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Introduction toUserCenteredDesign1. What it is?. Philosophy and Principles.2. How to use it? methodology and basic tools.3. Beyond UCD. Alternatives methodologiesTOPICUCDIn shortDesign notes: User Centered Design
is a Design methodologyin which...1. What it is UCD?needs, wants and limitationsof the end users of a product.are considering during all stagesof the design process*Analysis, design, implementation and DeploymentFirst deﬁned by DonaldNorman in 1986. Become a dominant paradigm indesign of products, interfaces and applications design. Check: ISO 13407 (1999)
“”philosophyfrom system-centered design to user-centered design1. What it is UCD?The system adapts to the userand not the opposite(as systems-centered or engineering-driven design)
principles1. What it is UCD?Early focus on users, tasks and environmentstructured and systematic information gathering (interviews, observation, etc).Users are involved throughout design and development.Empirical measurement and testingIterative designTesting with real users. Focus on ease of learning and ease of usedesign, test with users, reﬁne, test with users again, reﬁne…until its right.123
methodology2. How to use it?Basic process*Sources: UXPA and W3.orgAnalysis PhaseMeet with key stakeholders to set visionInclude usability tasks in the project planAssemble a multidisciplinary team to ensurecomplete expertiseDevelop usability goals and objectivesConduct ﬁeld studiesLook at competitive productsCreate user proﬁlesDevelop a task analysisDocument user scenariosDocument user performance requirementsDesign Phase and Evaluation phase (iterative)Begin to brainstorm design concepts andmetaphorsDevelop screen ﬂow and navigation modelDo walkthroughs of design conceptsBegin design with paper and pencilCreate low-ﬁdelity prototypesConduct usability testing on low-ﬁdelity prototypesCreate high-ﬁdelity detailed designDo usability testing againDocument standards and guidelinesCreate a design speciﬁcationImplementation PhaseDo ongoing heuristic evaluationsWork closely with delivery team as design isimplemented.Conduct usability testing as soon as possibleDeployment PhaseUse surveys to get user feedbackConduct ﬁeld studies to get info about actual useCheck objectives using usability testing
methodology and tools2. How to use it?Basic tools and techniques by process*This just illustrates a typical process of UCD applied to designing web applications.Analysis PhaseData gathering methods (interviews, observation, etc)User/Audience analysisTask/Purpose analysisAI analysisWorkﬂow analysisDesign PhaseConceptual/mental modelNavigation designStoryboards, wireframesDetailed designMockupsFunctional prototypesEvaluation PhaseCognitive walkthroughsHeuristic evaluationGuidelines reviewsUsability testingImplementation PhaseHeuristic evaluationUsability testingDeployment PhaseUsers feedback toolsSystem trackingUsability testingCheck: servicedesigntools.org
3 basic tools2. How to use it?personasUseful...to create a common shared understanding of the user groupfor which the design process is built around.to prioritize the design considerations by providing a context of what the userneeds and what functions are simply nice to add and have.Why to use it?ﬁctional characterwith all the characteristics of the user(of the primary stakeholder group. Also secondary and anti-persona).based onﬁeld research process (observation, stakeholders info, interviews, etc)What?
2. How to use it?create a social context to which the personas exist in (an actual physical world).the story-form helps because is easy to understand for everyone.ﬁctional storyabout the "daily life of" or a sequence of eventswhere personas are the main character of the story.the story should be speciﬁc of the events happeningthat relate to the problems of the primary stakeholder group.based on assumptions and data.Why to use it?3 basic tools scenarioWhat?
2. How to use it?Describe the interaction between an individual and the rest of the world (a short event)normally include details about an Interaction represented with a serie of simple steps to achieve a goal(based in the character) (cause-effect scheme)Normally expressed in a 2 columns table: Actor / word.Other special type of Use case are: essential use case(abstract form, describes the essence of the problem)helps to:make problem easier to handle for designers(because brake problems or complicated task into smaller bits)help identify useful levels of design work(the actual low level processes the problem is involved)better understanding of the problem splitting it into small parts (analytical methodology)Why to use it?3 basic tools use casesWhat?
3. Beyond UCDalternativesSame D.Norman has criticized this dominance and proposed as an alternative theActivity Centered Design. ACD explain according to Norman, why so many notUCD products are successful.ACD switch focus from user into activities that were to be performed.Alan Cooper developed other methodology alternative named Goal-DirectedDesign (GDD) Uses personas and their goals from a business approach.“What do people desire?” / “Of the things people desire, what will sustain a business?” /“Of the things people desire that will also sustain a business, what can we build?”ACD and GDDACDGDDUCD seems to be the dominant paradigm today, but there is not the only view.
4.REFERENCESUCDhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/User-centered_designhttp://www.usabilityprofessionals.org/usability_resources/about_usability/what_is_ucd.htmlhttp://www.w3.org/WAI/redesign/ucdhttp://www.servicedesigntools.org/tools/ACDhttp://www.jnd.org/dn.mss/human-centered_desig.htmlhttp://www.jnd.org/dn.mss/activitycentere.htmlGDDhttp://www.uie.com/articles/goal_directed_design/http://www.dubberly.com/articles/alan-cooper-and-the-goal-directed-design-process.htmlhttp://www.cooper.com/journal/2008/05/six_sigma_and_goaldirected_des.htmlDesign notes: User Centered Design