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COURSE DESIGNHutchinson and Waters (1987:21-38)
The importance of coursedesignCourse design is a substantial and important part of the workloadDesigning a course is providing syllabus design, material writing, classroom teaching and evaluation
Parameters of course design (Evans and St. John, 1998:145) Should the course be intensive or extensive? Should the learner’s performance be assessed or non-assessed? Should the course deal with immediate needs or with delayed needs?
Should the role of the teacher be that of the provider of knowledge and activities, or should it be as a facilitator of activities arising from learner’s expressed wants? Should the course have a broad or narrow focus?
Should the course be pre-study or pre- experience or run parallel with that study or experience? Should the material be common-core or specific to learner’s study or work?
Should the group taking the course be homogenous or should it be heterogeneous? Should the course design be worked out by the language teacher after consultation with the learners and the institution, or should it be subject to a process of negotiation with the learners?
Important questions for ESPcourse design Why? Who? Where? When? What? How?
Course design process WHAT? HOW? Language Learningdescription theories ESP syllabu methodology cours s e Learning st. Target st. WHO? WHY? WHERE? WHEN? Needs analysis
Language description is the way in which the language system is broken down and described for the purposes of learningLearning theory provides the theoretical basis for the methodology of how people learnNeeds analysis is the process of determining the needs for which a learner or group of learners requires a language and arranging the needs according to priorities
Classical/traditionalgrammar - the role played by each word in the sentence - the form of a word would change according to whether it was a subject, object, etc.
Structural linguistics- the grammar of language is describedin terms of syntagmatic structures whichcarry the fundamental proposition andnotion- substitution table is a typical means ofexplaining grammatical patterns
Diabetes mellitus cause unconsciousnessSome foods can shockA dog bite result in bad teethAn electric shock may deathInsufficient lead to heat strokecalcium allergies
Transformational generative - language must be viewed as a reflection of human thought patterns - the rules that enable the language user to generate the surface structures from the deep level of meaning - the relationship between the form and the meaning, and between performance and competence Look at the example on page 27
1. John is easy to please.2. John is eager to please.Is the form similar or different?Is the meaning similar or different?
1. The caterpillar eats the leaves.2. The leaves are eaten by the caterpillar.Is the form similar or different?Is the meaning similar or different?
Language variation andregister analysis- the whole communicative act is madeup of a number of contextuallydependent factors- language varies to the context of usethat enables us to distinguish formalfrom informal, written from spoken, etc. Look at the example on page 29
Text A Text BNow I have to change the Select required drillfinal size drill I require, Mount drill a tailstock.which is three quarters of Use taper sleeves asan inch diameter, and this is necessary.called a morse-taper sleeve. Set speed and start machine spindle. Position tailstock to workA slower speed for a larger piece.drill. Apply firm even pressure to tailstock hand wheel toNice even feed should give feed drill into work piecereasonable finish to thehole.
Functional/notionalgrammar - functions are concerned with social behavior - notions reflect the way in which the human mind thinks - notions + functions represent the categories of human thinking and social behavior - function = structure + context
Discourse/rhetoricalanalysis - there is more to meaning than just the words in sentence (hidden message) - the meaning of the same sentence changes if the context changes/the meaning changes according to the relationship between the participants in the dialogue and according to the reason for speaking Look at the example on page 33-34
- Can I go out to play?A - It’s raining. - Have you cut the grass yet?B - It’s raining. -I think I’ll go out for a walk.- -C It’s raining. - It’s raining.D - I think I’ll go out for a walk.
That’s all… Don’t forget to ask a cooperative respondent whether or not he/she is willing to be one of the panelists for the Panel Discussion session.