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UNIVERSITE SAINT ESPRIT DE KASLIK
FACULTE DES SCIENCES AGRONOMIQUE
Culture de Iaitue dans Ie systeme N.F.T.
Memoire presente par :
AOUNRoy
Sous Ia direction de :
Dr. NOUN Jihad
Kaslik-Liban
2008
RESUME
Durant l'hiver 2007, un essai de culture hors sol de cmq varietes de laitues
chicores a ete conduit dans la region de Zahrieh dans le Maten. Le but etait de comparer
le developpement, le rendement, la qualite et le prix de revient entre la culture en hors sol
et en plein sol. Le projet consiste aproduire des laitues chicores dans un systeme appele
Nutriment Film Technique ou "NFT'. La culture "NFT' est une culture hydroponique
sans substrat avec circulation permanente d'une solution nutritive recyclee.
Trois saisons de culture ont ete faites entre l'hiver et le printemps de l'annee 2007. La
culture a ete faite sous serre en deux etages constituant chacun une repetition. Chaque
repetition comportait 70 laitues. Plusieurs criteres agronomiques ont ete pris en
consideration pour avoir un bon jugement sur la difference entre la culture en "NFT' et en
plein sol notamment, la surface foliaire, la couleur des laitues, le temps de recolte, le prix
de revient.
Apres la comparaison du poids et la mesure du diametre des cinq varietes de
laitue chicoree entre le premier et le deuxieme etage, le test de comparaison de moyenne
de Fisher n'a pas donnee de difference significative entre les deux etages.
La mortalite a varie pendant les trois experimentations de moins de cinq pourcent ce
qui etait un nombre significatif car la mortalite dans les cultures en sol peut atteindre
facilement les quinze pourcent.
On a remarque pendant cette experimentation une difference entre la couleur des
cinq varietes de laitues entre le premier et le deuxieme etage.
En plus les laitues cultivees en hydroponie ont ete mieux conservees que celle
cultivees en plein sol. Sur le plan agro-economique, on a remarque que le cout moyen de
production pour la laitue est largement inferieur en culture hors sol compare au cout de
production en plein sol (0,07 $pour le hors sol contre 0,20$ en culture en plein champ).
ABSTRACT
During the winter of 2007 a hydroponic test culture of 5 varieties of
lettuce was conducted in the region Zahrieh in Maten. The aim was to compare
the development, performance, quality and cost between hydroponic culture and
traditional one. The project is to produce lettuce in a system called "NFT" or
Nutrient Film Technique. The culture "NFT" is hydroponics without substrate
with circulation of a permanent solution nutritive recycled.
Three cultures where made during the period between winter and spring
2007. These cultures were planted under tunnel using two stages of plantation
constituting a repetition. Every repetition had 70 lettuces.
Several criteria were considered to have good judgment on the difference between
the culture "NFT" and open ground in particular, the leaf surface, the color of lettuce, the
time ofharvest, and the cost price.
After comparing the weight and measure the diameter of five varieties of lettuce,
the test comparing average Fisher has not given significant difference between the two
cultures.
The mortality rate has fluctuated during the three tests of less than five percent
which was a significant number since the death in cultures in soil can easily reach fifteen
percent.
It was noted during this experiment the difference between the color of five
varieties oflettuce between the first and second culture.
As a plus lettuce grown in hydroponics had a good shelve life as same as the one
cultured i.t1 the soil noting that th.e cost of each lettuce crop in NFT is $ 0.07 per lettuce
while the cost ofeach lettuce cultivation in the open field is $ 0.20.
i
'·.
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_y ~ •• y pl...<o 0--A • L...:i.....t..J I J_.a..j J)l>
• I .)~I .9 _9--D.-i-J GJ L...Lo ..J-411 uLS.9 .uul • La_j ~J--'> I j...J I Lili..i.....o J ~_j.JI (!.) L>
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U.9.) ~UI ~IJj...JI .9--" .9"NFT" ~ f'L.b._j J ~~ i!.l_j_jl .9--" u~l
• PVC J I 0--A j.b L....W J 4..._,>_>--]
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.• iiSi II ..>--"--"'.9 .)La.J.I .:W.9.9 , ~I u~ , UJ~I ~ f0->: ()0~1 <1....>.9 ~.9
•, ·Y)"NFT" Jl ~ ljJ J i I <; II ..>--"--" J Jj--LJ I .9--" z,:--J l_j_j__J I !"-" I 0--A .9
.(~ J~.9.) ·,~·) ~..!....Li.:UI ~IJj...JI 3 (~J~.9.)
TABLE DE MATIERE
ETUDE BIBLIOGRAPHIQUE................................................................. 2
CHAPITRE 1 : Les cultures hors sol .......................................................................... 2
1. Definitions ......................................................................................................................2
1.1 Les systemes de cultures hors sol pratiques ................................................................2
1.2 Les avantages et les inconvenients des cultures hors sol.............................................3
1.2.1 Les avantages des cultures hors sol..........................................................................3
1.2.2 Les inconvenients des cultures hors sol....................................................................3
1.3 Classification des systemes de culture hors sol selon le substrat utilise..................•...4
1.3.1 Cultures sur solutions nutritives...............................................................................4
1.3.1.1 Solutions fixes ..................................................................................................4
1.3.1.2 Solutions circulantes.........................................................................................4
1.3.1.2.1 Pulverisation sur racines...........................................................................4
1.3.1.2.2 Systeme ''Nutriment Film Technique" (N.F.T.) .........................................5
1.3.2 Cultures sur substrats .....................................................................................5
1.3.2.1 Proprietes des substrats .....................................................................................6
1.3.2.2 Classification des substrats ...............................................................................6
1.3.2.2.1 Les substrats organiques naturels..............................................................6
1.3.2.2.2 Les substrats rnineraux .............................................................................6
1.4 Les systemes de culture hors sol ..................................................................................7
1.4.1 Les systemes ouverts ...............................................................................................7
1.4.2 Les systemes fermes ................................................................................................7
1.5 La laitue........................................................................................................................7
1.5.1 Profil de la culture de laitue.....................................................................................7
1.5.2 Pratiques culturales .................................................................................................8
1.6 Valeur nutritionnelle de Ia laitue.................................................................................9
1.7 La Solution nutritive..................................................................................................12
1.7.1 Role de La solution nutritive ................................................................................. 12
1.7.2 Le pH.................................................................................................................... 14
1.7.3 La conductivite electrique (CE) ............................................................................. 14
1.7.4 Temperature de la solution nutritive ...................................................................... 14
1.8 Role des Elements Nutritifs .......................................................................................15
1.8.1 L'Azote................................................................................................................. 15
1.8.2 Le Phosphore ........................................................................................................ 15
1.8.3 Le Potassium......................................................................................................... 15
1.8.4 Le Calcium ........................................................................................................... 16
1.8.5 Le Magnesium ...................................................................................................... 16
1.8.6 Le Soufre .............................................................................................................. 16
1.8.7 Le Cuivre .............................................................................................................. 16
1.8.8 Le Fer ................................................................................................................... 17
1.8.9 Le Zinc ................................................................................................................. 17
1.8.10 Le Molybdene ..................................................................................................... 17
1.8.11 Autres micro elements ......................................................................................... 17
1.9 Principales maladies ..................................................................................................17
1.9.1 Pythium aphanidermatum (Pythium spp.) .............................................................. 17
1.9.2 Mildiou de la laitue (Bremia lactucae) ................................................................... 18
1.9.3 Moisissure grise ou aBotrytis................................................................................ 19
1.9.4 Pourriture du pied de la laitue................................................................................ 19
1.9.5 Pourriture de la tige ...............................................................................................20
1.9.7 Anthracnose ..........................................................................................................21
1.9.8 Mosai"que de la laitue.............................................................................................21
1.10 Principaux insectes et acariens ................................................................................22
ii
1.10.1 Pucerons de la laitue (Nasonovia ribisnigri) et autres...........................................22
1.10.2 Aleurode des serres .............................................................................................22
1.10.3 Ephydrides (Ephydridae) .....................................................................................23
1.10.4 Thrips de l'oignon ...............................................................................................24
1.10.5 Limaces et escargots............................................................................................24
1.11 Mauvaises herbes ...........................•.........................................................................25
1.12 Ravageurs vertt!bres.................................................................................................25
CHAPITRE 2 : Materiel et methode ......................................................................... 26
Dispositif experimental :............................................................................................. 26
2.1 Lieu d'experimentation..............................................................................................26
2.2 Description du systeme ..........................•.................................................................•.26
2.2.1 La serre.................................................................................................................26
2.2.2 Mise en place du systeme "NFT"...........................................................................27
2.3 Description du mode d'operation du systeme ...........................................................29
2.3.1 Le systeme de desinfection....................................................................................29
2.3.2 Le tableau de commande electrique .......................................................................29
2.3.3 Systeme de rechauffement.....................................................................................30
2.3.4 Systeme d'aeration et de refroidissement...............................................................30
2.4 Mise en place de Ia culture.........................................................................................30
2.4.1 Choix de la culture ................................................................................................30
2.4.2 Choix des varietes .................................................................................................31
2.5 La plantation........•.....................................................................................................31
2.6 Preparation de Ia solution nutritive........................•..................................................32
2.7 Les parasites et les maladies et leurs methodes de lutte............................................32
2.8 Les controles journaliers.........................................•..................................................32
2.9 La recolte.............•...........................................•..........................................................33
2.10 Facteurs analyses .....................................................................................................33
iii
;·.
Chapitre 3 : Resultat et discussion ............................................................................ 34
3.1 Mise en place du dispositif experimental...................................................................34
3.2 Mesure du diametre de Ia pomme verte ou grand diametre.....................................34
3.2.1 Interpretation des resultats.....................................................................................35
3.3 Mesure du poids des 5 varietes ..................................................................................36
La mesure du poids des cinq varietes de laitues sont presentes dans le tableau 4.........36
3.2.6 Interpretation des resultats concernant le poids des laitues .....................................37
3.3 La coloration des laitues ............................................................................................38
3.4 La precocite...........................................................................•....................................38
3.5 La conservation..........................................................................................................38
3.6 La mortalite................................................................................................................39
3.7 Aspect agro economique ............................................................................................39
3.7.1 Cout de la culture en plein sol (pour 1000 m2
, 8000 plantes) ..................................39
Conclusion.................................................................................................................... 40
BIBLIOGRAPIDE...................................................................................................... 41
iv
BIBLIOGRAPHIE
Anonymous, 2007 ,www.wikipedia.com. La laitue. 15-8-2007
BLANC D., 1987. Les cultures hors sol. INRA. 409 pages.
ELMHIRST J., 2006. Profil de la culture de la laitue de serre au Canada. Centre de lutte
antiparasitaire. Ottawa, Canada. 38 pages.
FRONTY L., 1986. Hydro culture et hydroponie : les cultures sans sol. Ed Dargaud.
Bourges,France. 79 pages.
LESAINT C. et COIC Y., 1983.Cultures hydroponiques. La maison rustique, Paris, 119
pages.
LETARD M., ERARD P. et JENNEQUIN B., 1995. Maitrise de }'irrigation fertilisante:
tomate sous serre et abris. Ctifl, 220 pages.
Ministry of agriculture, Fisheries and Food, 1984. Tomato production 6 hydroponic
growing systems, 43 pages.
MUSARD M. et ZUANG H., 1986. Cultures legumieres sur substrats. Deuxieme edition,
Ctifl. 276 pages.
PIVOT D., GILLI C., et CARLEN C., 2005. Donnees de base pour la fumure de cultures
de legumes, de fleurs, de fraises, sur substrat. Agroscope RAC changins station federates
de recherches agronomiques .8 pages
SARKISS F., 1998. Mise en place d'un essai de culture hors sol »tomate »avec recyclage
de la solution nutritive. These de fin d'etude. Ecole superieure d'ingenieurs d'agronomie
mediterraneenne .71pages.
USDA Nutrient Database for Standard Reference, Release 12 (March 1998)
41

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culture de la laitue NFT hydropponique.pdf

  • 1. UNIVERSITE SAINT ESPRIT DE KASLIK FACULTE DES SCIENCES AGRONOMIQUE Culture de Iaitue dans Ie systeme N.F.T. Memoire presente par : AOUNRoy Sous Ia direction de : Dr. NOUN Jihad Kaslik-Liban 2008
  • 2. RESUME Durant l'hiver 2007, un essai de culture hors sol de cmq varietes de laitues chicores a ete conduit dans la region de Zahrieh dans le Maten. Le but etait de comparer le developpement, le rendement, la qualite et le prix de revient entre la culture en hors sol et en plein sol. Le projet consiste aproduire des laitues chicores dans un systeme appele Nutriment Film Technique ou "NFT'. La culture "NFT' est une culture hydroponique sans substrat avec circulation permanente d'une solution nutritive recyclee. Trois saisons de culture ont ete faites entre l'hiver et le printemps de l'annee 2007. La culture a ete faite sous serre en deux etages constituant chacun une repetition. Chaque repetition comportait 70 laitues. Plusieurs criteres agronomiques ont ete pris en consideration pour avoir un bon jugement sur la difference entre la culture en "NFT' et en plein sol notamment, la surface foliaire, la couleur des laitues, le temps de recolte, le prix de revient. Apres la comparaison du poids et la mesure du diametre des cinq varietes de laitue chicoree entre le premier et le deuxieme etage, le test de comparaison de moyenne de Fisher n'a pas donnee de difference significative entre les deux etages. La mortalite a varie pendant les trois experimentations de moins de cinq pourcent ce qui etait un nombre significatif car la mortalite dans les cultures en sol peut atteindre facilement les quinze pourcent. On a remarque pendant cette experimentation une difference entre la couleur des cinq varietes de laitues entre le premier et le deuxieme etage. En plus les laitues cultivees en hydroponie ont ete mieux conservees que celle cultivees en plein sol. Sur le plan agro-economique, on a remarque que le cout moyen de production pour la laitue est largement inferieur en culture hors sol compare au cout de production en plein sol (0,07 $pour le hors sol contre 0,20$ en culture en plein champ).
  • 3. ABSTRACT During the winter of 2007 a hydroponic test culture of 5 varieties of lettuce was conducted in the region Zahrieh in Maten. The aim was to compare the development, performance, quality and cost between hydroponic culture and traditional one. The project is to produce lettuce in a system called "NFT" or Nutrient Film Technique. The culture "NFT" is hydroponics without substrate with circulation of a permanent solution nutritive recycled. Three cultures where made during the period between winter and spring 2007. These cultures were planted under tunnel using two stages of plantation constituting a repetition. Every repetition had 70 lettuces. Several criteria were considered to have good judgment on the difference between the culture "NFT" and open ground in particular, the leaf surface, the color of lettuce, the time ofharvest, and the cost price. After comparing the weight and measure the diameter of five varieties of lettuce, the test comparing average Fisher has not given significant difference between the two cultures. The mortality rate has fluctuated during the three tests of less than five percent which was a significant number since the death in cultures in soil can easily reach fifteen percent. It was noted during this experiment the difference between the color of five varieties oflettuce between the first and second culture. As a plus lettuce grown in hydroponics had a good shelve life as same as the one cultured i.t1 the soil noting that th.e cost of each lettuce crop in NFT is $ 0.07 per lettuce while the cost ofeach lettuce cultivation in the open field is $ 0.20. i '·.
  • 4. ~I 0--A e_l~l 0 ~I Jj L.J...:i..3.1 J . L.i......J I _y ~ •• y pl...<o 0--A • L...:i.....t..J I J_.a..j J)l> • I .)~I .9 _9--D.-i-J GJ L...Lo ..J-411 uLS.9 .uul • La_j ~J--'> I j...J I Lili..i.....o J ~_j.JI (!.) L> • L,>_j.J I uL> ~IJj...JI .9 ~..!....Li.:U I ~IJj...JI If.:-! • Sli S: i 11.9 o JP.I .9 U.9.) ~UI ~IJj...JI .9--" .9"NFT" ~ f'L.b._j J ~~ i!.l_j_jl .9--" u~l • PVC J I 0--A j.b L....W J 4..._,>_>--] ~..!....Li.:U I. ~I Jj...J I 3 , "NFT" If.:-! Jj--LJ I ~ p-0-1 (.)..u0- 1--:! U..... oJJ: .:Jyl<: I .9 .• iiSi II ..>--"--"'.9 .)La.J.I .:W.9.9 , ~I u~ , UJ~I ~ f0->: ()0~1 <1....>.9 ~.9 •, ·Y)"NFT" Jl ~ ljJ J i I <; II ..>--"--" J Jj--LJ I .9--" z,:--J l_j_j__J I !"-" I 0--A .9 .(~ J~.9.) ·,~·) ~..!....Li.:UI ~IJj...JI 3 (~J~.9.)
  • 5. TABLE DE MATIERE ETUDE BIBLIOGRAPHIQUE................................................................. 2 CHAPITRE 1 : Les cultures hors sol .......................................................................... 2 1. Definitions ......................................................................................................................2 1.1 Les systemes de cultures hors sol pratiques ................................................................2 1.2 Les avantages et les inconvenients des cultures hors sol.............................................3 1.2.1 Les avantages des cultures hors sol..........................................................................3 1.2.2 Les inconvenients des cultures hors sol....................................................................3 1.3 Classification des systemes de culture hors sol selon le substrat utilise..................•...4 1.3.1 Cultures sur solutions nutritives...............................................................................4 1.3.1.1 Solutions fixes ..................................................................................................4 1.3.1.2 Solutions circulantes.........................................................................................4 1.3.1.2.1 Pulverisation sur racines...........................................................................4 1.3.1.2.2 Systeme ''Nutriment Film Technique" (N.F.T.) .........................................5 1.3.2 Cultures sur substrats .....................................................................................5 1.3.2.1 Proprietes des substrats .....................................................................................6 1.3.2.2 Classification des substrats ...............................................................................6 1.3.2.2.1 Les substrats organiques naturels..............................................................6 1.3.2.2.2 Les substrats rnineraux .............................................................................6 1.4 Les systemes de culture hors sol ..................................................................................7 1.4.1 Les systemes ouverts ...............................................................................................7 1.4.2 Les systemes fermes ................................................................................................7 1.5 La laitue........................................................................................................................7 1.5.1 Profil de la culture de laitue.....................................................................................7 1.5.2 Pratiques culturales .................................................................................................8
  • 6. 1.6 Valeur nutritionnelle de Ia laitue.................................................................................9 1.7 La Solution nutritive..................................................................................................12 1.7.1 Role de La solution nutritive ................................................................................. 12 1.7.2 Le pH.................................................................................................................... 14 1.7.3 La conductivite electrique (CE) ............................................................................. 14 1.7.4 Temperature de la solution nutritive ...................................................................... 14 1.8 Role des Elements Nutritifs .......................................................................................15 1.8.1 L'Azote................................................................................................................. 15 1.8.2 Le Phosphore ........................................................................................................ 15 1.8.3 Le Potassium......................................................................................................... 15 1.8.4 Le Calcium ........................................................................................................... 16 1.8.5 Le Magnesium ...................................................................................................... 16 1.8.6 Le Soufre .............................................................................................................. 16 1.8.7 Le Cuivre .............................................................................................................. 16 1.8.8 Le Fer ................................................................................................................... 17 1.8.9 Le Zinc ................................................................................................................. 17 1.8.10 Le Molybdene ..................................................................................................... 17 1.8.11 Autres micro elements ......................................................................................... 17 1.9 Principales maladies ..................................................................................................17 1.9.1 Pythium aphanidermatum (Pythium spp.) .............................................................. 17 1.9.2 Mildiou de la laitue (Bremia lactucae) ................................................................... 18 1.9.3 Moisissure grise ou aBotrytis................................................................................ 19 1.9.4 Pourriture du pied de la laitue................................................................................ 19 1.9.5 Pourriture de la tige ...............................................................................................20 1.9.7 Anthracnose ..........................................................................................................21 1.9.8 Mosai"que de la laitue.............................................................................................21 1.10 Principaux insectes et acariens ................................................................................22 ii
  • 7. 1.10.1 Pucerons de la laitue (Nasonovia ribisnigri) et autres...........................................22 1.10.2 Aleurode des serres .............................................................................................22 1.10.3 Ephydrides (Ephydridae) .....................................................................................23 1.10.4 Thrips de l'oignon ...............................................................................................24 1.10.5 Limaces et escargots............................................................................................24 1.11 Mauvaises herbes ...........................•.........................................................................25 1.12 Ravageurs vertt!bres.................................................................................................25 CHAPITRE 2 : Materiel et methode ......................................................................... 26 Dispositif experimental :............................................................................................. 26 2.1 Lieu d'experimentation..............................................................................................26 2.2 Description du systeme ..........................•.................................................................•.26 2.2.1 La serre.................................................................................................................26 2.2.2 Mise en place du systeme "NFT"...........................................................................27 2.3 Description du mode d'operation du systeme ...........................................................29 2.3.1 Le systeme de desinfection....................................................................................29 2.3.2 Le tableau de commande electrique .......................................................................29 2.3.3 Systeme de rechauffement.....................................................................................30 2.3.4 Systeme d'aeration et de refroidissement...............................................................30 2.4 Mise en place de Ia culture.........................................................................................30 2.4.1 Choix de la culture ................................................................................................30 2.4.2 Choix des varietes .................................................................................................31 2.5 La plantation........•.....................................................................................................31 2.6 Preparation de Ia solution nutritive........................•..................................................32 2.7 Les parasites et les maladies et leurs methodes de lutte............................................32 2.8 Les controles journaliers.........................................•..................................................32 2.9 La recolte.............•...........................................•..........................................................33 2.10 Facteurs analyses .....................................................................................................33 iii ;·.
  • 8. Chapitre 3 : Resultat et discussion ............................................................................ 34 3.1 Mise en place du dispositif experimental...................................................................34 3.2 Mesure du diametre de Ia pomme verte ou grand diametre.....................................34 3.2.1 Interpretation des resultats.....................................................................................35 3.3 Mesure du poids des 5 varietes ..................................................................................36 La mesure du poids des cinq varietes de laitues sont presentes dans le tableau 4.........36 3.2.6 Interpretation des resultats concernant le poids des laitues .....................................37 3.3 La coloration des laitues ............................................................................................38 3.4 La precocite...........................................................................•....................................38 3.5 La conservation..........................................................................................................38 3.6 La mortalite................................................................................................................39 3.7 Aspect agro economique ............................................................................................39 3.7.1 Cout de la culture en plein sol (pour 1000 m2 , 8000 plantes) ..................................39 Conclusion.................................................................................................................... 40 BIBLIOGRAPIDE...................................................................................................... 41 iv
  • 9. BIBLIOGRAPHIE Anonymous, 2007 ,www.wikipedia.com. La laitue. 15-8-2007 BLANC D., 1987. Les cultures hors sol. INRA. 409 pages. ELMHIRST J., 2006. Profil de la culture de la laitue de serre au Canada. Centre de lutte antiparasitaire. Ottawa, Canada. 38 pages. FRONTY L., 1986. Hydro culture et hydroponie : les cultures sans sol. Ed Dargaud. Bourges,France. 79 pages. LESAINT C. et COIC Y., 1983.Cultures hydroponiques. La maison rustique, Paris, 119 pages. LETARD M., ERARD P. et JENNEQUIN B., 1995. Maitrise de }'irrigation fertilisante: tomate sous serre et abris. Ctifl, 220 pages. Ministry of agriculture, Fisheries and Food, 1984. Tomato production 6 hydroponic growing systems, 43 pages. MUSARD M. et ZUANG H., 1986. Cultures legumieres sur substrats. Deuxieme edition, Ctifl. 276 pages. PIVOT D., GILLI C., et CARLEN C., 2005. Donnees de base pour la fumure de cultures de legumes, de fleurs, de fraises, sur substrat. Agroscope RAC changins station federates de recherches agronomiques .8 pages SARKISS F., 1998. Mise en place d'un essai de culture hors sol »tomate »avec recyclage de la solution nutritive. These de fin d'etude. Ecole superieure d'ingenieurs d'agronomie mediterraneenne .71pages. USDA Nutrient Database for Standard Reference, Release 12 (March 1998) 41