmH$a n`m©daU na n‹S>Zo dmco {H$gr ^r Vah Ho$ Aga H$m Am§H$cZ H$aZo `m AÜ``Z H$aZo _| naoemZr hmoJr& gdmc `h ^r CR>m`m J`m h¡ {H$ Š`m| gaH$ma ñWmZr` Am¡a c§~o g_` VH$ {Q>H$ nmZo dmcr gV²V (gñQo>Zo~c) AW©ì`dñWm H$mo IË_ H$aHo$ EH$ E¡go d¡{œH$ ny±OrdmXr AW©ì`dñWm H$mo ~‹T>mdm Xo ahr h¡ {Oggo n`m©daU H$mo A{YH$ IVam h¡? 36
  37. 37. V àemgZ Am¡a ñdemgZ Ho$ _wÔo ^maVr` g§{dYmZ Ho$ AZwÀNo>X 243Q Ho$ I§S> 1 Am¡a >EgB©μOoS H$mZyZ 2005 Ho$ ^mJ 3.2 _| Am{W©H$ joÌm| H$mo `Am¡Úmo{JH$ Q>mCZ{en’ H$m XOm© {X`m J`m h¡& amÁ` gaH$ma| EgB©μOoS H$mo "Am¡Úmo{JH$ Q>mCZ{en' joÌ Kmo{fV H$a|Jr Omo ñdemgr, ñdm`Îm ZJar` BH$mB`m± hm|Jr& EH$ ~ma {H$gr EgB©μOoS> H$mo "Am¡Úmo{JH$ Q>mCZ{en' joÌ Kmo{fV {H$E OmZo Ho$ ~mX, `h {H$gr ^r ZJa nm{cH$m `m J«m_ n§Mm`V H$m ^mJ Zht ah OmEJm& BgHo$ Acmdm, EgB©μOoS> H$mo "ñdm`V g§ñWm' H$m XOm© hmoZo H$s dOh go EgB©μOoS> BH$mB`m± Am¡a {dH$mgH$Vm© ñWmZr` H$am| go ^r _wº$ ah|Jr& `h gm$ Vm¡a na 73d| Am¡a 74d| g§emoYZm| Ûmam ehar ñWmZr` {ZH$m`m| Am¡a n§Mm`Vm| H$mo {XE g§d¡Ym{ZH$ XO©o H$mo H$_μOmoa H$aVm h¡& O~H$s A^r μOê$aV n§Mm`Vm| H$mo {dÎmr` ê$n go _μO~yV H$aZo H$s h¡ Vm{H$ do {dH$mg Am¡a g_mZVm ~‹T>mZo Ho$ {cE gm_m{OH$ AmYma^yV g§aMZm _| {Zdoe H$a gH|$& BgHo$ ~Om` `{X EgB©μOoS na H$a cmJy H$aZo Am¡a {Z`§ÌU H$m ^r A{YH$ma n§Mm`Vm| H$mo Zht hmoJm Vmo μO_rZ, nmZr Am¡a Xygao àmH¥${VH$ g§gmYZm| H$m A{Z`{_V XmohZ J«m_rU Jar~m| Ho$ OrdZ na Am¡a ^r ~wam Aga S>mcoJm& {deof Am{W©H$ joÌm| H$mo “S>råS> $m°aoZ Qo>[aQ>ar” (AZw_m{ZV {dXoer n[ajoÌ) H$m XOm© XoZo go ñWmZr` cmoJm| H$s AnZr μO_rZm| Am¡a àmH¥${VH$ g§gmYZm| na go ñdm`ÎmVm {N>Z OmEJr& `o g§gmYZ ñWmZr` AW©ì`dñWm dmñVd _| amÁ` _| Am¡a AmOr{dH$m H$s ar‹T> h¢& gmW hr EgB©μOoS _| ñWmZr` ZmJ[aH$mo§ H$mo `{dH$mg Am`wº$’ {~Zm AZw_{V n«doe H$s _Zmhr go ^maV Ho$ ZmJ[aH$m| Ho$ H$ht ^r AmZo- Am¡a H|$Ð _| `~moS©> OmZo Ho$ _m¡{cH$ A{YH$ma H$m ^r C„§KZ hmoJm& Am°$ Aàydëg’ Ho$ ° nmg gmao A{YH$mam| dmñVd _| amÁ` _| `{dH$mg Am`wº$’ Am¡a H|$Ð _| `~moS©> Am°°$ H$m hmoZm ñWmZr` Aàydëg’ Ho$ nmg gmao A{YH$mam| H$m hmoZm ñWmZr` emgZ ì`dñWm Ho$ emgZ ì`dñWm Ho$ {cE g~go ~‹S>r MwZm¡Vr h¡& {cE g~go ~‹S>r MwZm¡Vr h¡& BgHo$ Acmdm, EgB©μOoS> A{Y{Z`_ _| `h ^r n«mdYmZ h¡ {H$ 37
  38. 38. BZgo g§~§{YV gmar {eH$m`V| Ho$dc amÁ` gaH$ma Ûmam {ZYm©[aV H$moQ©> _| hr Xm`a H$s Om gH$Vr h¢& `o Ho$dc {g{dc Am¡a EgB©μOoS go g§~§Yr _m_cm| Ho$ {cE hm|Jr& EgB©μOoS$ Ho$ {cE {ZYm©[aV H$moQ©> Ho$ Acmdm H$moB© AÝ` H$moQ©> EgB©μOoS go Ow‹So> _m_cm| H$mo Zht XoI gH|$Jt& {deof Am{W©H$ joÌ Ho$ Amgnmg g§ajH$ gr_m ~ZmZo Am¡a AZm{YH¥$V ì`{º$`m| H$mo KwgZo go amoH$Zo H$m _Vc~ h¡ {H$ {H$gr ^r gm_m{OH$ g_yh ({g{dc gmogmBQ>r g_yh) Am¡a ñdV§Ì EO|gr Ho$ {cE {dH$mg Am`wº$ H$s BOmμOV Ho$ {~Zm n«doe H$s _ZmB© Ed§ {H$gr hmXgo H$s pñW{V _| H$moB© Om±M H$aZm _wpíH$c hmoJm& EgB©μOoS A{Y{Z`_ {dH$mg Am`wŠV, AÝ` A{YH$m[a`m| Am¡a gaH$ma H$s Xoe Ho$ cmoJm| Ho$ à{V Odm~Xohr na nyar Vah Im_moe h¡& Eg.B©.μOoS>. Ho$ g§~§Y _| Xr J`r BZ Xbrbm| H$mo gaH$ma Am¡a Eg.B©.μOoS>. Ho$ Zw_mBÝXm| Zo `h H$hH$a Im[aμO {H$`m {H$ `o Ho$db g_` go nhbo bJmB© Om ahr AQ>H$b| h¢Ÿ {OZ_|$ gÀMmB© Zhr h¡Ÿ& AJbo AÜ`m`m| _| A{YH$ {dñVma go {d{^Þ amÁ`m| _| AmZodmbr EgB©μOoS n[a`moOZmAm| Am¡a CZHo$ à^mdm| na MMm© H$s J`r h¡Ÿ& Cggo nhbo MrZ, {OgH$m CXmhaU ha g_` {X`m OmVm h¡, Cgna JhamB© go ZμOa S>mbr J`r h¡Ÿ& BZHo$ {díbofU go `h Vñdra Am¡a gm$ hmoJr {H$ AmZodmbo g_` _o dmH$B© _o EgB©μOoS go {H$VZm $m`Xm h_mao Xoe Am¡a `hm§ Ho$ bmoJm| Img H$a Jar~m| Am¡a _μOXyam| H$mo hmoZodmbm h¡Ÿ& 1 cag.nic.in/reports/indir_taxes/1998_book1/overview.htm dm{UÁ` _§Ìmc` H$s àog [acrμO 9 $a 2006 2 {~`m°ÝS> X Am°°pãd`g, {~XdB© àw$„, «§$Q>cmBZ, {gV§~a 22, 2006 3 M§ÐeoIa, grnr, {à{_Q>rd EŠ`w_wcoeZ ~m` AZmXa Zo_, www.macroscan.com 4 B©nrS>ãcy g§nmXH$s`, Aàoc 2006 ñnoec BH$m°Zm°{_H$ μOmoÝg… AZZogogar {JdAdoO 5 http://www.macroscan.org/pol/apr00/pol040400Exim_Policy_3.htm 6 http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/articleshow/2015488.cms 7 AmB©Q>r {S´>dZ Am°°$emo[a¨J… X EŠμOoJaoQo>S> So>dcn_|Q> Am°°nmoÀ`©w{ZQ>r gr.nr. M§ÐeoIa Am¡a O`{V Kmof 8 _mZer Amea Am¡a [a$V _w_VmO, {S>ñßbog_oÝQ> BZ X Q>mB_ Am°$ S>oìhbn_oÝQ>, BÝ$moM|O B§{S>`m 9 http://www.icftu.org/www/pdf/corelabourstandardsindia.pdf 10 http://citu.org.in/wclass_aug02_a6.htm 11 dr d|H$Qo>e, coâQ> Bån¡ŠQ>, «§$Q>cmBZ 12 "dh H$mZyZr n«mdYmZ h¡ {Ogo n`m©daU Ed§ dZ _§Ìmc` Zo 1994 _| cmJy {H$`m Wm {OgHo$ A§VJ©V cJ^J 30 go μÁ`mXm lo{U`m| _| AmZo dmco Am¡Úmo{JH$ Am¡a ~‹S>r n[a`moOZmAm|§ H$mo n`m©daU g§~§Yr _§Oyar XoZo H$s n«{H«$`m go g§~§{YV {Xem- {ZX©oe h¢ & 38
  39. 39. ^maV _| O~ H$^r MrZr Am{W©H$ VOw~©} H$s MMm© H$s OmVr h¡, Vmo Bg_| MrZr cmoJm| MrZ _| {deof Am{W©H$ joÌ na AW©ì`dñWm Ho$ Bg _m°S>c go hþE MH$mMm¢Y Ho$ nrNo> H$s Ag{c`V dmñV{dH$ Aga H$s MMm© Zht hmoVr h¡& O~ H$^r MrZr Am{W©H$ VOw~©o H$s MMm© H$s OmVr h¡, ImgH$a ^maV _|, Vmo Bg_| MrZr cmoJm| na AW©ì`dñWm Ho$ Bg _m°S>c go hþE dmñV{dH$ Aga H$s MMm© Zht hmoVr h¡& n`m©daU Am¡a àmH¥${VH$ g§gmYZm| Ho$ ZwH$gmZ H$m Om`μOm ^r Zht {c`m OmVm h¡& gZ² 1978 VH$ MrZ H$s AW©ì`dñWm EH$ ~§X AW©ì`dñWm Wr {Og_| {dXoer VH$ZrH$ Am¡a {dXoer ny§Or {Zdoe H$m H$moB© ñWmZ Zht Wm& e|μOoZ {deof Am{W©H$ joÌ go MrZ H$s _mŠg©dmXr gaH$ma Zo EH$ d¡H$pënH$ (ny±OrdmXr) Am{W©H$ ì`dñWm H$s ewéAmV H$aZo Ho$ {cE à`moJ Ho$ Vm¡a na `o joÌ ewê$ {H$E Wo& {Xem{ZX©oem| Am¡a Zr{V`m| Ho$ _mÜ`_ go BZ joÌm| _| {dXoer {Zdoe H$mo AmH${f©V {H$`m J`m Wm& na§Vw EgB©μOoS {dH${gV H$aZo Am¡a CZna {Z`§ÌU H$m A{YH$ma amÁ` Ho$ hmW _| Wm& MrZ _| μÁ`mXmVa {dXoer {Zdoe hm±JH$m±J, VmBdmZ, OmnmZ, _H$mD$, X{jU H$mo[a`m, A_o[aH$m Am¡a O_©Zr go AmVm ahm h¡& {dH$mg Ho$ nhco XeH$ _|, H$n‹So>, OyVo, {~Ocr Ho$ N>moQo> gm_mZ Am¡a AÝ` l_ AmYm[aV CÚmoJm| H$m AW©ì`dñWm _| _w»` `moJXmZ ahm Wm& A^r ^r H$n‹S>m, ImÚ Am¡a no` VWm {Z_m©U gm_J«r BZ joÌm| Ho$ VrZ na§namJV Am¡Úmo{JH$ ñV§^ h¢& `o gm_mZ N>moQo> AñWm`r H$maImZm| _| ñWmZr` àm{YH$m[a`m| `m {ZOr ñdm{_`m| Ûmam g~-H$m°ÝQ´¡>pŠQ§>J Ho$ VhV {Z`m©V Ho$ ~mμOma Ho$ {cE ~Zm`m OmVm h¢& J¡n, E{S>S>mg Am¡a 39
  40. 40. ZmBH$s O¡gr ~‹S>r H§$n{Z`m§ g^r MrZr l_ H$m BñVo_mc H$aVr h¢& CXmhaU Ho$ Vm¡a na {g©$ ZmBH$s Ho$ 70,000 go μÁ`mXm g~-H$m°ÝQ´¡>ŠQ> MrZ _| h¢& BZHo$ A{V[aŠV gyMZm Ed§ n«m¡Úmo{JH$s Am¡a BcoŠQ´>m°{ZŠg, BcopŠQ´>H$ Am¡a {deof Am¡Oma, VWm Voc Am¡a noQ´>moHo${_H$c CÚmoJ VrZ ZE C^aVo CÚmoJ h¢& H$mJμO {Z_m©U, Am¡îmYr Am¡a dmhZ CÚmoJ ^r C^aVo joÌ _mZo Om aho h¡& ^maVr` g§X^© _| MrZ H$s EgB©μOoS Zr{V Ho$ à^md H$mo g_PZm _hËdnyU© h¡& amOZoVmAm| Am¡a Zm¡H$aemhm| go coH$a _r{S>`m VH$ 1980 Ho$ XeH$ Ho$ ~mX go MrZ Ho$ Am{W©H$ AZw^d go MH$mMm¢Y Am¡a _w½Y aho h¢& A~ ^maV H$m _Ü`_ dJ© MrZ H$s 1000 S>m°ca H$s à{V ì`{º$ Am` Ho$ Am§H$‹So> Ho$ nrNo> ^mJ ahm h¡& ^maV `{X dV©_mZ MrZr AW©ì`dñWm H$s ZH$c H$aZo Ho$ {cE V¡`ma h¢ Vmo h_| CgHo$ AZw^d H$s nyar gƒmB© OmZ coZr Mm{hE& Am§H$‹S>m| H$m YmoIm - Eogm A§XmμOm cJm`m J`m h¡ {H$ 2003 VH$ MrZ _| cJ^J 7000 ~‹So> – N>moQo> Am{W©H$ {dH$mg joÌ Wo& BZ_| Am{W©H$ Am¡a VH$ZrH$s {dH$mg joÌ, hmB©-Qo>H$ nmH©$, _wº$ ì`mnma joÌ, MrZr gaH$ma Ho$ B©nrμOoS Am¡a EgB©μOoS em{_c h¢& MrZr gaH$ma Ho$ òmoVm| go AZw_mZ òmoVm| go AZw_mZ Ho$ Ho$ _wVm{~H$ nyao Xoe Ho$ 6866 {dH$mg joÌm| _| go 70 à{VeV μO_rZ| _wVm{~H$ nyao Xoe Ho$ J¡aH$mZyZr VarH$m| go h{W`mB© JB© Wt Am¡a BZH$m BñVo_mc ^r Zht {dH$mg joÌm| _| go {H$`m J`m& ~mX _| MrZ Zo CZ VWmH${WV joÌm|, Ohm§ go Ho$dc 70% _| μO_rZ| ~‹S>r g§»`m _| {H$gmZm| H$mo ~oXIc {H$`m Wm Am¡a {OZ_| n`m©á J¡aH$mZyZr VarH$m| go AmYma g§aMZm Zht Wr, Ho$ {dH$mg H$mo {ddoH$nyU© T§>J go AmJo h{W`mB© JB© Wt Am¡a ~‹T>mZo H$m ¡$gcm {H$`m& cJ^J 4800 go μÁ`mXm Eogo VWmH${WV BZH$m BñVo_mc ^r joÌm| H$mo aÔ H$a {X`m J`m Am¡a ZE Am{W©H$ joÌm| H$s ñWmnZm Zht {H$`m J`m& {Zc§{~V H$a Xr JB©&1 40
  41. 41. eharH$aU go C^ar g_ñ`mE§ Am¡a gm_m{OH$ {damoY - {dœ ~¢H$ Ho$ EH$ AÜ``Z _| nm`m J`m h¡ {H$ EH$ {dH$mgerc Xoe _| à{V ì`{º$ gH$c Kaocy CËnmX 1000 S>m°ca Am¡a eharH$aU H$s Xa 30% hmoZo na BgH$m VoμOr go eharH$aU hmoJm& A^r MrZ H$m à{V ì`{º$ gH$c Kaocy CËnmX Am¡a eharH$aU H$s Xa Bgr AZwnmV _| h¢& MrZ H$s eharH$aU H$s Xa (Hw$c Am~mXr _| ehar Am~mXr H$m AZwnmV) 1990 go coH$a 2000 VH$ 1.1% VH$ ~‹T>r h¡& Ohm§ EH$ Amoa eharH$aU ~‹T>m h¡ dht Xygar Amoa, EH$ Am{YH$m[aH$ [anmoQ©> Ho$ AZwgma hmc Ho$ gmcm| _|, “Am_ ì`dñWm H$s g_ñ`mE±” ^r ~‹T>r h¢& 2003 _| 58,000 gm_m{OH$ {damoY E§d n«{VÛ§X go Ow‹S>r KQ>ZmE± hþB© Wt Omo 2005 _| ~‹T>H$a 87,000 hmo JB©& JwAm§JS>m|J àm§V H$s amOYmZr JwAm§½μOmo Ho$ Amgnmg H$m nc© [ada So>ëQ>m Am{W©H$ ê$n go MrZ Ho$ g~go {dH${gV joÌm| _| go EH$ h¡& `h àdmgr _μOXyam| H$s g~go μÁ`mXm g§»`m dmco BcmH$m| _| go EH$ h¡, A§XmμOZ 2 H$amo‹S> 50 cmI cmoJ& [anmoQ>m] Ho$ AZwgma `hm± OZdar-AŠQy>~a 2004 Ho$ ~rM 867 {damoY àXe©Z hþE {OZ_| 50,000 _μOXya em{_c Wo&2 àXe©ZH$m[a`m| Am¡a nw{cg Ho$ ~rM qhgH$ P‹S>n| Z Ho$dc MrZ Ho$ ^rVar BcmH$m| _|, ~pëH$ YZr VQ>r` BcmH$m| _| ^r hþB© h¢, Ohm± H$B© EgB©μOoS h¢& e|μOoZ Jm§d : MrZ H$m nhcm {deof Am{W©H$ joÌ e|OZ, {Ogo E{e`m H$m g~go VoOr go ~‹T>Vm eha H$hm OmVm h¡, MrZ H$m nhcm (Hw$c nm±M _| go) μ o μ {deof Am{W©H$ joÌ Wm& EH$ g_` H$m _Nw>Amam| H$m Jm±d e|OZ, 1980 _| hm±JH$m±J Ho$ nmg hmoZo μ o Ho$ H$maU {deof Am{W©H$ joÌ ~Zm`m J`m Wm& {deof Am{W©H$ joÌ ~ZZo Ho$ ~mX e|OZ H$s Am~mXr 1980 go 2000 VH$ ha gmc 16.5% H$s μ o Xa go ~‹T>r h¡& `hm§ H$s g~go ~‹S>r Im{g`V h¡ {H$ AñWm`r {Zdmgr `hm± H$s Hw$c Am~mXr na N>mE hþE h¢& MrZ H$s nm±Mdt amï´>r` OZJUZm Ho$ n[aUm_ ~VmVo h¢ {H$ e|OZ H$s Am~mXr _| go μ o ~hþg»`H$ 83 % “AñWm`r Am~mXr” h¡& § CnZJam| _| VoOr go ~‹T>Vr hþB© Am~mXr go BZ BcmH$m| H$s pñW{V Iam~ hmo JB© h¡& e|OZ _| ehar μ μ o Jar~r, n`m©daU àXyfU, AnamY Am¡a A{Zdm`© {ejm H$s An`m©á ì`dñWmE§ O¡gr g_ñ`mE± n¡Xm hmoH$a {dH$amc hmo JB© h¢& $adar 2004 go e|μOoZ å`w{Z{gnc H$m°nm©oaoeZ Zo 350 {_{c`Z dJ© _rQ>a go “J¡aH$mZyZr” {Z_m©U Am¡a ~gmhQ> hQ>mZo Ho$ {cE EH$ ~‹S>m “A{^`mZ” ewê$ {H$`m h¡ {OgZo cJ^J Xg cmI cmoJm| H$mo à^m{dV {H$`m& 41
  42. 42. J«m_rU Ed§ ehar ~oamoOJmar- 1978 go 2000 Ho$ ~rM J«m_rU Am_XZr N>h JwZm ~‹T>r, co{H$Z `h ehar Am_XZr Ho$ ~am~a Zht ah gH$s, Am¡a 1990 Ho$ XeH$ Ho$ Am{Ia _| {H$gmZm| H$s Am_XZr _| R>hamd AmZo cJm Am¡a J«m_rU ~oamoμOJmar ~‹T> H$a H$ar~ 20% hmo JB©& J«m_rU AW©ì`dñWm Ho$ {~Iamd Am¡a ~‹T>Vo H$am| Am¡a ewëH$m| Zo H$B© {eH$m`Vm| H$mo OÝ_ {X`m& gm_y{hH$ {damoY H$s J{V{d{Y`m| _|, Omo Bg Xm¡amZ Hw$N> àm§Vm| _| amoμO hmoVr Wt, gaH$mar A{YH$m[a`m| H$mo AmdoXZ XoZo go coH$a qhgH$ àXe©Z VH$ em{_c Wo& ehar BcmH$m| _|, ~oamoμOJmar A§XmμOZ 15% Am¡a MrZ Ho$ CÎma-nyd© Ho$ “añQ> ~oëQ>” eham| _| 25% _mZr JB© Wr& 2000 go, O~{H$ μO~aXñV Am{W©H$ {dH$mg hþAm h¡, gaH$ma Ûmam McmB© OmZo dmcr gaH$mar Am¡a gm_y{hH$ CÚ_m| go cmoJm| H$mo Zm¡H$[a`m| go {ZH$mcm Om ahm h¡& nyao Xoe _|, 1999-2004 _| A§XmμOZ 2 H$amo‹S> 70 cmI 80 hμOma H$maImZm| _| H$m_ H$aZo dmco l{_H$m| H$s H§$n{Z`m± Á`mXmVa Zm¡H$[a`m± JBª& MrZr JUamÁ` Ho$ gaH$mar òmoVm| Ho$ AZwgma 2005- J«m_rU BcmH$m| Ho$ 06 _| 60 cmI cmoJm| H$s Zm¡H$[a`m± OmZo H$m A§Xoem Wm& àdmgr `wdmAm| H$mo H$m_ na aIVr h¢ _OXyam| H$m emofU - ~Vm`m OmVm h¡ {H$ EgB©μOoS _| H$m_ H$aZo Š`m|{H$ `o H$s OJh ì`mdgm{`H$ n[aga Ho$ ~Om` `mVZm {e{da O¡gr μÁ`mXm AcJ-WcJ ahVo cJVr h¡& ~mha OmVo g_` H$_©Mm[a`m| H$s Vcmer cr OmVr h¡, h¢, H$_ n‹To>-{cIo àmBdoQ> JmS©> ~mha Ho$ amñVm| H$s {ZJamZr H$aVo h¢, CËnmXZ H$s hmoVo h¢ Am¡a BÝh| J{V na {ZJmh aIVo h¢ Am¡a XoIVo h¢ {H$ H$_©Mmar {H$VZr Xoa _μOXya `y{Z`Zm| H$s ~mWê$_ _| {~VmVo h¢& g¡Õm§{VH$ ê$n go J¡aH$mZyZr hmoZo Ho$ ~mdOyX H$moB© OmZH$mar Zht `W«r BZ dZ’ ¡$pŠQ´>`m± Am_ h¢ {OZ_| àmoS>ŠeZ âbmoa, ^§S>maU hmoVr& BZ H$maUm| go H$s OJh Am¡a H$_©Mm[a`m| Ho$ Amam_ H$aZo H$s OJh EH$ hr BZH$m emofU B_maV Ho$ VrZ ñVam| na h¢& AmJ go ~M {ZH$cZo Ho$ amñVm| na H$aZm AmgmZ hmoVm AŠga Vmco hmoVo h¢ Am¡a {I‹S>{H$`m| na Om{c`m± hmoVr h¢&3 h¡& 42
  43. 43. H§$n{Z`m± Á`mXmVa J«m_rU BcmH$m| Ho$ àdmgr `wdmAm| H$mo H$m_ na aIVr h¢& Š`m|{H$ `o AcJ-WcJ ahVo h¢, VwcZmË_H$ ê$n go H$_ n‹To>- {cIo hmoVo h¢ Am¡a BÝh| _μOXya `y{Z`Zm| H$s H$moB© OmZH$mar Zht hmoVr& BZ H$maUm| go BZH$m emofU H$aZm AmgmZ hmoVm h¡& BZ_| go μÁ`mXmVa 16 go 24 Ho$ ~rM H$s `wdm _{hcmE± hmoVr h¢, {OÝh| Xygao H$_©Mm[a`m| H$s ~{Zñ~V μÁ`mXm _ohZVr Am¡a H$_ {dÐmohr _mZm OmVm h¡& BZH$m H$ama `m Vmo N>moQ>r Ad{Y H$m hmoVm h¡ `m hmoVm hr Zht h¡& BZ H$_©Mm[a`m| _| 16 gmc go H$_ C_« Ho$ ~ƒo ^r hmoVo h¢, hmcm±{H$ ~mc l{_H$m| Ho$ BñVo_mc H$mo gm{~V H$aZm _wpíH$c hmoVm h¡& nmZr H$s g_ñ`m - AmO Xw{Z`m _| nmZr H$s H$_r dmco Xoem| _| MrZ H$m ñWmZ 13 dm± h¡ {OgH$m à{V ì`{º$ Oc g§gmYZ (CncãYVVm) 2,250 Š`y{~H$ _rQ>a h¡& `h Xw{Z`m Ho$ Am¡gV H$m Ho$dc EH$ Mm¡WmB© h¡& MrZ _| nmZr H$s g_ñ`m μO~aXñV Am¡Úmo{JH$ àXyfU Ho$ H$maU Am¡a J§^ra hmo JB© h¡& {dœ ñdmñÏ` g§JR>Z (1998) Ho$ AZwgma `hm§ Ho$ eha Xw{Z`m Ho$ g~go μÁ`mXm àXy{fV eham| H$s gyMr _| h¢& D$Om© H$s H$_r - dV©_mZ _| MrZ _| D$Om© H$s ~hþV H$_r h¡, 25 go 30% VH$, Omo MrZ Ho$ Am{W©H$ {dH$mg H$mo amoH$ gH$Vr h¡& Ohm§ MrZ _| nmZr H$s EH$ Amoa MrZ H$s AW©ì`dñWm Ho$ VoμO {dH$mg Zo D$Om© H$s _m±J g_ñ`m O~aXñV μ ~‹T>m Xr h¡, dht Xygar Va$ `h D$Om© Am¡a H$ƒo _mc H$s _m±J hr h¡ Am¡Úmo{JH$ àXyfU Omo ~hþamï´>r` H§$n{Z`m| H$mo na_mUw D$Om© g§`§Ì Am¡a ~‹So> nZ{~Ocr Ho$ H$maU Am¡a J§^ra ~m±Y ~ZmZo Ho$ {cE MrZ H$s Amoa ItM ahr h¡& Bg n«H$ma {dH$mg hmo JB© h¡& {dœ Am¡a Cggo hmoZo dmco {dZme H$m XwîMH«$ Mcm Am ahm h¡& ñdmñÏ` g§JR>Z (1998) Ho$ AZwgma AÝZ gwajm H$m gH§$Q> - MrZ Ho$ gm_Zo AmO AÝZ gwajm H$s ^r `hm§ Ho$ eha Xw{Z`m g§H$Q> h¡& gdmc CR>m`m Om ahm h¡ {H$ “MrZ 21dt gXr _| AnZr Ho$ g~go Am~mXr (cJ^J 1 Aa~ 400 H$amo‹S>) H$m noQ> H¡$go ^aoJm?” Á`mXm àXy{fV eham| μ »moVr H$s μO_rZ H$mo VoμOr go hmo aho Am¡ÚmoJrH$aU, Amdmg, amO_mJm] H$s gyMr _| h¢& 43
  44. 44. Am¡a aoc _mJm] Ho$ {Z_m©U Ho$ {cE hñ§VmV[aV H$aZo Ho$ H$maU MrZ _| IoVr H$s μO_rZ H$_ (cJ^J 20% H$s H$_r) ah JB© h¡ & Xoe Ho$ AZmO H$s n¡Xmdma 1% H$s Xa go ha gmc {Ja ahr h¡& Eogm A§XmμOm h¡ {H$ Bggo 2030 _| 20 H$amo‹S> 16 cmI Q>Z H$s H$_r hmoJr & IoVr _| qgMmB© Ho$ Acmdm nmZr Ho$ AÝ` ~‹To> ~hþVoao Cn`moJm| (CÚmoJ) go hmcmV Am¡a ^r Iam~ hmo JE h¡&4 MrZ Ho$ A_ra VQ>r` joÌ Ed§ {nN>‹So> Am¡a Jar~ Am§V[aH$ joÌm| Ho$ ~rM C^aH$a AmZo dmcr {df_Vm H$s ImB©, MrZ Ho$ gdm©{YH$ n«g§{eV EgB©μOoS H$s g~go ~‹S>r AmcmoMZm ahr h¡& `h ñdrH$maVo hþE MrZ H$s gaH$ma Zo ^r AnZo 11d| n§Mdfu` `moOZm (2006), _| EH$ Eogr Zr{V H$s Oê$aV na μOmoa {X`m {Og_| CÚmoJm| go H¥${f H$mo g_W©Z XoZo H$s ~mV H$hr JB©, {Oggo Xoe Ho$ {nN>‹So> hþE Am§V[aH$ joÌm| H$s AW©ì`dñWm H$m {dH$mg hmo& `Ú{n, MrZ Ho$ Ûmam 2003 _| {díd ì`mnma g§K H$s gXñ`Vm coZo go `h gm{~V hmoVm h¡ {H$ MrZ H$s gaH$ma nyar Vah go ~mOma na AmYm[aV AW©ì`dñWm Ûmam {dH$mg Ho$ amñVo na h¡& gmW hr Eogm ^r AZw_mZ cJm`m Om ahm h¡ {H$ ZB© CXmadmXr ì`dgm{`H$ Zr{V`m§, {dXoer H§$n{Z`m| Ho$ {cE ñWmZr` ~mOma H$mo ImocZo Ed§ gaH$mar CÚmoJm| H$mo Yrao - Yrao ~§X H$aZo H$s dOh go A~ {H$gmZm| Am¡a _OXyam| H$s pñW{V nhco go μÁ`mXm Iam~ hmoZo dmcr h¡& ^maV, 1990 Ho$ XeH$ go Am{W©H$ gwYmam| H$s amh na h¡ Am¡a V~ go BgZo _wS> H$a Zht XoIm h¡& ‹ EgB©μOoS> hm| `m Z hm|, H$am| _| Ny>Q>, H$m°nm©oaoQ> KamZm| H$mo cw^mZm, àmH¥${VH$ g§gmYZm| H$s {~H«$s ^maV _| ^r {nN>co XeH$ go VoOr go Omar h¡& `h _mZZo H$m H$moB© H$maU Zht h¡ {H$ {OZ _wpíH$cm| μ H$m gm_Zm AmO MrZ H$a ahm h¡ Am¡a AmZo dmco gmcm| _| H$aVm ahoJm, dmo ^maV Ho$ gm_Zo ^r Zht AmE±Jt& 1 upgrading China’s competativeness, Dr. Filie Beule & Prof. Danial Van Den Bulcke, Institute of development policy and management, 2003 2 {O`m{~Z {cZ, So>dcn_|Q> E§S> _¡ZoO_|Q> Am°°$ _oJm{gQ>rμO BZ MmBZm, {S>nmQ©>_|Q> Am°°$ gmoec So>dcn_|Q> argM© g|Q>a, X ñQo>Q> H$mC§{gc Am°°$ nr.Ama.gr. MmBZm 3 H$m°n© dm°M AmcoI (www.corpwatch.com) 4 Wm°_g c_, gmoec AZaoñQ> BZ MmB©Zm, _B© 8 2006, H$m°J«|eZc [agM© g{d©g 44

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