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Introduction to Artificial Intelligence

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Introduction to Artificial Intelligence

  1. 1. ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE Prepared By – Prof. Snehal Y. Hole
  2. 2.  Introduction  Definition  Applications of AI  Advantages and Disadvantages  Growth and Future of AI  Conclusion  Bibliography
  3. 3.  Intelligence : “The capacity to learn and solve problems.”  Artificial Intelligence : Artificial Intelligence (AI) is the simulation of human intelligence by machines. 1) The ability to solve problems. 2) The ability to act rationally. 3) The ability to act like humans.  The central principles of Al include : 1) Reasoning, knowledge, planning, learning and communication. 2) Perception and the ability to move and manipulate objects. 3) It is the science and engineering of making intelligent machines, especially intelligent computer programs
  4. 4.  Computers with the ability to mimic or duplicate the functions of the human brain.  Artificial Intelligence is the intelligence of machines and the branch of computer science which aims to create it.  "The branch of computer science that is concerned with the automation of intelligent behaviour" (Luger and Stubblefield. 1993).
  5. 5. A medical clinic can use AI systems to organize bed schedules, make a staff rotation and provide medical information. AI has also application in fields of cardiology (CRG), neurology (MRI), embryology (sonography), complex operations of internal organs, etc  It also has an application in Image guided surgery and image analysis and enhancement.
  6. 6.  Scientists are trying to make the computer emulate the activities of the skillful musician.  Composition, performance, music theory, sound processing are some of the major areas on which research in music and AI are focusing on. Eg : chucks, smartmusic, etc.
  7. 7.  Many telecommunications companies make use of heuristic search in the management of their workforces.  For example BT Group has deployed heuristic search in a scheduling application that provides the work schedules of 20000 engineers.
  8. 8.  A ROBOT is a mechanical or virtual artificial agent, usually an electro mechanical machine that is guided by a computer program or electronic circuitry.  Robots can be autonomous or semi-autonomous.  A robot may convey a sense of intelligence or thoughts of its own.
  9. 9.  In the earlier days gaming technology was not broadened.  Physicist Willy Higinbotham created the the first video game in 1958.  It was called “Tennis For Tow” and was oscilloscope.  But, now AI technology has become vast and standard has also been increased.  For Eg : Sudoku, Fear, Fallout, etc
  10. 10.  Organize operations, invest in stocks, and manage properties.  In August 2001, robots beat humans in a simulated financial trading competition.  Some other applications include loan investigation, ATM design, safe and fast banking, etc.
  11. 11.  Credit granting  Information management and retrieval  AI and expert systems embedded in products  Plant layout  Help desk and assistance  Employee performance evaluation  Shipping  Marketing  Warehouse optimization  In space workstation maintainance  Satellite controls  Network developments  Nuclear management
  12. 12. Advantages :  More powerful and more useful computers.  New and improved interfaces.  Solving new problems.  Better handling of information.  Relieves information overload.  Conversion of information into knowledge.  Disadvantages :  Increased costs  Difficulty with software development - slow and expensive  Few experienced programmers  Few practical products have reached the market as yet.
  13. 13.  Looking at the features and its wide application we may definitely stick to artificial intelligence. Seeing at the development of Al is it that the future world is becoming artificial.  Biological intelligence is fixed, because it is an old, mature paradigm but the new paradigm of non-biological computation and intelligence is growing exponentially.  The memory capacity of the human brain is probably of the order often thousand million binary digits. But most of this is probably used in remembering visual impressions, and other comparatively wasteful ways.  Hence we can say that as natural intelligence is limited and volatile too world may now depend upon computers for smooth working.
  14. 14.  Sophia is a social humanoid robot developed by Hong Kong based company Hanson Robotics.  Sophia was activated on April 19,2015.  She made her first public appearance at South by Southwest Festival in mid-March 2016 in United States.  In October 2017 Sophia became a Saudi Arabian citizen, the first robot to receive citizenship in any country.
  15. 15. Since Al is applicable in almost all fields, they become the needs of our life. It is the reason behind the explosive growth of AI. The growth can be divided into two parts based on the application area and what purpose they serve, they are as follows:  Growth in positive sense (useful to society)  Growth in negative sense (harmful to society)
  16. 16.  Till now we have discussed in brief about Artificial Intelligence.  We have discussed some of its principles, its applications, its achievements etc.  The ultimate goal of institutions and scientists working on Al is to solve majority of the problems or to achieve the tasks which we humans directly can't accomplish.  It is for sure that development in this field of computer science will change the complete scenario of the world. Now it is the responsibility of creamy layer of engineers to develop this field.
  17. 17.  http://www.ai.mit.edu/projects/humanoid- robotics-group/  http://www.us.aibo.com/  http://world.altavista.com/  http://www.mrmind.com/mrmind3  http://www.aaai.org/Pathfinder/html/show.html
  18. 18. Types of Artificial Intelligence (AI): AI can be classified in any number of ways there are two types of main classification. Type1: 1.Weak AI or Narrow AI: It is focused on one narrow task, the phenomenon that machines which are not too intelligent to do their own work can be built in such a way that they seem smart. An example would be a poker game where a machine beats human where in which all rules and moves are fed into the machine. Here each and every possible scenario need to be entered beforehand manually. Each and every weak AI will contribute to the building of strong AI. 2. Strong AI: The machines that can actually think and perform tasks on its own just like a human being. There are no proper existing examples for this but some industry leaders are very keen on getting close to build a strong AI which has resulted in rapid progress.
  19. 19. Type2(based on functionalities): 1.Reactive Machines: This is one of the basic forms of AI. It doesn’t have past memory and cannot use past information to information for the future actions. Example:- IBM chess program that beat Garry Kasparov in the 1990s. 2.Limited Memory: AI systems can use past experiences to inform future decisions. Some of the decision-making functions in self-driving cars have been designed this way. Observations used to inform actions happening in the not so distant future, such as a car that has changed lanes. These observations are not stored permanently and also Apple’s Chatbot Siri.
  20. 20. 3. Theory of Mind: This type of AI should be able to understand people’s emotion, belief, thoughts, expectations and be able to interact socially Even though a lot of improvements are there in this field this kind of AI is not complete yet. 4. Self-awareness: An AI that has it’s own conscious, super intelligent, self- awareness and sentient (In simple words a complete human being). Of course, this kind of bot also doesn’t exist and if achieved it will be one of the milestones in the field of AI.
  21. 21. There are many ways AI can be achieved some of them are as follows:
  22. 22. The most important among them are as follows: 1.Machine Learning (ML): It is a method where the target(goal) is defined and the steps to reach that target is learned by the machine itself by training(gaining experience). For example to identify a simple object such as an apple or orange. The target is achieved not by explicitly specifying the details about it and coding it but it is just as we teach a child by showing multiple different pictures of it and therefore allowing the machine to define the steps to identify it like an apple or an orange. 2. Natural Language Processing (NLP): Natural Language Processing is broadly defined as the automatic manipulation of natural language, like speech and text, by software. One of the well- known examples of this is email spam detection as we can see how it has improved in our mail system.
  23. 23. 3. Vision: It can be said as a field which enables the machines to see. Machine vision captures and analyses visual information using a camera, analog-to-digital conversion, and digital signal processing. It can be compared to human eyesight but it is not bound by the human limitation which can enable it to see through walls(now that would be interesting if we can have implants that can make us see through the wall). It is usually achieved through machine learning to get the best possible results so we could say that these two fields are interlinked.
  24. 24. 4. Robotics: It is a field of engineering focused on the design and manufacturing of robots. Robots are often used to perform tasks that are difficult for humans to perform or perform consistently. Examples include car assembly lines, in hospitals, office cleaner, serving foods, and preparing foods in hotels, patrolling farm areas and even as police officers. Recently machine learning has been used to achieve certain good results in building robots that interact socially(Sophia) 5. Autonomous Vehicles: This area of AI has gathered a lot of attention. the list of vehicles includes cars, buses, trucks, trains, ships, submarines, and autopilot flying drones etc.
  25. 25. The fields above in simple terms can be shown as below and we can see why machine learning plays a major role in achieving AI.
  26. 26. Thank You !!

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