Paysage de la Culture de la Vigne de l’Ile de Pico Fernando Luís Oliveira Ipperpaesaggi d’Europa – Gruntvig Workshop
La Découverte de l’Archipel des Açores
 
 
Protection de la Nature et  Récompenses Environnementales
Área total do PNIP – 23 146,96 ha (cerca de 32% da área terrestre da ilha) Parque Natural da Ilha do Pico
Reserva  Natural Montanha do Pico PICO01 Caveiro PICO02 Mistério da Prainha PICO03 Furnas de Santo António PICO04 Gruta da...
L’Ile de Pico: noire et mystérieuse
Paysage de la Culture de la Vigne de l’Ile de Pico
Faits Historiques <ul><li>La Viticulture commence avec le peuplement </li></ul><ul><li>Fin des 16 ème  et 17 ème  siècles ...
Faits Historiques <ul><li>Emigration – En particuliers vers le continent américain </li></ul><ul><li>Les grandes propriété...
Sol – Rocheux et Sec
A partir de la pierre est produit un vin unique Il était déjà présent sur les tables du Pape, des Tsars et des familles ro...
Ce vin venait très certainement de vignes comme celles-ci
De raisins aussi doux que ceux-là
Ce qui en fait un Paysage si spécial …  ou l’absence de sol! Le sol!
Mère Nature a permis aux Picoenses de faire pousser des vignes sur un sol rocheux
L’Architecture des champs murés
Creusant dans la roche à la recherche d’eau
Roulant les barriques vers l’océan pour qu’elles soient embarquées sur les bateaux
Dessinant des chemins côtiers à travers la lave solidifiée
Construisant des édifices à partir de la pierre basaltique
Manoirs
Chapelles
Couvents
Caves et Chais
Mais principalement des VIGNES
 
 
A force de transformer le Paysage, les habitants de Pico furent à leur tour transformés par le Paysage... ... et ils conti...
S’ils sont tristes, ils chantent et dansent
Mangent et boivent
Prient l’Esprit Saint
Les Hommes sont aussi durs que ce paysage de basalte
Protected Area <ul><li>Patrimoine Mondial – 987 hectares </li></ul><ul><li>Zone Tampon – 1924 hectares </li></ul><ul><li>Z...
Près de la Mer
Près du Volcan – C’est la Montagne de Pico qui a donné son nom à l’Ile
Patrimoine Mondial – UNESCO Paysage Culturel <ul><li>Equilibre entre Homme et Nature </li></ul><ul><li>La pierre improduct...
 
Parc Naturel de Pico Cabinet Technique de la Culture la Vigne
Mission Il revient au Cabinet Technique du Paysage de la Culture de la Vigne de l’Ile de Pico d’appuyer techniquement le C...
Projets les plus Importants Maintient de la culture traditionnelle de la vigne en currais
Projets les plus Importants Réhabilitation des vignes en currais Avant
Projectos mais Importantes Réhabilitation des vignes en currais Projectos mais Importantes Après Projets les plus Importants
Projets les plus Importants Architecture: Correction de dissonances et récupération de ruines Avant
Projets les plus Importants Architecture: Correction de dissonances et récupération de ruines Après
Intervention Publique Infrastructures sous-terraines en zone urbaine Avant
Intervention Publique Electrification de zones urbaines Après
 
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Pico Island - Workshop "Hyperpaysages d'Europe" - Fernando Luis Oliveira

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Presentation of the guest from Pico Island.

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  • My presentation is about a World Heritage Landscape, the Landscape of the Pico Island Vineyard Culture
  • But first of all I would like to tell you that the first reports about the discovery of the Azores date back to 1427. There are however other theories that say the this archipelago had been discovered before that date.
  • The Azores are an autonomous region of Portugal, with a governmental structure and a parliament. The political link with Portugal is given by the presence of a minister from the Portuguese Republic nominated by the President of the Republic. For geographic reasons, there is a division in three groups of islands: the western group composed by Flores and Corvo, the Central group, composed by Faial, Pico São Jorge, Graciosa and Terceira and the Easter Group comprising the islands of São Miguel and Santa Maria
  • The Azores are a sanctuary for whales and dolphins. At least 25 species of whales have already been sighted in the archipelago. This is why whale watching is a significant tourist attraction in the Azores, and Pico is the island where whale watching started and where you have more success when you go out in the ocean to whatch these mammals.
  • Considering Nature Protection, Pico comprises the largest Nature Park of the Azores. Labels like world heritage, Natura 2000 network, Ramsar, and others are very common in the Archipelago, most specially on Pico island. Pico was nationally nomimated as one of the 7 portuguese nature wonders under the inscription of a big relief. Considered as a whole with the title of the “Volcanic Landscape of Pico Island. Islands magazine elected Pico as one of the best 20 islands to live in. BootsnAll considered a pedestrian trail inside the World Heritage site one of the 8 most unique trails in the world, and as a whole the Azores were considered the second archipelago of sustainable development.
  • If one is able to reach the top of the volcano of Pico you will not be indifferent to the strength that comes from the interior fo the island; you are in presence of an enigmatic, dark and misterious island. These adjectives may sound negative, but that is not the reason why they are here. Pico is really dark but green,misterious but just because you will never get to understand it completely. And that’s a good challenge for adventurous people.
  • And because of the uniqueness of this island, because of the uniqueness of the vineyards that were installed that UNESCO inscribed the Landscape of the Pico Island Vineyard Culture as world heritage in July 2004.
  • First of all, I would like to point our some historical facts: Viticulture on Pico is contemporary of the settlement. It started almost immediately near the areas where people settled. Only by the end of the 16 th century and in the 17 th century did Viticulture see the great increment mostly because of the role that the religious orders played. The monks had the knowledge and the technology and the rocky fields where nothing would grow were there with no one demonstrating any sort of interest in them. At the same time noble families in Faial paid a little bit more attention to that monstrous island in front of them and took over most of the fields that presently are part of the World Heritage site. Viticulture had its climax in the mid-nineteenth century but unfortunately it suffered a tremendous setback with the appearance of a bug - Philoxera – and also fungi – the oidium. These two factors almost destroyed all the vineyards on Pico Island.
  • The most prosperous economic cycle of Pico and Faial Islands had come to an end, and as a consequence a lot of people emigrated to the United States, specially illegally on board of the American Whaling boats. And here I would like to refer that this fact is the reason why Pico had such a great tradition in whale hunting. Large estates were subdivides and locals were able, for the first time in their lives to own a peace of land. The abandonment of fields was almost total but some of these fields were replanted by an American type of vine, which sowed more resistance to bugs and fungi. Only in the 1950’s did people start a new rehabilitation process .
  • Why is this area a World Heritage site? What is so unique in this landscape that made UNESCO inscribe it as a Cultural Landscape. Looking at the soil, you see rocks, lava and a dry area with no water streams, lakes, and where people had to dig on the rocky soil to fetch water
  • But the amazing thing is that from that bizarre soil we were able to produce a unique wine that was present at the tables of the royal European families, at the Vatican, etc.
  • Is such an area people wonder how it is possible to heve such a beautiful green color on top of these rocks. We simply show them that these rocks have fractures and cracks and that people used those fractures and cracks, made them bigger, put some soil there and planted. And the result is brilliant!
  • Grapes are very sweet, because there is always heat during the maturation process of the fruits… even during the night, because, during the day, the basalt stone absorbs the heat from the sun, from 7 am till 9 pm and releases that heat during the night.
  • This is something special. A landscape where you have no soil but in which you can grow things!
  • That is why we dare say that mother nature turned some of us into gods. They were really sympathetic because they said: “Here are these stones, turn them into bread.” Jesus Christ turned water into wine. We were able to do that with stones!
  • Unique is the structure of the walled fields. The landscape is filled with walls that are oriented from East to West and intersected by perpendicular wall forming very small rectangles which we call “currais”
  • At the sam time, unique is the process of having water. People had to dig the rocky surface until they reached friatic areas with deposits of water, but due to the contact with the sea water this was a poor water with a high level of salt in it.
  • The way wine was taken from Pico to Faial was also unique: People had to dig ramps to roll the barrels to the sea. Is some cases the small boats could reach the coast but in other cases supposedly barrels were rolled into the ocean and peaople had to push them till the boats.
  • Roads are also unique: they were drawn in the rocky lava by the ox carts
  • The basalt was used in every construction on the island
  • In manor houses
  • In the dozens of chappels in the world heritage area
  • In the monks summer houses, cellars, warehouses, distilleries, etc.
  • That is why we say that stone is always present
  • Vineyards are impressive
  • Especially if you have the chance of seing them from top
  • The strength of this landscape is immense
  • That is why we say that at the same time the men were transforming the landscape according to their needs, the landscape was also tranforming htese same men. Even today, this landscape affects us, transforms us.
  • Cultural traditions are also relevant. In former times people gathered after a hard working day to sing and dance.
  • Our gastronomy is also rich and varied. Fish, beef, pork, cheese, fruit and, of course wine.
  • One of the rich traditions is related to religiosity. Promisses to the holy spirit are very common and have specific reasons. Explicação
  • The landscape is tough and people are also tough. A portuguese writer said the Pico inhabitants were the strongest and sain men he had ever met.
  • Let’s take a look at the world heritage site
  • The noble areas are located near the sea
  • And of course near the volcano, Pico mountain that gave the name to the islan.
  • Pico Island - Workshop "Hyperpaysages d'Europe" - Fernando Luis Oliveira

    1. 1. Paysage de la Culture de la Vigne de l’Ile de Pico Fernando Luís Oliveira Ipperpaesaggi d’Europa – Gruntvig Workshop
    2. 2. La Découverte de l’Archipel des Açores
    3. 5. Protection de la Nature et Récompenses Environnementales
    4. 6. Área total do PNIP – 23 146,96 ha (cerca de 32% da área terrestre da ilha) Parque Natural da Ilha do Pico
    5. 7. Reserva Natural Montanha do Pico PICO01 Caveiro PICO02 Mistério da Prainha PICO03 Furnas de Santo António PICO04 Gruta das Torres PICO05 Monumento Natural Lagoa do Caiado PICO06 Lajes do Pico PICO07 Furnas de S. António PICO08 Silveira PICO09 Mistério de S.João PICO10 Terra Alta PICO11 Ribeiras PICO12 Zona do Morro PICO13 Áreas Protegidas para Gestão de Habitats ou Espécies P.P.C.V Ponta da Ilha PICO14 P.P.C.V Ponta do Mistério PICO15 P.P.C.V Zona Norte PICO16 P.P.C.V S.Mateus/S.Caetano PICO17 P.P.C.V Zona Oeste PICO18 PP da Zona Central PICO19 Áreas de paisagem protegida Porto das Lajes PICO20 Ponta da Ilha PICO21 Canal Faial- -Pico/sector Pico PICO22 Áreas protegidas de gestão de recursos PNIP Parque Natural da Ilha do Pico
    6. 8. L’Ile de Pico: noire et mystérieuse
    7. 9. Paysage de la Culture de la Vigne de l’Ile de Pico
    8. 10. Faits Historiques <ul><li>La Viticulture commence avec le peuplement </li></ul><ul><li>Fin des 16 ème et 17 ème siècles </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ordres Religieux – Franciscains, Jésuites et Carmelites </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Propriétaires Nobles de l’Ile de Faial </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Début – Milieux du 19 ème siècle (entre 5 000 000 et 7 000 000 litres de Verdelho) </li></ul><ul><li>Déclin – 1866 – seulement 48 000 litres de vin sont enregistrés </li></ul>
    9. 11. Faits Historiques <ul><li>Emigration – En particuliers vers le continent américain </li></ul><ul><li>Les grandes propriétés furent divisées et transformées en plus petites puis acquises par les travailleurs locaux </li></ul><ul><li>Abandon partiel mais significatif et plantation de cépages de moins bonne qualité: l’Isabella </li></ul><ul><li>Milieux du 20 ème siècle – réhabilitation partielle des propriétés abandonnées </li></ul>
    10. 12. Sol – Rocheux et Sec
    11. 13. A partir de la pierre est produit un vin unique Il était déjà présent sur les tables du Pape, des Tsars et des familles royales européennes
    12. 14. Ce vin venait très certainement de vignes comme celles-ci
    13. 15. De raisins aussi doux que ceux-là
    14. 16. Ce qui en fait un Paysage si spécial … ou l’absence de sol! Le sol!
    15. 17. Mère Nature a permis aux Picoenses de faire pousser des vignes sur un sol rocheux
    16. 18. L’Architecture des champs murés
    17. 19. Creusant dans la roche à la recherche d’eau
    18. 20. Roulant les barriques vers l’océan pour qu’elles soient embarquées sur les bateaux
    19. 21. Dessinant des chemins côtiers à travers la lave solidifiée
    20. 22. Construisant des édifices à partir de la pierre basaltique
    21. 23. Manoirs
    22. 24. Chapelles
    23. 25. Couvents
    24. 26. Caves et Chais
    25. 27. Mais principalement des VIGNES
    26. 30. A force de transformer le Paysage, les habitants de Pico furent à leur tour transformés par le Paysage... ... et ils continuent de l’être!
    27. 31. S’ils sont tristes, ils chantent et dansent
    28. 32. Mangent et boivent
    29. 33. Prient l’Esprit Saint
    30. 34. Les Hommes sont aussi durs que ce paysage de basalte
    31. 35. Protected Area <ul><li>Patrimoine Mondial – 987 hectares </li></ul><ul><li>Zone Tampon – 1924 hectares </li></ul><ul><li>Zone Protégée – 3078 hectares </li></ul>
    32. 36. Près de la Mer
    33. 37. Près du Volcan – C’est la Montagne de Pico qui a donné son nom à l’Ile
    34. 38. Patrimoine Mondial – UNESCO Paysage Culturel <ul><li>Equilibre entre Homme et Nature </li></ul><ul><li>La pierre improductive est transformée en moyen de subsistance </li></ul><ul><li>Patrimoine construit varié </li></ul><ul><li>Vins d’une qualité exceptionnelle – le Verdelho –exportés jusqu’au Brésil, aux Indes Occidentales et même en Russie, où il fut servi à la table des Tsars, ainsi qu’a celle des familles royales européennes </li></ul>Le paysage qui résulte de la Culture de la Vigne de l’Ile de Pico relève du génie créateur d’un peuple et de sa lutte pour sa survie dans une nature qui ne leur offrait que peu de ressources
    35. 40. Parc Naturel de Pico Cabinet Technique de la Culture la Vigne
    36. 41. Mission Il revient au Cabinet Technique du Paysage de la Culture de la Vigne de l’Ile de Pico d’appuyer techniquement le Conseil de Gestion du Parc Naturel de Pico, de gérer le plan de gestion des zones protégées, de proposer des campagnes de promotion et de sensibilisation et de coordonner les actions des différents agents ayant une influence dans la zone protégée
    37. 42. Projets les plus Importants Maintient de la culture traditionnelle de la vigne en currais
    38. 43. Projets les plus Importants Réhabilitation des vignes en currais Avant
    39. 44. Projectos mais Importantes Réhabilitation des vignes en currais Projectos mais Importantes Après Projets les plus Importants
    40. 45. Projets les plus Importants Architecture: Correction de dissonances et récupération de ruines Avant
    41. 46. Projets les plus Importants Architecture: Correction de dissonances et récupération de ruines Après
    42. 47. Intervention Publique Infrastructures sous-terraines en zone urbaine Avant
    43. 48. Intervention Publique Electrification de zones urbaines Après

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