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21st Century Trends, lssues and Challenges in Philippine Education

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Trends In Philippine Education
Trends In Philippine Education
Trends In Philippine Education
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Trends In Philippine Education
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  1. 1. VIRTUAL UNIVERSITY - VHEN HIGHER EDUCATION GOES TO CYBERSPACE eana4t/1i,4zn 74Rt& S. Rkarh'?, ..Whether we are conscious or not, educatign is A Sage once said This the for:ce ttat will, more than any other, shape the world's future." the great mission placed on every educational statement underscores institution in this century. This new millennium has brought many cliallenging changes by leaps and bounds, most especially in the field of education' For instance, The P.hilippine Higher Education Syqtemat present is confronted with formidable challenges. lt has to undergo radicaltransformation and renewal if it is to effectively play its unprecedented role in the present day society, and more so, to be a vital component of economic, iecnnotogical and political development in the national and international scenar:io. ln a world of turbulent changes, there is a need.for a new vision and paradigm of higher education calling for major changes in policies, pracii""r, r.n""n" oi service deliveries and linkages with local and global institutions. To realize these vision and directions.it is necessary to re-engineer curricula using more focused and appropriate methods so as to go beyond cognitive mastery of disciplines and apply new pedagogical and didactical approaches - The 21st century has aptly been called the "century of inventions", "technological developments" and "globalization" Thete has been ah incessant bombardment of new terminology, like internetware, group ware, body neta, hyper-organizers, digital libraries,'virtual.classroorns, chat rooms, automated tutors, cookies, pbrtals, cybercafes, e-commerce and cyber schools. These teffns stream across the attention of every student, worker, computer user everydaY. We are indeed, in a NEW generation being awed by the ravages of person of t.he . igqhnologY. As a .prqof of this imp.agt, lipg.tt{aga4ine's
  2. 2. NJ The Trends 21st Century Trends, lssues and Challenges in Philippine Education century was not a great political leader or an economic GURU; instead the honor went to a scientist, probably the greatest science genius the world has ever produced, ALBERT EINSTEIN. It is nqt sufficient for future leaders to be well prepared only in the with academic and technical fields but to be prepared also to think and act global leadershiP qualities. This goes to show that the world as we know it today, came about because of the advances and innovation in science and technology' the fast changing requirements of communications technobgy, the advances in computer, internet highway, and virtual campuses. They are all important products of the century that you and I belong to and it would be hard to deliver quality and relevint education withoutthem. Thd 21st century is called the age of 3 cs - competition, change, Higher education has always had an important international dimension, and allthese scientific adrlances ushered in new modes of learning, greater mobility, and global competition creating a new world for learning dnd teachinq. The qubstion is, can we meet the challenges in the global arena, now that higher education institutions and their students are facing a world dominated by significant changes thatwe have never ever experienced in recent history, a kind of global seismic shift in human history. As we get deeper into the 21st century the advancement of cuttingedQe science and technology, usher us to an accelerated globalization in and customer. To survive, ed ucational institutions must implement changes geared toward this future society, continuously and rppidly so.that.cusiom"rs of education, the students, may compete in the world stage- And the paradigm shift requires fundamental changes in 3Ps: personS; processes, and products. The persons (i.e. teachers) must adop!to the new age, adjusting the processes of education, in order to create the Products 6.e. new human resources,) An example of this is the. Quezon City Poltytechnic University (ocPU). Moving on the right direction it has tied up with TESDA and the industries in uiing the KOICA (Korean Organization for lnternational Cooperation Agency) lcT infrastructure. Not to mention, the Polytechnic university of the Philippines (PUP) that introduced some innovative approaches like putting up the ICT infrastructdre massive training and development of teachers and including the lcT in the syllabi of practically all disciplines. ICT being an enabler in education becombs a great tool for the institution to become efficient and effeclive in its education endeavor. every aspect of our lives. We have entered the so-called global age and ih this ever-shrinking globe, we are all rapidly becOming global citizens, re'quired to develop a global mindset if we are to succeed. The COAwas able to change the Philippine government accounting and automate it by getting the assistance of about thirty faculty members from PUPwho weretrained on lCT. Thegreat challenge to mankind, who are sharing one globe, critical Perhaps it is not too much to say that if the business firms were the key institutions of the past hundred years, because of their role in organizing production and mass creation of products, the universityln partnership with industries will now become the central institution of the next hundred years because of its role as the new source of innovation and knowledge" The government's education agenda must be aligned with these chal- for its survival and prosperity, is to think and work globally, as we are facing a globalworld where people are interdependent and where individu- als of various origins, societies, and cultures are bound to meet, to mix, and to compete. The 21st century educational inStitutions stand in dire need of a paradigm shift, calling for a revolutionary and fresh approach. As time passes from the old industrial age to the new information age, the issues and challenges facing University leaders are increasingly transcending national borders. Theexistence of diversity in nationalsystems moving towardquality assurancil in.an age of innovation, globalization, global student mobility, transnationaleducation, online learning are some of the common issues faced by our leaders in Higher Education. Subh issues demand crossborder solutions, knowledge sharing, and collaboration in order for solutions to be identified lenges. The bigger challenge now aside from building ICT awareness among the populace, is the issue of not really the demand for skills but the supply of skills. lt is in this critical period that'the government's education agenda must be aligned with these challenges. Education institutions aSide from creating awareness of lCT, mu5t also be encouraged to focus. on the potentialof technology, in designing and providing education based onthe new learning needs of tomorrow'sworld citizens. The task of reformitlatirrg education frt for the'21st century .individuals is.being .denrandeci, at the sarne.time. potentials of ICT in
  3. 3. 21st Century Trends, lssues and Challenges in Philippine Education cducaiion promises to broaden access to educational opportunities to larger numbers of people who would othentvise be denied that opportunity. It is noteworthy to acknowledge that our Philippine president Gloria MacapagalArroyo, in her 1 O-point government agenda declared, all public high schbols to, at least have computer laboratories and all state universities and colleges to have internet cafes to have it accessible to the community they are serving and for call centers to be accessible in the regions. This will enhance communications facilities. lt is the universities ind colleges that are expected to meet this challenge head on' The call center industry is an emerging industry in the Philippines anci.is regarded as one of the fastest growing industries in the world led by the demand for offshore call centers. lt is estimated that 112,000 people were working in call centers in the Philippines in 2005, bringing in revenues of US$ 1 .12 billion for this year. The growth of call centers continues to be rapid' up fro'm the 72 regrstered in late 2003 when the Asian Call Center Review reported that the Philippines ranked first in the offshore call center industry for theAsian Region, surpassing I ndia. . Since 2000, the call center industry has grown by leaps and bounds. The Philippines Board of lnvestments (BOl) estimates the growth rate of this lndustry since 200'1 at 100 percent annually, with less than 1,000 seats in 2000 to more than 69,000 at the end of 2004. ln2004,the Philippines already captured 20 percent of the total world nnrketshare in contact center services. The Philippine government estimates that the Philippines could capture 50 percent of the total world englrs[speaking market in 2008. Aside from contributing 12 percent to the Ph*ppines gross national procluct (gnp); the industry is also the fastest grorring job provider for filipino college graduates. lhe information and communications technology division of the BOI reporid that the call center industry experienced a growth rate of 70 percer{in 2005, making it the most dynamic of all sectors in the Philippine irbrmation technology indusiry. lt has been estimated that as many as '13C$00 would have been working in all call centers in the Philippines by the:nd of 2006. According to industry forecasts, more than a million filipinmwould be employed in the call center industry with more than usdl2billion in revenues in the year 2010. . l-bweverwhile it is rmpressive and encouraging to continue quoting such stistics, there is a need to be cautious about tlre communication aspecrof the call center incJustry. The Trends The call center industry is basically a service industry that serves as Call a vital bridge between caller:s and business clients of the centers. personnel who need to understand the lines are handled by individual needs and peculiarities of callers, identify the solutions to problems, and answers to questions. ln short, it is a service that is critically dependent on effective communication, and in the case of the Philippines, communication in english. personnel lmportance of effective communication in enqlish for call center ln order to ensure that the call center industry in the Philippines achieve and maintain a level of excellence and continue to grow at its impressive pace, we must ensure that the communication skills of our call center personnel are adequate, if not exceptlonal. As english is the medium usqd by the call center industry here, proficiency in english and theacquisition of communication sktlls are important to ensure effective communication, satisfied callers for the industry to gain credibilitY.' Effective communication is not just about being able to speak or write english lt depends on how english is spoken or..written. There can be effectrve communication only if callers understand what center personnel are trying to convey, whether spoken over the phone, written in email or through any other form of electronic transmission. lf there is no understanding, there cannot be any communication. ln the globalised context of the call center industry, the need to be able to communicate effectively is even more critical. lt is therefore imperativ,.: that call center personnel constantly seek to improve their proficiency ;*','els of english, and at the same time learn the basics of business comnrunication - a willingness io listen, the curiosity to ask anci probe, r-naking ihe effort to know your audience and accommodating cross cultural differences for better understanding and eventually more effective communication. Most times, call cenier personnel are dealing with faceless strangers rvho impatiently demand answei's to questions and solutions to problems Fiiiding these answers and solutions is just part of the responsibil ity Comnrunicating effectively these answers and solutions to the callers who need them is the other part. Working in a call center should not be viev;ed as just a matter of answering phone calls and enrails or redirecting ihem lt is about facing tne constairt challenge of bringing a satis.faci,:)ii' rluicome.tQ every queiy tir'-ough clear, adequate, anci effective coi-t.r-
  4. 4. 21st Century Trends, lssues and Challenges in philippine Education munication skills using the english language, rierein lies the challenge. lt is the responsibility of every call centei peisonnel to rise to that challenge. education nowand . 'ln sumnraiy,have iil the principres in the future, shourd strive to pro: duce peopre who and varues tn"i*irr to be themselves, to design their own destiny, to make "rpo*Jn"rn their own choices, -: - 'to safeguard diversity and to live in harmony iftogl"in"r.' --- A I(ARUNUNGAN FESTIVAL: ,SCHOOLS OF THE PEOPLE AS A PHILOSOPHY OF EDUCATION FOR THE 2IST CENTURY More than the skiils and abirities of how to make a livinq, a special efrort'shourd be made to teach tnem now to in the.broadest and most profound sense ot tnat teim, t" 6E t" ri";;;;;i;r"fri.it#r, a citizen proud of its identity and curturar regacy, peace-roving,'r"rpon"irl iltu"" sible and tree; a generation prepared to rive urideiine rute ottawi, glnur"tion guided by the tenets of t'uth, justice, f'eedom, rovb, equity, ,nd"p"".u. The challenge is ours, the work too is ours but ret us reme^mber, we are not alone in the pursuit of what is offered in the world. rogethei let us all move on and make the difference. tr Background ':ir'::'"'- You have heard enough about our situation in science and"mathematics education, that we rank number 36 out of 39 in the TIMSS, that perfonnance on the NationalAchievement Test (NAT) is below 50% in so Mean Raw Math Scores: PSHS vs selected countries o- o to 12 Moan Rtw Soloncc Soottc: PIjHS v! lel€ct€d countrlog
  5. 5. 21st Century Trends, lssueg and Challenges in Philippine Education 10 The 2-to many ichools and school divisions anO so oh. The following slides from the presentation of Dr. Vivian Talisayon during the NationalAcademy of Science and Technology roundtable discussion las{ February 16,2Q07, 'special Scierice Classes: Summary of Findings" showthat even Philippine Science High School (PSHS), ourtop science high school, performs only atthe mean of Singapore, Korea and Hong Kong in mathematics and significantly below the mean in science. At the same time, we hear good news: our young people winning prestigious competitions abroad in science and.mathematics. At the roundtable discussion of the NAST last Febrirary 16, 2007, we were inspired'by the work of the Mathematics Trainers' Guild (MTG) and the outstanding achievements of the students in theirtraiping programs. ' But the same pattem emerges a few bright lights and victories and a mass of poor performance. While we are proud of the bright lights end victories, lwould like to recall a quote from a Japanese mathematics educetlon colleague, who said, "We believe that a country can only march 'es fest eS its slower members.' - , The Philippines will march as fast as the majority of our students end not at the pace of the few at the top. ' ior the last five decades, there have been numerous large-scale lntoryentlons to improve the Philippine School System. There was the ItgrrMeth ln 1960s, the Secondary Education Development Project (SEDP) lnthe'1980s;the recent Revised Ba.sic Education Curriculum (RBEC) and otho]8. : The dominant approach in'these projects has been through the followlng steps: 1- , . to bring ln the new approach whlch was usuelly theory de. ,rtvedandfrorntheUnltedSletos.,, ,".,.'i develop materials based on these approaches to do pilot studie's on small, selected scales, which usually conclude that the new approach is better, and, 4-given that necessary funding is available, implement on a na- tionalscale. ln this implementation scheme, teacher training is done following what is called the cascade model. This means cascading the training according to the organization of the Philippine school system, through the following levels of training: . . n,,,,*. . nationil level training for regionaltrainers regional leveltraining foidivision trainers _,.,..: division level training for district trainers o district level training for school trainers . . 11 3- l There have been many conferences like ours and many resolutions that have been made. Trends school level tiaining. for teachers in the schooli Because of the number of students and teacher-s in the Philippine school system and financial and time constraints, thb training periods tended to become shorter and shorter as the training cascaded down, until at the level cif schoolteachers, the training was just too short. While the tfaining of the regional trainers might be for six months, by the time the training gets to the schoolteachers it might be justtwo weeks. Worse, because the training had to be compressed into such tight schedules, harassed administrators would send teaqhers for the training just to comply with quotas, even if theywere not going to be teaching the subject matter that was the tofic of the training. ln previous talks, I have compared the impact to thatof a flash flood, too much in so short a time. The new curriculum and textbooks wipe out the past but are not absorbed. As one reflects on this mode of educational reform, one notes the following: the focus is on the intended curriculum: The greatest amount of time is given to the development of textbooks and materials and the hiqher- leveltrainers. lt is also from the top, from education experts from universities and from abroad. The timb frame is too short. .. lt is quite clear that ihis typical approach in educatiohal reform in the Philippines.has npt succeeded to move our educational system fonvard. The Way Forward on the Mass (Some Relative Succgss Stoiies) , ln thle addrsgc, I would like to,ehare eome rElafile Euccesd stofles . ",l
  6. 6. ,l22lstCenturyTrends,lssuesandChallengesinPhilippineEducation on a relatively large scale. I shall use as a frameworr 1983 for a conference in JaPan. " The p"p"r lwrote in Addressing the social Gontext of Philippine schools: Macro-Problems and Micro-Problems . After a decade of working on math educatidn, I shared my reflections in a 1983 paper for a Regional Conference on Mathematics Educa- tion held in Japan: ,,we.can classify problems of mathematical education into two lypes: first'we might calf micro.problenis or problems internal to mathematithe cal educ€tion. These would relate to questions o{ curriculum, teacher train. ing, textbooks; use of calculators, problem solving ahd the.like. The,sec- , r ont we mightcall macro-problems. These are problems affecting ppth' ematics education because of pressures from other sectors Of society: economy, politics, culture, language, etc. One of the features of a developed sotiety is a reasonable differentiation of sectcirs and functions of society. While given sectbrsare, of course, interdependentand affectone another, they also have some reasonable autQnomy. School budgets may increase or decrease, but they have some stability and so it is possible to plan. Teachers get a sufficient (though not high) salary so thely can concentrate on their teaching chores. But in contrast, strqctures in developing societies are not sufficiently developed to provide (for example) education and culture with sufficienifreedom from the pressures of politic's and economics. Teacheis may be called upon to perform many civic duties to the detriment of their classroom work. Their salaries may not be sufficient for them'to be able to concentrate on their work. Budgets may be unstable and information and opinion tightly controlled. o - ' ln the firstsituation (of developed countries), it makes sense to con- centrate on internal problems of mathematical'education. One has enough scope and freedom within the educational system to study and plan changeswith hope of implementation. ln the second case, however, the problems which one experiences most intensely are not internallo mathematics education, but due to pressures from outside society. Until some structures are established to provide some scope and freedbm for the educational system, it is less usefulto concentrate studies and plans on curriculum or other internal concerns. ' , . . I then went through a more'detailed analysis of the challenges of. mathematics education from this perspective. ln that same paper, I concluded as follows: -;--:.: : . . . ."The.improvernent .1 , of mathematics education in developing countries Trends 13 such as those of SoutheastAsia requires contin uing impr:ovement of teacher - training, curriculum, textbooks (the internal concerns of mathematical education). However, their improvement is only possible if mathematical education has enough space and freedom (within the pressures of economics, culture, organization of education) so as to be able to plan and implement. lt is the experience of developing countries that pressures from other structures of society (economic, political, cultural) are often too strong for the system of mathematics education to work reaiistically on its internalconcerns." . From the experiences that will be described below, we can look at this approach to improving education in the social context of philippine schools as: creating the absorptive capacity of schools and clusters of schools to take in and implement significant reform and improvement (attending to the macro problems) Targeted and focused interventions to address priority nebds, both academic and non-academic (attending to thd microproblems). This means meeting the schootswhere they are, letting next level targ"is;ith tnem, and moving them to the next level. Some PromisingApproaches and Lessons Learned From Them l. The Third Elementary Education project (TEEP) and School Based Manageme;rt (SBi,l) our first example of a"large-scale reform project that tackled the macro-problems (creatbd absorptive capacity in the school and community} and micro-problems (teacher trainlng, textbooks, lesson guides, etc.) is the Third Elementary Education project (TiED. The Third Etementary Education project (TEEp) is a nine-year php 12.78 public investment project (1998-2006)of the Department of Education with externalfinancing from the world Bank and Japan Bank for lnternational cooperation. The project supports the goalof improving ftre quaiity of public elementary education through decentralization. spJcificaily, it aims to: ' l improve rearning achievement, compretion rates and access to quality eiementary education in 23 of the poorest provinces in the country buitd the institutional capacityjoi the DepEd to steer reforms through teacher effectiveness and better rnanagement at all lev- J
  7. 7. nl The 142lstCenturyTrends,lssuesandCbaltengesinPhilippineEducation . actively involve the community and tfie localgovernment in a large- scale effort to attain quality education' Engagingthecommunityandcreatingabsorptivecapacityand bringing in taigeted inputs. The Third Elementary Education Project defin-es ichool blsed management (SBM) as the decentralization of de- cision-making authority frori central,'regional, ahd division levels to individual school sites, uniting school heads, teachers, students as well as pardnts, the local government units and the community in promoting effective schools. lts main goalis to improve school performance and stu- dent.a.chievement, where decision-making is made by allthose who are closely involved with resolving the challenges of the individual schools so that the specific needs of the students will be Served more effectively' lts obiectives were to empower the school heads to provide leadership and to moUitize thd community as well as local government units to invest time, money and effort in making the school a better place tQ learn, thusimproving the educational achievement of the children. ln practice, the Schooi Based Manage#ent approach means: starting from where the schools are rather than where they ought to be .adopting school based management to the '"terrain" Or contexts of the 23 divisions School Based Management is a frameWork that integrates several micro factors at play in SBM schools, namely, ' ' . leadership (e.g. dynamic school heads) strong LGU-school or school-PTCA partnership fund managemenVtransparency measu res and resou rce'generation access to basic inputs llke classrooms and textbooks , . . ' . . focused teacher-competency developmenUlNSETs support system at the districVdivision levels The community has to be involved and TEEP would not proceed in a given community, unless the community raised 10% counterpart fundiirgThis wotrld bmpunt to about P10,000.00. There is a very touching story in Romblon. Acommuhity wanted so badly to get a School lmprovement and lnnovation Fund for their school (this was the. overall name of the project support fund) that they.each contributed funds from their own meager incomes. Theircontribution was mostly in coins. Unfortunately, aftercounting .allthe coins,on the deadline for approving proiects, they had'only P9000 of' Trends 15 the expected 1 0000. The district supervisor was so mo.ved by the community efforts that she gave the remaining money. lmpact. For the TEEP schools, school based management has resulted in a bigger share of schools crossing lhe75% mastery leveland the 60% near-mastery level in the NationalAchievement Test. TEEP and non:TEEP schools started on the same level in SY 2002-2003 but relatively more TEEP schools attained mastery tevel ih SY 2005-2006. please refer tgAppendix 1 for the comparator groups as well as the tables showing the percent surpassing the 75% mastery level as well as the 60Yq masteiy level, in terms of overall performance aS well as specific performance in Math and Science. It is worth noting the following' , ,, '' With the exception ofAklanl all clusters experienced a decline in scores and rankings from SY2004-2005 to SY2005-2006. Nevertheless, TEEp SBM provinces sustaided their lead relative to all other clusters (cf. Ap- pendixl). There is a relatively stronger improvement in mathematics:22.6%9ELS and 18.2 Non-ELS achieving 75% mastery level, allothers are lower, with Pampanga cldsest at 16.6%. At 60% mastery level, the performance gap is even clearer, with TEEP ELS at 59.5o/o ?nd non-ELS a|46.3% (cf . Appendix 1). The improvement in mathematics ib much stronger colnparqd to improvement in science (cf. Appendix 1). The importance of addressing the implemented c&rriculum, the day-to-day work of teachers. what accounts for the significant improvement in mathematics? I received a phone call in August last year from Dr.,Cynthia Bautista, excited about some results of their end:. project evaluation of the Third Elementary Education project. There had been significantly greater improvement in mathematici in the National Achievement rest (NAT) in several divisions of the TEEp. The resource persons in the study conducted by the Japan Bank for lnternational cooperation (JBlc), "Lessons from the Third Elementary Education.Project: Transforming Education cjn the Ground" attributbd the very.good p6rformance of TEEp in Mathematics,rto the Math Teach_ ers' Lesson Guide series prepared by Dep Ed and Ateneo which rEEp printed and distributed to all its teachers. written by Master teachers in elementary and.high school, the series drew fiom.existing,text- bPqksand improved on them.. , ,I
  8. 8. The Trends 17 Education and Challenges in Philippine 21st Century Trends' issues 16 ' Mathematics and Science TG foltowing tables showthe scory:I compa rator in the NationatncnieveriJniilstottneTEEP schools and the groups: Math 200213 , be that the central problems gontlnue-to We shared with Secretary Roco of textbooks, classlack the lack of teachers, n"",0 to.t".cher-training, needs' rooms and other basic the situation in public schoolg' We then suggested that considering e.9., 200314 200415 2005/6 TEEP SBM 46.1 54.1 62.0 59.0 AKI.AN+ 49,9 52.O 58.2 56.4 CAGAYAN+ 46.6. 51.2 57.1 53.1 ' ' '. ' lack of textbooks for teachers lack of library facilities or library materials absence of experts teachers may eonsult' a self-contained to provide textbooks for students and the need is reference material (guide) for teachers' 42.1 47.5 54.6 49.7 PAIllIPANGA+ 46.9 55.1 61.3 56.2 NCR 420 50.7 60.5 47.7 students ARMM 38i4 M.1 44.5 41.8 Total 46.0 52.3 58.9 il.7 able. Moving trom tne preuiou. (Elementary'Algebra - 1sr year' lntermediate diScipline based ysarlnd Advanced 4lgebra and Trigo"pptJ""n Algebra _ 2nd yeaq e"olll*"iry - 3io apart the existing books and nometry _ 4h year), meant iiteratty tearing on' (Later algebra parts, tne geometry parts' and.so for the GeometrY is necessary on, we realized now fiuin improvement in Geometry were not very evident in the SEDP p"lt. in" o"nciencies -llolLo+ foi all high school The Dep Ed was able to provide Math textbooks ir," iime of former secretary Roco. The series il;;; ratio) ouring series availi"pioJu"bo tor iti stuoents was the onry complete (spiralapproach) to the seop aplroach (1 : 1 iliffii"dtlilnl Science 200213 20a314 200415 2005/6 lpiral curriculum.) TEEPSBM 44.7 50.0 60.4 50.2 AKI-AN+ 46.7 47.5 58.2 49.1 .GAGAYAN+ 44.7 46.8 55.7 45.3 level since no comThis move could not be done for the elementary pf"t" i""todo[ series from Grade 1 to Grade 6 was available' were designed The Lesson Guidis prepared by Dep Ed and Ateneo Each lesson Guide into help thateachers in iniit iay+o-ciay teaching. 41.3 4.4 il.5 44.7 cluded: ILOILO+ PAMPANGA+ 45.0 50.2 60.5 48.2 t{cR 43.2 47.9 60.3 43.1 ARMM 40.5 .40.2 46.7 37.2 Total 44,4 48.1 58.0 47.1 Lesson Guidbs in MathUlirat are these Lessgn Gu'ldes? The -oir;in uI g th; t"ttn.of.f:T"t Dep Ed seqetary,Ra emat#il; 200:l to discuss what might be Roco. He invited u. to J*"&ing in .luty ;jiil il;ililffiGGdorrnance. of, students,in the different zubjeot'areas. objectives for the lesson develoPment of the lesson suggested examPles and exercises higher order thinksuggested teaching strbtegies with provisionsfor (Ml) and values integrarg"ir.irr. (HoTS), niuttipte inteltigences tion Allwork in the preparation of the lesson guides was a team effort among speciaF tn" fri"it"r t""'"h"r, from public schools, the Dep Ed curriculum i.t experienced,teachers from theAte.neo de Manila Grade'School ' | Hrgh ind "il School'asv'retl'aq the other''lesuit schools'' '' ' -: '' ' ''
  9. 9. The Trends {9 tt218tCenturyTrends,lssuesandChallengesinPhilippineEducation The preparation of Math Lesson Guides was a large-scale effort wlthin a shoritime frame. The Lesson Guides for High School Mathematics were completed within August 2001 - March 2002 while the Leeeon Guides foi Elementary were prepared beginning December 2002 untilApril 2003. Teacher training was conducted for 1,971 high lohool mathematics teachers in 2002 and 2,210 elementary math-' 'cmatics teachers in 2003. , a The leeson learned from this initiative on Lesson Guides is worth notlng: ' ' Focusing'on prioviding anough textbooks, teacher guides or work(teacher bOOkS.and working patiently with the teachers to use these well progress on'a large t""li;, Frlnlng) is a way of nnaking lt lS also important to note that the success of the TEEP schools Wlth ho Math Lesson Guides depended in great part on progress in'the. aOOhl Ovironment of TEEP schools brought about by school-based manSchool Based Management created the environment for reform, fgCmd. ,hd aborptive capacity to make change. ll" hru Pt{ect ssPEEd and ACED fOf gecond example is a smaller scale effort by theAteneo Center Development to see what it takes to help bring up poor schools, mainly in Payatas, Quezon I Bbttonal ihintry City. From rdsearch Ateneo had done iri the early 1990s (led by Dr. PftrhtLicuanan), it was seen that what differentiatefl high perform- ' ptilc elementary,schools from low performing ones' given the lamaFnomic and demographic situation; was the leadership of the ednctsl and the support of the community. We used this as a frame*otltl'our work with delected public elementary schools. ,lng , (Caloocan CitY)From this project theAteneb Center for Educational Development (ACED) leamed significant lessons and insights on'how to fuse macroLvel goals and micro-levet initiatives and involvement. Project. SSPEEd proviJeO a framework on how institutions can assist public schools depoor velop and atthe same time create impact in the surrounding urban communfies lvhen Project ssPEEd ended in 2004, ACED pursued a closer partnership with four public elementary schools in the 2nd district Of Quezon City - Payatas BAnnex Elementary School Payafias G. Elementary School' Lupang Pangako Elementary School Bagong Silangan Elementray School Given the population of Payatas, these are very large schools. C4rclty Building for Schools in Payatas fb School nex EbmdntarySchoot(Quezon City) and Kalayaan elementary iZOOf , Mr. Washington Z. Sycip, Mr. Alfredo Velayo and Fr. , lhhtJdo F, Nebres, S.J., initiated Project SSPEEd or Sectoral Sup'j.glt 3Public Elementary Education. Concerned with the'declining project aimed to provide , $tths of education in the country, this 'lttitltto particular public elementary schools patterned after the lltUhtent and experience of Ateneo de Manila in the Third Elemen!$;:3.,,0n Project (TEEP). Project SSPEEd provided supportto ,,lmf0lng partner schools from 2001 to 2004 : P. Burgos Elernen,"i$fy'lhoi'iManila), Payatas Elementary School (Quezon, City), ,'TU{iisltangan Elementary Schooj (Quezon City),.Payatas B:An: This closer partnership with the schools Ueganbitn data gathering. Much workw?s then done to bring thecommunity together (principal, teachers, parents, baringgay officials, students) and do strategic planning and prioritizing of goals and objectives with them. This partnership, which ACED has carefully nurtured these past years has led to notable results- Because the need for buildings aqd classrooms carne from the shared and careful planning by the whole community, Mayor Belmontewas impressed and moved fonrrrardto build the needed buiidings, classroorns and comfort rooms. Thd private sector also came in with other needed inputs; like textbooks, workbooks, etc. The principals and teachers have become more confidentand effective in their areas of responsibility as a result of empowerment programs and teacher-training programs. Student achievement has improved in differen{ degrees. The most dramatic improvement is in Lupang Pangako Elementar| School where the ranking of the school in the division ievel has moved up from rank 94 in 2003 to rank 18 in 2004 to rank 16 in 2005 and to rank 9 for 2O07. : From Projiect SSPEEd and thb work of ACED in Payatas schools, we have seen two things: th€ crucial role of the school principal and the community and the importance of a holistic ahd collaborative approach in schooldevbloprrnent and improvement We have also seen that local governTgrlt,.e,spgcially Mayors, area majol qar$er in ipproving the schools.
  10. 10. 20 21st Century Trends, lssues and Challenges in philippine Education The The lesson tearned from the work with the public scnoos in project tSPEEd and ACED is quite ctear.. . The way forward on the mass is to invest in capacity building for all maJor players: the principal, teachers, parents and barangay omcianlWneh thc principaland the community are organized ano navJgood plans, there cen be very good response from local government and t[e private sector. lll. Bylldlng Leadership and community support rhrough synergeia Thr thlrd exampie is the work of Synergeia Foundation. I tr . synergeia Foundation, lnc. is a coalition of individuals, institutions tnd organizations working together to improve the quality of basic educa_ tlon, synergeia and its partners implement systemitic programs to improve the provision of basic education in more than 115 muiicipalities in thr country. I has focused on building leadership and community sup. ..Synergeia pott through the foflowing : FOcue on Local Schoot Board (provincial, City, Municipat) . . . .Engage whole community drcldlng on priority -' Focus on elementary schools, beginning at Grade 1, esp English mdMathematics Provision of basic instructionar materiars (resson prans for day to dry ure of teachers, workbooks for children,,auoio-vlsuai r"tlri irrl The programs of synergeia have arready resurted in significant im= provcments in the reading and mathematics proficiency ofllementary Itudents, and rnore importanfly, in local governance. tn monitoring the , pcrlbrmance of participating schocirs, syneigeia ,r"r tf'" roriJrinl-rn"trl.r. Test --^^ 2000 ,i, t , , L- Deped . : gynergela in Buracan.'synergeia began working in Buracan in under the readership of Govern'or.Josie: de ra cruzl over 620,000 ?lqlll fror grades one to six in 496 etdmentary ,"noois in e;6J-n;;; ltllcfryUng il the Qvneroeia n1ogr31n z_ooo rrra-tionaiRl,rieve*ent .ll {',9 Test (NAT), pupils had an average score of 39.40% in Mathematics and 40.23Yo in English. Six yegrs {ater,'after interventions of Project JOSIE, pupils achieved a MT average score of 64.39% in Mathematics and 65.45% in English. Synergeia in Lipa City, tsatangas,Among the 17 communities that pioneered the reading proficiency program, the most dramatic gain was achieved by Project K in Lipa City, Batangas. At the siart of the project, $rade one pupils' proficiency was measured at 25 percent. This meant, children could read only 1 out of 4 words conectly. Mayor Vilma Santos-Reclo.was floored upon geeing the results. Fueled by the urgency of the education crisis, various stakeholders.including De La Salle Lipa, the local DepEd, local school board and parents, worked togetherto improve the way children learn how to read in school. After one year, the Division Achievement test result$Sh0ped that on the average, grade one pupilscould already read at 54:0 percent, doubling theirscore in the previous year's exam. n2002-2003,. Lipa City's NAT.average was 44.85, in 2006-2007, it was 73.55. The English average in 2002-2003 was 40.15, in 2006-07, it was Synergeia in ARMM. The most challenging area of work for Synergeia now is in ARMM. Allow me to give you some numbers from our most challenging. areas in Maguindanao : Upi, Datu Paglas and Barira. Diversity in Achbvement of Grade One Pupils in Barira Maguindanao in Reading ln-rcrvice training for teachers and principals NrtlonalAchievement Test (NAT) for Grade Schoot of DOLCH Basic Sight Words Engllch Comprehension Test developeO Oy Synergeia 21 73.06 in assessing the situation, setting goars, - - --"'e - objectives Trends
  11. 11. 21st Century Trends, lssues and Challenges in Philippine Education 22 The Trends 23 expect tunity to compare the performance levels that the, different schools differences among from their students and to see if there are significant Reading Levels of GradeOne Children in Maguindanao.a year Before and After the DIWA{QUALLS Program them. , 90 You might be surprised to know that the country l woutd expect to top the group'will be Vietnam. From my experience of gomparing the developmeni of top talent in the Philippines and in countries like Vietnam, china, etc., what emerges is that, we have to develop a much stronger 80 70 60 50 40 2006 30 4 10 0 Garde One reader Adanced reades problem-soiving culture. ln mathematics, this means problems on.the level of the Int6rnational Mathematics Olympiad. When we benchmark our top .tuo"nt with say, Vietnam, we will find that we cannot compete at their level. Vietnam even during the wars with the u.s. qontinued to produce teams that would rank among the top in the lMo. I checked on the rankings of the foui cou ntries and f rom 20t02to 2006, Vietnam ranked 5, 4,4,1 5 and 13 reilpectively; singapore ranked 30, 36, 18, 14 bnd 27; Thailand ranked* 21,19,35,23and i6;the Philippinesranked 74,79,79 and 68 (we did not participate in 2006). Once again, the way forward on the mass is to invest in capacity building forthe entire community. Tfie Upper End of the Challenge How can we close the gap between our top schools and the top schools in the region? Let me now turn to the upper end of the challenge. we have the toportne line, philippine science High school, other science high schools and leader schools. ln ESEp, we-worked to provide laboratories as well as a stronger curriculum and programs for these schools. we can add a list of private schools to these science high schools and leader schools. As we saw earlier, based on the data given by Dr. Talisayon, even our best schools have a.way to go to reach the levels of schools among our neighboring countries. The best way to move forward is to expliciily benchmark with the best among our neighbors. A framework might be a proposal sent recenily by Dr. DJ.de Jesus pp benchmarking the top schools in the region: Singipore, Thailand, vietnam, Philippines..on the initiative of the Minister of Education of singapore and the Deputy Minister of Education and rrai'ning of Viet- 1am' .the proposal is to benchmark the top science schools of Singapore, Vietnam, Philippines and Thailand. This could be done by the students from the three other countries competing in the national exams for science and math conducted by Vieinam. singapore has alrgady accepted the proposal. This benehrnin<ing.witt also"bi rn opp*. we should encourage participation in mathematics and science competitibns. We should encourage the work of the Mathematics Trainers' Guild and support its spread to all our sciencp high schools and leader schools. I personally teach a mathematics problem solving course in Ateneo college and we try to develop competitive teams in our grade school and high schooland annually hold a competition between them and teams from MTG. Postscript-Focus on the Day{o-Day Classroom (the implemented curriculum) . Teacher Training for Day-to-Day Teachingr We established tlfe Mathematical Society of the Philippines in 1972,[he same year as the establishment of the SoutheastAsian Mathematical Society. These societies from the stprt were involved in helping develop both university and research mathematics as well as mathematics education and teacher training. ln ourteachertraining, I soon realized thatourapproach of provid. ihg generic training and enrichment materials or talks was not addressing the needs of the teachers. They needed something they could use in their day-to-day delivery of their classes. So, together with Sr. lluminada Coronel, we began to work with their textbooks, providing support exercises, etc. MTAP continues to carry on this work and it was along the same lines that we carried oui tne work with textbooks and Teache.r Guides under then Secretary Roco in.20q1. As a side note, when we were discussing this recently with USecs and ASecs of DepEd, they laughed:and said'that teachers have a comment about generic arld enrichmenttype.serninars,
  12. 12. 24 21st Century Trends, lssues and Challenges in philippine Education The their Three T's: Tanggap, Tiklop, Tago. That is, they take the handouts, pack them and then put them away. : Benchmarking Using Tests Like TIMSS. One way to move for_ . ward is to use exams like TTMSS or college Entrance Testl in the philipplnes or School Leaving Exams in other countries (like the primary School Leavlng Exams, o-Level Exams and A-Level Exains of singapore) not just to compare performance, but to use them as a diagnosti-".'rnis means ualngthe exams as a toolto identify the key areas wliere improvement or progress is most needed. Diagnose why students oo poorly in these ar. cao. Then, using the data, develop interventions: approprtateieachertrainlng, workbooks, lesson guides, etc. to address these probrems. Measure whether the interventions are working. ' .0. we have found it important to engqgg the teahers in this exercise: gct th6 teachers to do the answer key (this helps them engage the challcnges.coming from the tests)get themio corecl the studentl' papers or It lgast,some of them (they will get a lot of "aha" experienbes- seeing that what they thought they taught did not reaily sink in) , thgn lnvite reflection on howto move forward A'FlnelWorO As we celebrate developments in Basic Education in the philippines ln.thle Karunungan Festival, we would like to pay speciar attention to the lntcruentions that have addressed priority needs of our schools and school fyltam on a relatively large scale. while depressing statisticaifigures tnd reports on the state of education in the philippin-es"continue to dis- courage us, we look forward to a betterfuture through the inspiring results 'frcm lnltiatives like the TEEp schoot Based ManajementAppiolch, the Mrth Lesson Guides, the focus of synergeia on buirding readership and oonlmunity support, the work of project sspeeo ano tn-e ncED and the dcdlcation of MTG in developing talent among the youth. we oraw inspirallon, too, from the many other success storijs wer,ave ristenelio in tnis oonference. ' . w-e realize the importance of giving attention to the sociai environ- mont of oqr schoors if we are to impr.ovl and deverop ou.r"nooi, rducational system. we have seen that to move fonvaid on'tn" "no it i. lmportant to invest in capacity buirding for the ,"nooi "nti1" "oriirnity, fl i:.!1,-q?chers, parents an d oa ran ggay. offi ciaIs. ror tne Oeveropment ot our top targnt, we see that we need to benchmark expricifly *itn *""., g,oy q nerg frbo.rs ,brrt rmon ft," Trends 25 Finally, to move towards a better situation for basic education in the Philippines, it is important thatwe focus on the dayto-day classroom (thtr implemented curriculum). We can do this through teacher training and other interventions that give attention to the dayto-day delivery of lessons and benchmarking activities like learning from best practices of other schools and using reputable examinations to improve the standards of our schools. Acknowledgements would like to thank Dr. Cynthia Rose Bautista for sharing the report and experiences of TEEP. I personally directed the planning that led to TEEP, the development of the Division Elementary Development Plan (DEDP) 1994-98 and it is a tribute to those who carried out the work, especially Dr.. Malou Doronila, thatwe have achieved such signiftcant results. I would like to thank Ms. Anne Lan Candelaria for the outstanding work with the Payatas Schools. The work has now been taken over by Mrs. Carmela Oracion, who also led the lvork for developing the Lesson Guides for Mathematics. I Finally, thanks to Dr. Milwida Guevara, President of Synergeia Foundation, and her team for the outstanding work of Synergeia Foundation in engaging mayors and the community, revitalizing the local school boards, and truly improving educatiOn for public elementary school students in so many municipalities and cities. lwould liketothank Ms. Trissa Manalastas for her patience in organizing the data for me forthis presentation. Appendix 1 : TEEP Comparator Groups and Pe.rcentage of Students Surpassing 75o/oand 607o Mastery Level(Overall, Math and Science) To determine the comparatorgroups forTEEP/SBM, the Team examined how each province fared along four poverty indices: The Human Poverty lndex (HPl), the 1997 and 2000 Fixed Level of Living or qonsumption-based measures and the 2000 official poverty line.of the National Statistical Coordinating Board. Comparator groups: ARMM Basilan, Lanao del Su r, Magtrindanao. Sulu.and Tawi-Tawi. AKLAN+ the clearly poor provinceS that satisfied the following criteria: province HPI > median HPI for the country :fdll's betoii,fhb pov'erty line based on ionsumpti<in levels in 1'g97 :
  13. 13. 2'tst Century Trends, lssues and Challenges in Philippine Education falls below the poverty line based on oonsumption levels in 2000 falls beiowtheofficial NSCB poverty line. Aklan, Camarines Norte, Lanao del Norte, Northem Sama, Sarangani, Sorsogon, Westem Samarand Zamboanga delNorb The Trends Perc"entSu'rpassing 75% Mastery Levet: ilath GROUPS 2ffi4t5 2005t6 2..6 TEEP ELS 2W2t3 2ffi3t4 7.3 8.0 15.0 10.8 10.5 32.6 24.3 18.5 8.3 10.1 17.8 14.4 '11.8 ILOILO+ 4.1 PAMPANGA+ 8.8 1.1 SurigaodelNorte l.CR ARMY 0_5 5.6 15.6 7.4 5.4 ILOILO+ provinces that satis$ onlyone of the above,critefa Total 7.7 TEEPNON-ELS CAGAYAN+ provinces that satisff two orthree of the above criteria: Agusan del Norte, Albay, Bohol, Cagayan, Camarines Sur, Camiguin, Catanduanes, Cebu; Gompostela Valley, Davao Norte, Davao Oriental, lsabela, Oriental Mindoro, Occidental Mindoro, Marinduque, Misamis Occidenlal, Quezon, Siargao, Siqu[or, South Cotabato, Sultan Kudarat, AKLAN+ CAGAYAN+ 13.4 18.2 12.O 4.7 26.5 J6-6 17.3 2.2 2.2 4.3 i Bukidnon, Davao Sur, lloilo, Negros Occidental, Nueva.Ecija, Nueva Vizcaya, Occidental Mindoro, Palanvan ln addition to the poor provinces, TEEP schools were also ompared to non-poor provinces, cities and the National Capital Regkrn: 11.7 20.8 13.5 Percent Surpassing 75% Mastery Level: Science GROUPS 2ffi2r3 200/,ts 2005/r5 4.7 2.9 CAGAYA,ITI+ 2.9 2.8 3.9 2.9 ILOILO+ .0.9 0.6 PAMPANGA+ 3.1 tlCR 0.9 3.3 1.8 ARMM 1.4 o.2 22.0 5.9 17.2 '3.7 14.7 2.1 11.8 1.8 8.1 0.6 19.5 3.4 11.7 0.0' 2.9 0.2 2.7 2.2 14.8 TEEP ELS PAMPANGA+ Bataan, Batangas, Bulacan, Cavite, lloos Norte, llocos Sur, La Union, Laguna, Misamis Orbntal, Pampanga, Pangasinan, Quirino, Rizal, Tadac, Zambales and allcities outside NCR AKLAN+ r{cR I Note tre relatively stronger improvement in mathemalics: 22.6%9ELS and 18.2 Non-ELS gchieving 75% mastery level, all others beloq with Pampanga closest at 16.6%. At607o mastery level, the perbrmanoe gap is even clearer, with TEEP ELS at 59.5% and non-ELS at 46.3% .The mprovement is also m uch stronger compared.to improvement in Scbnce. TEEPNON.ELS 1.9 1.5 . i Percent Surpassing 60% Mastery Level: Overall PercentSurpassing 75% Mastery Level: Overall 2ffi3t4 GROUPs TEEP ELS 2.6 3.2 2trJ/,t5 2m5r6 7.3 16.1 15.0 4.9 13.6 ,9-4 11.2 TEEP NON-ELS AKLAN+ 4.7 3.3 CAGAYAIII+ 3.5 2.9 1.0 1.0 3.5 0.0 0.9 6.7 9.1 5-3 15.8 1.3 6.1' o.2 1.4 o.a 0.5 3,i 4.1 11.3 8_3 llotlo+ ' PAMPANGA+ NCR ARMM 8.7 .7.0 1.9 11.O . Grot.ry ZWZ! ZWllA, ZOMTS 2005/6 TEEP SBM ELS 15.5 TEEPSBMNOI*ELS 15.8 39.3 65.1 29.3 AKLAN+ CAGAYAN+ 2..4 24.4 50.3 43.3 16.5 22.! 37.5 32.3 8.9 32.3 24_9 49.9 49.8 11.6 14.7 31.9 19.5 13.6 11.1 19.7 10.4 15.5 2s.6 43.3 320 ILOILO+ PAMPANGA+ rcR ARMM 16.4 6.1 59.5 46.3 14.o 4Q.3 ':!- i.tl"-:
  14. 14. : 2A 21at Ccntury Tronds, lsluc! and Ghallenges in Phitippine Education Frrcent Surpasslng 60% Mastery Level: Math GROUP 2002t3 2003t4 TEEP SBM ELS 46.9 38.5 34.0 CAGAYAN+ 20.5 22.5 31.4 23.0 ILOILO+ 14.2 23.9 PAMPANGA+ ARI4M 22.9 10.5 5.6 27.8 20.4 Tobl 21"8 34.9 TEEPSBM NON-ELS AKLAN+ NCR 32.1 41.2 2004t5 66.6 5e.5 u3 2002t3 .47.8 44.8 37.9 53.9 55.6 34.9 25.2 1'9.7 14.9 48.5 ,.,-38.6 lntegrity of Licensure Examinations 4.4 ?/i&ha 41.8 TEEP SBM ELS 15.0 13.7 AxtRtt+ 19.5 33.7 24.0 19.3 CAGAYAN+ 14.4 17.2 8.5 11"7 PAMPANGAT 14.5 NCR ARMM 6.1 12.4 25.9 16.8 8.3 20.6 Total 13.8 20.5 46.5 " 68.6 52.3 47.9 40.6 35.7 53.0 52.7 professionars and started issuing rigistration cards that were varid for three years. 21.8 9.8 21.1 6.5 4.8 1g.4 p. The professionarReguration comrirission (pRC)was created on June 22, 1973 by virtue of presidentiar Decree No. 223'issu;; o}, Fresioent Ferdinand E. Marcos. rts firstGommidsionerwasArchitect Ert c. ruubra, who assumed office on January 2 ,1g74. rt arso siarteo ilr,iirg'.#ficates of regishation in Firiprno with Engrish transration database of its registered profesiionars thilt year."no "urpit"riring the rn tgzz,'tn" commis_ sion conferred the first"outstanding professionar of the yea/, awards to 31.7 24.5. 15.5 /apaaa, ", 17.9 200,4t5 TEEPSBM NON-ELS ILOILO+ / 48.e/. Pcrcent Surpassini 60% Mastery Level: Science GROUP The PROFESSIONAL REGUT_ATION COMMISSTON at Advocating Stronger politics to Ensure 200516 r ber 20,i000, the pRC Modernization Act (Republic Act ^!1.De""r No' 8981) re-defined the directions pRC gou.rrent agency tasked to promote the sustained deveropment of " ", a corps of competent Firipino professionars. rn 2006, the pRC was praced under the administrative su_ pervision and controlof the Departmentof Laboi;"d E;;ffi;; The Commission supervises 43 professional Regulatory Boards (PRBs) which n regurate the professions and accredit the professionar orga_ in pn es reg u rate piactice izatio n s rep resentin g the profession" rr. t-n!' of more than two mition. registereo r'ipino " professioiars. rnrolgn tne p |:'tir." or RC pass h un dredl or thousa take licensure examinatigns every iJr;i;ffi ilii.i"rJ - year. pRC "ilL ** The marks its 36rhFoundingAnniversary in the service of Fili_ pino Professionars worrdwide on 2009. The cerebration wi' showcas€ the major reforms n"iin" corimission has.initiated in year 2009 and wiil feature the awarding rvr".t outstanding professionar and Professionar Associ"Ji:l.r in iecog "rin" ition or tnei. sig;iil".i"*tn n -'o""'-';"'r v-"1 nr_ tions to the nation and thd Filipjno Jil;;-;, p".il.- Adopting the theme 'strengthening the^rmage of pRC on rntegrity, a nd Competence, ithe enb-"iep, iq contin uously adyocat: ing'strongei potiiies to ensure triu v;r,oiiv; r"liiabitity, ahd integrity of iicen_ Transpa rency '
  15. 15. 30 21st Century Trends. lssues and Challenges in philippine Education The sure examinations in accordance with Her Excellency president Gloria MacapagalArroyo's directive to estiablish a closer linkaie with ine eOucation and industry sectors. - 2009 Eiqht Kev Directions of the Commission Decentralization of functions,'authority and resources to regional grosser. offices lmproved lnstitutional image Decentralization and empowerment of regionaloffices are vital to promote the Commission's thrusts in deliv€ring services at the . Commission is also aiming to improve and enhance thg institutional image of theAgency by promoting a positive ouflook on the commission's accomprishments, efforts, and cbnstraints. The public and the stakehorders - the schools, the professionals, accredited professionals - should be involved to support the key directions of the commission whose; positive image shourd be based on solid accomplishment and t -.:L* j1... Th.e field level. The regional offices account for 60 peicent of the total commission transactions and 45 percent of total revenue collections. ln 2007, the regions accounted for.4g percent of examinees, and 51 percentoflDs processed integrity. To furtherenhance service delivery the following are devolved to regional offices: hiring of service contractor/job order personnel, procurement of certain office supplies and equipment.like printers, implementiation of office systems automation, printing of professional lD cards, payment of salaries of contractual persoinel, and the release of regional MOOE budget on a quarteriy basis. . Crucial to decentralization is au g mentation of. ma npower. Devolution of functions cannot be'a'chievJd if the regionat oifices are un- . this end, the commission wiil enhance the varidity and reri- For 2009, the Commission starts the groundwork to expand the walk-in Examinations for other profes!ions, particurarly the Nurses and ProfessionalTeachers, in the regions. ' the industry. Restructing of the Centraldnd Regional - The restructuring of the centrar and Regionar offices wiil.in- ISO Certification - The fifth Key Direction is towards rso certification. The president has required ail government agencies to move towaios rso vofue thedelegation of sorne.of the chairman's oversightfunctionsto thecommissioners. For one, the centrar offices wilibe supervised bythe commissioners.'Thisalso entails the ia'tionalization.of Broject Her Excellency, PresidentArroyo has time and again directed the PRC to work closely with the lndustry sector in updating licensure examinations. Likewise, she directed the commission io work closelywith the commission on Higher Education to avoid overlaps, ability of licensure examinations, by looking at best practices, here and abroad. Technical assistance through grants should be considered. Research and deveropment capability shourd be strengthened to develop tests that are relevant to the topics covered, meaiure the competencies and skills that are supposed to be measured and reflect the present scientific and technical competency demands of : : Test Development and Administration and to revise the lmplementing Rules and Regulations of the pRC Modernization Act to reflect these directives. dermanned. commissioner Nilo L. Rosas is taking the lead in having the Rationalization plan approved. The focus iJ the upgrading oi PRC regional offices in terms of staffing. Another goal.iJto create Toie field officer posilon item.s to establish more field offices in farflung provinces. . Resource Mobilization or Resource Generation The fourth key Direction is resource mobilization or resource generation. This means generating more income in support of the fiscaltargets of theArroyoAdniinistration. Thus, the commission is bound to set income targets and provide incentives to top rerienue institution that nurtures world class professionals. ' 31 management over lT projects. For,the regional offices, the restructuring will be aimed at supporting the decentralization thrust which will be outlined in the regionaloperations manual. The new stewardship aims to sustain the progressive momentum of the agency as it aspires to be a resilient, pfogressive, and. respected - Trends . certification. This is to improve the quality of services to world-class level and to in stitutionar Le p RC s' rnodein ization programs. o
  16. 16. 21st Centu,ry Trends, lssues and Challengbs in Philippine Education - PRC Modernization LawAmendment . The objective is to put proposed amendments to the PRC Modernization Lawon the legislative agenda of Congress. Commissioner Ruth Raffa Padilla spearheaded the move to accomplish thrs task. . NCLEX IN MANILA OPEN BY MID-YEAR The hmendments will hopefully strengthen further the regulatory mandate and functions of the Gommission , , . Completion and Closure of lSSP.Projects /arurlo Sor4dnc The completion and closure of ISSP Projects will up the cudgel fot'replicating the system in regional offices in order to realize their intended benefits. tr Pop the the champa.gne and pray in thanksgiving. The.P.hilippine bid to hold the tJS nursing licensure exai in Manila.r:t,, succeeded. Filipino nurses who wish'to work in Ameica.no longer must travel abroad, burning hundreds of dortars, just to take tne N"Ctex (Nltrsing council Licensure Examination). They can do it in Manila stafting mid-2007. other Asians may, tob, as an unintended boost for Philippinetourism. r The good news came Thursday evening as the exhausted deregation from Manila, red by commission on Firipinos overseas head Dante A1g, was aboutto sup. presidentFaith Fieldi of.the us Nationalcouncit of state Boards of Nursing (NcsBN), as NCLEX overseer, .unanimous decision. lt capped two hours of griiling earliei "nnoun."J on philippine assurances of exam security and,housecleaning lfter, fraud marred its own nursing board tests last June. , Ang quickry informed presidentArroyo of the event. Manira news outlets called to confirm. The persistence oi Filipinos on bofh sioes orlne Pacific finally paid off. The first step to nursing job placement in America will now be cut in cost by at least harf. The ehiippine Nurr""n..o.i"ilon in America (PNAA) first broached the idea inznazof NGLEX locating in Manila. The NCSBN at that time was muiling to open the licensing test outside the'Us and its territories in two year.J. For'pNM past pres-ident present prestdent l^lllll!:y."_ry,"1d among the pilot Rosario May Mayor, it was onty rogicar that Manira be areas. After air, Firipinos nave ar_ ways formed the burk of examinees ovor 9,000'or 3s pe,denipei year in the 1990s. (Thbt figure jumped to more than 15;000 or 6o percent tast year.) The closest brio tnus cheapest to reach test site oack then r,,Ls Saipan, for which examinees had to pay g200 f*" ;;o S-obrj i"r. p"vrg f3o! a1o todsins. Locatins the exam in ManiL - ";; ;;r[-;;; r+, the basic $200-fee prus $1s0 for foreign processing, "rrv" but no more overseas
  17. 17. t4 21st Century Trends, lssues and Challenges in Philippine Education ACADEMIC Atl easier said than and kidnappings in Madone, though. Too frequbntwere reports of coup$ tnvcl. Theywould be able to use the savings to review. ENTREPRENEURSHIP nlla, making the NCSBN hesitant Software piracy, was also rampant, Wgrrylng NCLEX examiners abouttricksters simply memorizing their questlOng to transform into nursing school lectures. ln 2004 the only new sites Openedwere London, Seoul and Hong Kong- Seaa*o ln Mar. 2005 Ang joined the NCLEX effort, raising it to an official Wntule with the PNA/ and the Philippine Nurss Association in the hom+ lfnd. He got the US embassy and American Chamber of Commerce in the Phlllpplnes to support the Manila testing location. NCSBN officials were lnVlted to Manila for a first-hand took at facilities, physical and software lccurl$, and Filipino nursing life. They saw that notonly the US Medical uOcnslng Examination was being given bouble-ft.ee in Manila, but also the CGFNS (Commission on Graduates of Foreign Nursing Sc$ools) tests to quallff for the NCLEX. Most telting was the worK ethics of Filipino nurses, thc reaeon trey comprise 83 percentof foreign qurses inAmerba and are thc moet prefened by hospitals, doctors. elinics and care homes- - The lnternet search engine Lycos began as a research project by a professor at the Carnegie Mellon University in 1994. Five years later; it became the most visited site in the world, with a global presence in more than 40 countries. All over the world, governments are showing greater interest in university spirioffs. European governments are pouring resources into universities with the goal of turning thern into engines of economic growth through spinoff company forma(ion. The Japanese governmenf recently changed its intellectual property laws to favor spinoff company formation. b PresidentAnoyo the formaton Task Force-NCLEX, Qonslsting of his CFO, and reps of rn lnbragency lnom he PNA, the Professional Regulatory Commission's Board of Nurslng, the labor office, NBI or PNP, and association of nursing school dbans. Forgood measure, Ang suggested The group had just been formed on July 31, 2006, when news broke thrt Ure nursin$ board test of the previous month uras marked by question lcakage. To make mafters worse, at least two nursing board members rnd P}{Aofficers who owned review centers were implicated. As if that wcre notenough, the PRC atfirst denied the leakage, and when examinces came forward to confess to benefiting from the leaks, GOTCHA By , JARIUSBONDOC O tl4a* /, 4agana. As countries,progress from agricultural economies to technological ones, it becomes crucial for them to accelerate research and develop- . ment led by their universities. But more importantly, they must translate their technological findings into industrial development. This helps the country shift from a productiol-based to an innovation-based economy. ln developed countries, governments recognize thqt granting R&D institutions the rights to lP generated with public finds leads to better use of research results and spurs start-up businesses that create employment. This is called academic entrepreneurship: the process of creating economic val ue through organizational creation, invention, and innovation that occurs within an academic institution, resulting in research and technology commercialization. So far, the weakest link in our country'g innovation system is the transferring and commercializing of the results of research and develop.ment efforts, particularly those undertaken by government-funded institu. tions. Currently, only.an estimated 10 percent of university-research out- ' put are being transferred into industries because of intellectual-property issues. We are losing valuable intellectual properly created by our own
  18. 18. !t 21tt Gentury Trends, lssues and Challenges in philippine Education ganlugss because bf an inhospitable climate for innovation. Their inven- THE CHANGING VISION AND MISSION OF RESEARCH IN HIGHER EDUCATION AMIDST GLOBALIZATION tmr cnd up getting patented by foreign companies who have the resources bdevelop them. . ' The US Bayh-DoreAct alows government funded agencies, such as unlvcreities, to retain intellectual property rights to inventi6ns derived from thr frulte of government-funded research. ihis was a major factor for the nlnvlgoration of R&D in the us, and ushered the successfulcommerciallutloq of research output. ?aaoc Oednact The Technology TransferAct, which I recenfly co-sponsored.in the Slnatc, borrows heavily from the US Bayh-Dob Act. This bill vests the , onmcruhlp of intellectual property rights in research institutions that con9uat+ rssearch funded in part or in full by govbrnment. lt further autholEm them to use income from their reseaicir to conduct more R&D of its ofiolor.'" " I have just beconie officially a senior citizen, marking rny sixtieth birthday three weeks ago. Friends and relatives decided to mark the milestone with a weeklong cruise to Alaska, with much fun and merri- "li!. ment. ' trre ricn-Tiansfer biil wiil ensure that knowredge g;'ineo from relllrah flnds a usefuland practicat apptication - makifu p;nilippine industtbt morc competitive. Through it,'we hope to unleash our universities' rntraprcneurial capabilities and bolster our technological competitive- nl.r, ' '' It was not my first cruise, but it brought back memories oi my Rrst long boat ride, exactly fifty years ago, on a pasienger liner with my father from Manila to France. ltwas a smaller boat; and slower, nebding twdhtyeight days to complete the journey. And I remember.that, even at that time, my ten-year-old mind brought back two lessons I have never forgotten: tr ' The first was a conviction, as I returned to my schooling in Manila, that I had learned more in that summer in France.than in my first fiye years of formal schooling, good as that was. Learning to speak English slowly and clearly to foreign language speakers improved it; soaking in history from actual museums and monuments left indelible marks on my memory; frequent cabulations converting different currencies honed my arithmetic skills, dealing with all sorts of'peopte developed my social skills. As you see, I have become an avid traveler since. The.second was a dissatisfaction of hciw parts of the world seemed to be so inadequately connected to each other. Many Frenchmen did not even know what the Philippines was or where it was; my knowtedge of Europe was' not much better. A garbled two-minute long distance call to my mother cost my father almost two weeks'salary. Of cburse my smallten-year old mind, could never have imagined or. scale with which interconnectedness has galloped over the last fifty years.' Today a dissenting French vote colors the balance of 'powei in lraq, an email travels all over the world for free, cell phones dial 'across continents with impunity. lt has righfly been said that'the world ,h99 gha.nged more fundamentaily in the last fifty years than in the five the rapidity
  19. 19. 38 Education 21st Century Trends, lssues and Challenges in Philippine hundredyearsbeforethat.Andinsomanywords,BillGateshasprethan in oi.t"o tn"t tne next five years will see more paradigmatic changes The.Trends 39 'tions, butalsowittrinvarious scales of commutnity, from regionalalliances, and religious groups, to families themselves. This interdepenio . "Utnl" denepermeatesans-pneres-political,economic,andsocio-culturalandthereisnotumingbacktoalessinterdependentworld.Thechal- the last fifty. university commu, , And what alarms me, and what should alann tfre nity aswell, is something notspoken enouglr about Thesechangeswill will come fioq.out of t.|oi o" logical e>,trapolati-ons of present trends; they thi blue,-from out of a yet inchoate set of premises, they will be as itwere ;un-anJicipatable; changes- The future is notwtrat it u"td be; changes P *iii ..t lengeistoassuretnattnismomentumleadstomutualrespect'un- injustice, exJeritanOing and benefits for all concerned, and not to ptiptioO iitolerance, even violence, or paradoxically a retreat to conprotecti n g loirontational isolationism, under the peryerse disg uise of cal identities- just be quantitJtive, but qualitative. And our universities must prepare societies to handle these- uniIt is my task this morning to suggest directions and areas that edd, in the larger context of versity research must explore-to achieve this globa'lizatiqn, as the title given to me suggests. I mustconfess to a li6e in interiiscomfort with the word globalization. lt iS widely bandied about loosely defined ot' more eme national conferences, but no word is more pervasive and iion"rry r.o"n. The phenomenon it describes is indeed too globalization tends to reduce th's cornfar-reiching to ignore, but the woid plex realityio a-specifrc set of consequences, often negative, and often llmited to the economic- ln the past two have had the good.fortune of being,involved in nni"n changing forces of society have changed, or ought to change' the all of you do, way eoucation-arers place. The center felt,. as I am certain .persons, And yet the increasing volume and speed'of flonrs of gOQd! and ideas - is not only inevitable, it is inevetsible. lts effects are ill pQrVeive, affecting not just markets and economic exchanges, but poltical realities and ilignm'ents and, asgur mnference theme em, tlao ' phtrized, also higher education. such sectors of today's world as finance, communication, paradigmatic transheatfrr care, meoia ano transportatlon have undergone are conducted, the education paraformations in the way their activities dum has remained impervious to the chagrging_demands ofthe,society or Center tn6 nrtgre it claims to serye. An infoimal task force invited by the r continues to exPlore paradigms aie rational and Please understand; prerrailing education lrseful, but they were shaped in the past by the political, economic, and socialworld they operated in. The emergence of the nation state demanded a commonnational experience and institution that could engensense of national identity and unity; the industrial workplace demanded a bained and specialized skilled work force; and the social instiMions of f;amily, church and structures demanded a venue for reinforcing theirvalues and cornmon understandings. But when the.political, social, and soci+culturat paradigms'of society shifted, the education paradigm failed to adjust. The once monopolistic control of the state over the education process was irremediably weakened by g proliferation of international, cornntunity-based, ind ustry-provid ed, and p rivate ed ucatio n a I ven,us, as demand for education, of different types, giew faster than governrnent budgets could provide for. The post-industrial workfbrce beams less hrierarchical" speciaiized and rigid, requiring ever-n9w-sets of skills that the education is never quick enough io provide. , The former anchoring influences of church and eKended family tieb have been weakened by an increasing secular society and de-institutionalized worship groupS, and Uy nucleai often working-parent or single-parent families. pErefore prefer ari alternbtive and moie neubal phnase to describe tho glObatlzatiOn phenomenon. I prefer to took at it as a phenqmenon of mlrlti-Otmpngiqna! interdep.endsnee, not just amolg nE-. , To responc{ tothis.changing interdependentworld, what is needed is clearly a new vi-cion for education, not just for information dissemination, 'ortor sfflted de.,.elopment, orfor'skins development; or for citizenship, but nlt"rtt"r."s ' in 49 countries and the poverty and equity gap widened. shld'Es shottt that dsing capital Of the large 77 developlng countries, whereas there was fhare, the.-re was falling labor shaire and increasing inequali$ ratios since 1975. Perhaps it is also because the word globalization itsetf canieswtth it .thg lmplication that the effects and hoped fot benefib flow in basically one dltUction, from Westto East (or North to South), as it likethatdiscredited Wgrd Colonization, where there are the colonizers and tte colonized, so ifio tf,'" world is divided into the globalizers dnd the gtobalzbd. Who wlnt! that? - I ; I ways in an initiativeat the East-West Center in Hon6lulu to explore the . 'Arld yet transnational markets and an emerging gbbaleonornic gains in affluene OrdEr did bring about in the fifties'and the sixties early end even equity. However, soon after, trends reversed in these sante ' y€rs, npnl*e this- ' |gr;
  20. 20. 40 The Trends 21st Century Trends, lssues and Challenges in Philippine Education I A proactive approach to this, not ius-t additional information, but also to'actually participate in international research; is espe- forempowering individualsand communities to thrive in and contribute by guiding this onslaught towards greater more equitable interdependence among communities and counties in political, economic, and socioeconomic spheres. cially useful at a scanning stage, before an actual university research agehda is decided upon. What for example are the priority issues, pioblems, and opportunities thatoccupy education system and universities around the globe? The answers are not hard to find. Here are a few leads: - But enough of the context within we must situate our work. What then in particular are the praiiical implications of all this for higher education research? To provide grist for your discussions bver the next three days, 5nd more importantly, to trigger actual nbw insights fresh research initiatives in your home institutions when you return, I offer you four key ideas. - - Let me acknowledge my sources. I have.come up with these four ideas isa resultof synthesizing the various contributiohs from EaslWest Centervisitihg experts, and from a survey bfAsia-PdCific education ministers and policy makers from 19 countries which t conducted just before I left UNESCO about four years ago, on the impact of education research on policy and decision making. A few other readings from other leading universifies and centers, eveiavailable on the internetto both you and me, of course, roqnd out my trlggers of inspiration ln 2002, the National lnstitute of Education Resbarch of Japan gathered eduqation planning directors of elevenAsia countries to aconference, and asked each one coming to the meeting to list the two most urgent pl'anning issues facing their system. The resulting compilation was most revealing, and of course is avail= able on theirwebsite. Only last week, UNESCO Bingkok organized an international meeting reviewing progress of education programsthatwere actively recastifg their contentto focus on being agentfor sustainable human and environmentaldevelopment. Of course, beyond information on this meeting, the UNESCO Bangkokwebsite is a tln fact, there is a treasure of information anb further linkages. section on higher education in particular, under the stewardship of its new RegionalAdvisor, Molly Lee, who is with us this week' Onecaveat, before presenting the four: because mywork has dealt largelywi&r policy makers more than with institutional heads and managers, myperspective on highereducation research will be through the prism of highereducation system rather than higher education institutions - in otherwsds, rrvhat ministries and national governing bodies should do about higher education reSearch, rather than what individual un iversities should do abodit. put the dichotomy is artificial; my observations throughout the regim tell me that ministries are far too pusy with governance problems, erren emergency administrative problems, and often delegate reSearch buniversities and'institutes, , There is a greater need then ever to undertake university search collaboratively, rather than individually. r:e- This of course is the reason why we are all gather here today; thdarson d'efre of our conference. Our greater interconnectedness hagiven each of us, not only the opport-i.rnity, but inOeeJ tioq to seek access to the best related thinking on our research tne;li;;- : ' iscns fp96 colleagues outside our departmentS, our institutions, aniloutside our countries. This is hue whether the issue be adminiselive (such as cost iegov.eryol{nalging.of universities) or pedf- gigal(suchasfundamehfalcuiribdldrieform) '. - ln the spring ot2004,the OEGD, in collaboration with the Learning Skills and Resource Centerof the United Kingdom, was looking at how a changed workplace is changihg thb imperatives for skills development in their educational institutions. Ttrese then are the four: 1. Traditionally t-he priority concerns have been corporatization or' financing of universities, and technologically assisted borderless or open campus universities, but I understand that Ms. Lee is now reviewing these Priorities. My examples could multiply. On an institutional level, those of you grappling with curricular reform could for example see how the most reputable worldwide institutions are tackling the same problems. Harvard, for example, is in the midst of the most radical curricular reform it has experiOnced in thirty yeaqs, and predictably global interdependence has emerged as a key theme. Harvard President Summers says that they are "at a moment when tl'g US misunderstands the world, and the world misunderstiands the US more than anytime recently," and they are undertaking the infusion of international'perspectives in all their subjects, aswellas preparing to have every undergraduate student spend one semester abroad stdrting in 2006.
  21. 21. 42 21st Century Trends, lssues and Challenges in Philippine Education Perhaps even more exciting is the fundamental curricular rethinking at that bastion of conservation, Cambridge University in the United Kingdom. While the process is still underway, I have already been inspired by the guidelines that steer their process, some of which involve integrating teaching and research, interrelating fields of knowledge; translating work into realcofltributions to society, and reinventing collegiality. ' And so there is no reason why those of us working in educatign research in this part of the world, cannot benefit from and be stimulated by similar efforts around the world, and indeed - using new or existing networks dialogue with partners across the seas for . mutual benefits and insights 2. The Trends 4:! ence seen both sidbs of the picture, first as Dean of Education from my younger years where reviewing graduates theses was routine, to my later days as Education Underseeretary having to make policy decisions often inadequately supported by research data, I often longed for sturdier bridges between academic researchers and harassed polby makers. And of course, conferences such as these are excellent opportunities to build these bridges. 3. University research must detach itself from single discipline focus, to irivolve systemic and inter-disciplinary perspectives. To be fair, there has been no lack of pubfications and issue papers on various aspects of higher education. The internet can quickly deluge you with articles from academic journals on newfinancing schemes, new The determination of a universig reseHibh agenOa is becoming curricular schemes, new ways to introduce distance education, and so more policy maker driven and leSs researcher or institution on. But so long as the research is naiiowly discipline focused, whether it be fipancial, or pedagogical or technical, it may iemain narcissistic and not take adequate account of the environment it serves, never reaching . the core of how universities must transfofm themselves. There may be something to be learned from the experience in the natural sciences. They studied aspects of the environment according tb their disciplines, driven. Perhaps because univeisities have always been held in high esteem by society, there has been until recenfly a complacency about its own problems, Up to recently, it is astonishing how litile fundam'ental thinking universities were doing about their own future, even as they pioneered the future in the severaldisciplines within them. Gordon Graham ofAberdeen university lamented last year the " one glaring omission, one topic and contextin which academics have signally failed to engage in criticalthought and forthe most part shown themselves sadly lac(ing in independence of mind. I mean the subject of the university itself." To its credit, the British government has risen to the challenge; secretary clarke, recognizing that universities and undertaking transformations as least as oxtensive as in . any pervious period of their histories, has issued a white paper, soliciting responses on how government can best respond to these. Needless to say, thls has solicited a flurry of university research. This is symptomatic of what goes on elsewhere in the world. My survey of the 10 education ministers and officials of theAsia pacific con- firms this. Muih university research in now demand driven rather than s.upply driven. lnstead of individual researchers or institutions coming up with what they think are worthwhile areas of studies, policy makers and administrators, beset by decisions they often have to make on insufficient informatibn oranalysis, are harnessiqg academia for assistance.' of course, the collaboration is far fr.om problem.free. The urgencies of the policy makers do not coincide with themore leisurelyBnd iliorough pace of the academe. sometirnes,,ministr,ies prefer to sei up their own 'institutes orptanning offiies for their resdaiih. still, havingrfiom,experi- but only when the environment was seriously threatened did interdisciplinary environmental science become an established and collaborative con- cern. . We may be ir1 a similar situation with our own intellectual environment now. Universities are essential parts of the intellectual ecology of the world, but the world is changing and they have to redefine their roles. Whereas they used to be the only "knowledge store, in town, they now find themselves surrounded by alternative sources of knowledge, the internet, corporate and on-the-job training, specialized skili.training centbrs, and so on. They are merely the flagship in a megamall of information sources, and the way they determine their product mix; their clientele, their relationship with other providers, their cost structures, and their marketing must take this into account, not on a discipline by discipline basis, but in an integrated way. 4. Most importantly, university research must focus on effective- ness issues rather that efficiency issues. , This fourth poirft is really a re-statement and the inescapable con5equence of the first three. lf there is one thought I would like to leave with you today it is that the globalizing, increasingly interconnected world our universities are striving to serve requires no less than fundamentalthinking; noi jtlst 0f h'owto do things bett'ei bdt h6ttb do better,things. Univer-
  22. 22. 21d Century Trends, lssues and Challenges.in Philippine Education 4 ln the past have been well served by operations research on effiCfnoy mQasures to reduce cost per credit, or to maximize physical space, lnd rc on, Academic research hasdone much to improve the pedagogy Jld mquencing of specific subject areas. But I maintain that the time has dtlfr The Trends 45 more specific discussions this week will take place. The broad brush nature of my remarks are nebessarily theoretical in nature, and I would have loved to spend more time with you fleshing out implications and narrating case studies in which I have seen some of these ideas taking O0ma to shift emphasis on improving our existing systems to casting $out lor new system and paradigms to better nieet the needs of a radi- concrete shape. But I am hopefulyour discussions this week will do just that, and that these discussions will take on a note of urgency and scope ofllyohanged future. that I have tried to interject. 'At a ministerial conference and education congress last May in ,lmgkok, atwhich overthree hundred papers were piesented by delegates lt @untries, I continued to be struck by the familiarity of old themes. by the presentation of the regional manager of Microsoft on the ht dry, I made the analogy in my closing remarksbetween a typewriter llld r lrptop computer. iOm lnfPlnd : ' Oncc'egain falling upon my newly acquired senior citizen status, I lllllltilbcrgd how I used to hammer out my various graduate theses on a I wlthout benefit of spell check oi cut-and-paste or automatic prlnetakingly erasing every misprint on the original and six carbon avary tlme my fingers slipped. .ln the meantime, typewriter compalfbotad to lmprove typewriters, making them electric, automatic line lvtn erase ribbons, and so on. Eut rooner or later, typewriters gave way to the computers, with grcater flexibili$, capacity, and power, capable of doing things no do and changing fundamentally the way we now express ourln wrltlng. Note that the innovation did not come from the typewrite thc'Undenrvoods and the Olympias. lt came from outside, a appoach that looked at how the same task could be accom- : Itf My rcnse is that much university research is devoted to improving Uparrtter, the traditional university, and not enough on inventing a ilmpubr, the university of the future. This is of course partly because it is hbmftty drlven in the hands of university specialists with perhaps inadfltllla lroh lnputs. lt is partially becauge universities in many countries Itl lllllprotscted by tlre mantle of high public esteein and relatively con'llnlgovcrnment budgetary allocations. Butl believe the time has come |, .hOlLborate across disciptines, a-cross sectorsof society, across coun, lll0, !o focue on invdnting the computer, to fashibn, adapted to each , Iunlry ogntext,. a new paradigm for a higher education for the a new fllmnmcnt, ': : Lrdlo and gentlemen, I recognize that the task before me in this "'hbtnlnf 'r kiyhot5 is to paini tne briao bbckgiound dgainst which your My concluding thought comes from a recollection of a scene in a classic disaster move of a sinking ship. As the Titanic was going down, the waiters in it were still shuffling around arranging the dinner silvenvare and furniture in the professionalism which was their habit. As the hugb ship of university systems in our countries navigates around the icebergs of cataclysmic changes in our soci.eties, my plea is that we do not fritter out time away by re-arranging our furniture and concentrate on saving and navigating'ourships. tr
  23. 23. TheTrends 4T TOTAL OUALITY MANAGEMENT IN GRADUATE TEACHER EDUCATION Ra*Ea faculty, sfudents, alumni, parents, employers and agencies with which the instiftrtion relates The mncept of rotar euarig Management freM) is best appried in the teachereducation continuum starting with the bamlaureate piogram in seondary orelementary education and continuing to tre graduate pro- gmms. This principle is implffi in CHED Memorahdum Order No. 36, serie of 1998, otheruise knourn as rre policies and $andards forGradu_ ab Education. s6ction 2,'&uctrre of Graduate Education, states: "philignrle,.otagate educafion shail, if fieasibte, be vertically articurated by discipline. Grduate programs shall emanate ftom shongundergraduate pr-ograml adoss all the heher education disciplines."-consisLnt wjth this prorbion is the requirement in seclion 3 that;Level lll accreditation of undergraduate progrTnl-. shafl bea majorconsirlerarion in granting per- r'. Vamzao ' l. 'Total Quality ilanagement fFauy in nre conte$ of reacher Education mits to open new graduate prognams...,: Quality appears to be tre password to the.21s century. unbrtu. n"t9ly' authorities seem not to agree on their respective conlowe-ver, Fpts,of_quality. The Briush Higher Education Gouncil admitted that quat_ 'ity is diffi cult to defi ne.but conduded that "quality is ne cenbal ;ystery ot British higher education - a mystery in alithe variants of meaning and nuance of which the world is capable". The united $ates Higher Educa_ tlqn Council also stated that no single lrrorkabte definitionif iuatlty is possible and concluded that the bestapproach is to bok for ctraracteristics or indicators wtrich are valued by those whose neeos ne nsiiutitn s ln the early nineteen nineties at lhe height of the nationwide survey of Philiprtne Educatinn. Narano, as naticnal pnrre presioent, submifted a paperon education wtrich fuatured a conrprehensive mntinuum of teac{rer educatinn from pre--service thrci'gh ceriification ana inouiilir to in-seryice - (PA FTE News aN Wws,epril t SSe.; kher lMren R- H Il22_creating the Gommissbn on i,onn",' Education uas passed, then DEcs secretaryArmand Fabeila for;saw the gap it would create in the teacher education sector whose gracuates aie au qorbed bythe Deparrnentof Education, culture and so he spearheaded the enactnent of RA oeaarvr,e catircn council [rEc) s'trictr nw bridges the gap to seeking to meet CF.IED Executive Oi,e"toiO. Rogerperezoffers a pag_ matic definition: "ciuality is not perfection. lt is iriproving y"l'preui,ous bestand shoring thatyou areattne bading edgein ,oItL"e"G-, . nu educationontinuum At the outset, for a common frame of reference, r wish to crariff my 2- conceptto totalquarig management. Fqrme" quarityis degree ote*cei lence or rerative goodness: soquarity is not erceierd pei J_- nutieters t"J"*t u theascending dggree of excerge-pernap n"q*mi qLi,tv, and high quality. Even among itenns or objects *ritfi "nijf, qualityr orre can have higher quarig and. another o"* *iy possess fre nignest quarrty,- ng. l 2-1. Global perspective r* r,d;idUr* "f ";-il;; dourm flr.;;;irfil';bff" in Graduate.Teacher dlscussed: globar perspective, andragogicarprincipres, ano-ut"ro,ig'r""rn- - *" gbul Having defined my onoept of reM in the context of the teacher educatbn @ntinuum, r shail non proceed t" r,"* iiiil'J"n o" gpplied in- graduate teacher education. To do "r""rv this, itrree is"r." *irt o" Management is gretting things done througir itre eror.ts bf others_ The others are he members of our respective otrLe sbtr, the facurg, te str.roents qnd.even the arumni, the parents, the emproyeri, and the jenerar pubric s -' -as they rerate with our respective acaoemic iommunities, ' . Total is a word. used to refer to tfre whole, including gverything and everyoqe- Tobr euarity Manage,m";iFa-M) th"iurL "O*,*", fers to a set of concepts, principres and ""tuiGotti,'e 'excellence actuaily practiced. and consistenily impremenftl; zation from the highest officiats eascaong Tolal Quarity iranagement Education #rs pecsy ano rL&.i eoud;;"G; Lcner , . inllnatbnally hr4ous surueys of graduate educafrre Maste/s programs in the United $ates and Survey of.the Dodoral programs iour English_speakin ing oounfies: Ausfalia, Great Brihin, Cinada and the United St,_G. . ..'ln the suwey of the.United.States ;il;;.;;;;lH;:A -^- ..-'l-lT|'-ry Surveyof uon were cordr.lc-ted.'
  24. 24. 4! 21rt C.nlury Trhdr, ' l.ru.r.nd Ch.lhng.r ln ptrlitpptnr Educrtlon rtudcntcrfaculty/admlnlstrators/alumnll emptoyers in 31 college and unlversltleg ln the United States connected with 4T lvlaster's programs were the respondents, while in the doctoral programs survey, 67 echolars from the four English-speaking countries Australia, Canada, Great Britain and the United States were the respondents. The following year, a similar survey of graduate Master's and doctoral programs was done on the Philippines by the PhilippineAssoclatlon for Graduate Education (PAGE) involving 65% ol the graduate lnstitutions (189 out of the total 290) in School Yeal| 993-1 994. It le interesting to note that the three surveys independently done of cach other yielded similar results. Among them are the following: . . 1 The highest concentration of enrollment and graduates was in teacher education. An ovenrvhelming opinion is the nged to improve the faculty advising, directing or Supervising of thesis/dissertation writing. The Trende 2,2. Andragogical Principles in Adult 19 Learning Admittedly, pedagbgy applies to child and adolescent learning and is the concern in the undergraduate teacher education. Adult learning,'however, requires a totally different set of principles which Knowles first advanced in 1984 as andragogy, a theory of adult learning which is based on research and praotice from adult education and psychology. Applied to graduate teacher education, the following four (4) andragogical principles were found effective: Adult learners prefer to be involved rather than just passively listening for extended periods of time. Adult learners need to be more self-directing. * Adult learners expect that their previous experiences and knowledge will be respected. Adult learners tend to be present, rather than future-oriented. Two cominon types of Master's proglams were'tne traOitionat or ancillary also called the gatekeeper for the Ph.D. (M.A./ 4. 2,3. Lifelong Learning for Professional Teacher M.S.) because those who enrolled saw them as a good preparation for the PhD. programs; and the second were the career advancement Maste/s programs; client-centered and careeroriented (M.8.A., M. Ed., and M,P.A.) ln 1992, Feseler and Christensen concluded from empirical studies over a twenty-year period that a teacher's professional career passes through,six stages: Doctoral research should add to knowledge but may include applied or prpctical research. Stage 1. Preservice Strage 2: lnduction Graduate students should be required to acquire writing skills before they write their thesis/dissertation. Competency Building Stage 4: Growth and Enthusiasm Dissatisfaction Graduate stqdents should,be assisted financially in thesis/ Stage 5: Career Stability/Career Frustration dissertation writing. 7. Stage 3. Stage 6: Career Wind-down/Bitter Exit Graduate teacher edueation includes a one-year, non-degree poslbachelods program for non-education graduates to qualiff them foi etementary and secondary school teaching. The graduate teacher education degree program frorir maste/s to doctorate include three divisions: curriculum and instruction for teacher career advancement (M. Ed., M. S. in College Teach- ing, M.A. in Teaching); educational leadership and pjicy studies to prepare professionals to fill administrative, supervisory and. policy-making roles; and psychology in Education which prepares graduate students fof leadership roles as ed0cators, researchers, clinicians, counselo.rs, a nd practitioners. These six stage can well apply to Filipino professional teachers. Ieacher educators, the Department of Education, and the Teacher Education councilare advised to provide for pre-service and in-service activities that will asbist the teacheis as they go through these phases of their professional life. Huberman, Thompson, and Weiland in their:article,,perspective on the Teaching career.:' (in Biddle et. al, p.52) proposed a chart of lifelong career for professionalteachers. This is an integrated model showing how the induction to teaching from one to three years can lead to stabil2ation for the next 2-3 year6 which !s te.mporary however, because depending on the lgveiopment in the tlrild. sJqgg, the bif.urcatio.n can tead eitner.to se- . . .
  25. 25. t0 21et Century Trends, tssues and Chailenges in philippine Education satisfactory disengagement or a bifter oisengagement from the Pne. gr baching c€treer. An adaptation of a rifelong career mo$el is presented that can serve ra gulde in the development and continuing improvement or jraouate bachereducation. ln conclusion, may r reiterate; "becoming b professional teacher is a rong journey; in fact, a riferong Jounny." noJ a destination; rather, it is a journey, Years of GraduateTeacher Stage Teeching Education 1€ Specialization . Adequacyof facilities, funding, adminigtrative and supportservices Sound research Procedures Contribution of thesis to knowledge enhancament I # 7-15 1&30 1m + Self-Assessment Master's program -" t lI I + CareerProgress Experimentationl Doctoral program employmentof I J t I./1 lll Serene graduates I Setf-Reassessment Satisfaction High percentage of High levelof Research and/or Teaching skilts satisfaction of graduates Enhancement I I Frustration + Post-doctoral I enrichment' Evaluations of the euarity of rndividuar Aspects of Graduates Bitter I )isengagement Disengagementl ' frqm professor from Professor I
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Trends in Philippine Education

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