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Fighter Aircraft Avionics
Part III
SOLO HERMELIN
Updated: 04.04.13
1
Table of Content
SOLO
Fighter Aircraft Avionics
2
Introduction
Jet Fighter Generations
Second Generation (1950-1965(
Third...
Table of Content (continue – 1(
SOLO
Fighter Aircraft Avionics
Aircraft Propulsion System
Aircraft Flight Performance
Navi...
Table of Content (continue – 2(
SOLO
4
Fighter Aircraft Avionics
Equations of Motion of an Air Vehicle in Ellipsoidal Eart...
Continue from
Fighter Aircraft Avionics
Part II
SOLO
5
Fighter Aircraft Avionics
SOLO
6
Aircraft Flight Performance
SOLO
7
Aircraft Flight Performance
Drag
SOLO
8
Aircraft Flight Performance
Drag
SOLO
9
Aircraft Flight Performance
Drag
SOLO
10
Aircraft Flight Performance
In combat, a pilot is faced with a variety of limiting factors. Some limitations are
c...
SOLO
11
Aircraft Flight Performance
SOLO
12
Aircraft Flight Performance
13
Aircraft Flight Performance
14
Aircraft Flight Performance
15
Aircraft Flight Performance
16
Aircraft Flight Performance
SOLO
17
Aircraft Flight Performance
SOLO
18
Aircraft Flight Performance
19
NavigationSOLO
Flight on Earth Great Circles
The Shortest Flight Path between
two points 1 and 2 on the
Earth is on the...
20
Spherical TrigonometrySOLO
Assume three points on a unit radius sphere, defined by the vectors
→→→
CBA 1,1,1
Laws of Co...
21
SOLO
Assume three points on a unit radius sphere, defined by the vectors
→→→
CBA 1,1,1
Laws of Cosines for Spherical Tr...
22
Flow of Air Data to Key Avionics Sub-systems
Aircraft Avionics
Navigation
See “Navigation Systems” PDF
for a detailed p...
23
NavigationSOLO
Flight on Earth Great Circles
1
2
111 ,, λφR
222 ,, λφR
The Great Circle Distance between two points 1 a...
24
NavigationSOLO
Flight on Earth Great Circles
The Distance on the Great Circle between two points
1 and 2 is ρ.
1
2
111 ...
25
NavigationSOLO
Flight on Earth Great Circles
1
2
111 ,, λφR
222 ,, λφR
If the Aircraft flies with an Heading Error Δψ w...
SOLO
26
Navigation
Methods of Navigation
• Dead Reckoning (e.g. Inertial Navigation(
• Externally Dependent (e.g. GPS(
• D...
SOLO
27
Navigation
Dead Reckoning Navigation
Inertial rotation sensors classification:
Rotation sensorsRotation sensors
GyroscopicGyroscopic
Rate GyrosRate GyrosFree G...
29
Rate gyro
DTG – Dynamically Tuned Gyro
Flex Inversion Cardan joint
30
31
Main Components of a DTG
Transverse Cut of a DTG
Rate gyro
DTG – Dynamically Tuned Gyro
SOLO
32
Navigation
Inertial Navigation Systems
(a) Strapdown
There are two way to attach the Inertial Measurement Unit (IM...
SOLO
33
Navigation
Inertial Navigation Systems
SOLO
34
Navigation
Inertial Navigation Systems
35
SOLO
Strapdown Algorithm (Vector Notation(
Navigation
36
SOLO
Strapdown Algorithm
Navigation
SOLO
37
Navigation
Inertial Navigation Systems
Gyrocompass
SOLO
38
Navigation
Radar Altimeter
SOLO
39
Navigation
Externally Navigation Add Systems
eLORAN
LORAN - C
Global Navigation Satelite System (GNSS(
Distance Me...
SOLO
40
Navigation
Global Navigation Satelite System (GNSS(
Satellites of the
GPS
GLONASS and GALILEO
Systems
Four Satelli...
SOLO
41
Navigation
Global Navigation Satelite System (GNSS(
SOLO
42
Navigation
Global Navigation Satelite System (GNSS(
SOLO
43
Navigation
Global Navigation Satelite System (GNSS)
Differential GPS Systems (DGPS)
Differential GPS Systems (DGPS...
Global Positioning System (GPS)
SOLO
44
Navigation
A visual example of the GPS constellation in
motion with the Earth rota...
Satellite Position
SOLO
45
Navigation
GZ
GX
GY
Equatorial
Plane
εY
εZ
εX
Ascending
Node
Satellite
Orbit
Periapsis
Directio...
GPS Broadcast Ephemerides
SOLO
46
Navigation
GPS Broadcast Ephemerides
SOLO
47
Navigation
( )
Θ+=










=










= ωuur
ur
y
x
q ellipse
ell...
48
GPS Broadcast Ephemerides
SOLO Navigation
Global Positioning System
SOLO
49
Navigation
- x, y, z Satellite Coordinate in Geocentric-Equatorial Coordinate System
( )...
Global Positioning System
SOLO
50
Navigation
Global Positioning System
SOLO
51
Navigation
Using data from four Satellites we obtain
( )
( )
( )
( ) 444444
22
4
2
4
2
4...
Global Positioning System
SOLO
52
Navigation
Global Positioning System
SOLO
53
Navigation
Global Positioning System
SOLO
54
Navigation
GPS Satellite
GPS Control
Station
Global Positioning System
SOLO
55
Navigation
The key to the system accuracy is the fact that all signal components are
con...
Global Positioning System
SOLO
56
Navigation
The quadrature-phase components of L1, L2 and L3 signals, are bi-phase modula...
Global Positioning System
SOLO
57
Navigation
GPS Signal
Spectrum
SOLO
58
Navigation
Global Positioning System
SOLO
59
Navigation
GPS User Segment
(GPS Receiver)
Global Positioning System
SOLO
60
Navigation
GPS User Segment
(GPS Receiver)
SOLO
61
Navigation
Differential GPS Augmented Systems
SOLO
62
Navigation
Differential GPS Augmented Systems
SOLO
63
Navigation
GNSS Aviation Operational Performance Requirements
SOLO
64
Navigation
SOLO
65
Navigation
Externally Navigation Add Systems
LORAN - C
A LORAN receiver measures the
Time Difference of arrival be...
SOLO
66
Navigation
Externally Navigation Add Systems
eLORAN
eLORAN receiver employ Time of Arrival
(TOA) position techniqu...
SOLO
67
Navigation
Externally Navigation Add Systems
Distance Measuring Equipment (DME)
Aircraft DME Range
Determination S...
SOLO
68
Navigation
Externally Navigation Add Systems
Angle (Bearing Determination)
Determining Bearing to a
VOR Station
VH...
SOLO
69
Navigation
Externally Navigation Add Systems
TACAN is the Military
Enhancement of
VOR/DME
VHF Omni Directional Rad...
SOLO
70
Navigation
Data Base Matching
SOLO
71
Navigation
Terrain Referenced Navigation (TRN)
SOLO
72
Navigation
Terrain Referenced Navigation (TRN)
SOLO
73
Navigation
Externally Navigation Add Systems
SOLO
74
Aircraft Avionics
Navigation
Instrument Landing System (ILS)
SOLO
75
Navigation
Navigation Multi-Sensor Integration
Navigation Data
76
Aircraft SensorsSOLO
Introduction
Classification of Sensors by the type of energy they use for sensing:
We deal with se...
77
SOLO
Introduction
Classification of Sensors by the Measurements Type:
• Range and Direction to the Target (Active Senso...
I
0Ex
0Ey
Iz
Northx
Easty
Downz
Bx
By
Bz
Ω
Iy
Ix
tΩ
tΩ
Long
Lat
0Ez
Ex
Ey
Ez
AV

α
β
Target (T)
(object)
Platform
(B)
(se...
ψ θ
φ
B
x
L
x
B
z
L
y
L
z
B
y
TV

P
V

R

Az
El
Bx
SOLO
Assume that the platform with the sensor measure continuously a...
SOLO
Assume that the platform with the sensor measure continuously and without error
in the platform coordinates the objec...
( )
( )
( ) ( )
( )
( ) ( )









−
−
−
+=










=
TT
T
TT
TpT
zET
yET
xET
E
T
LongLat
Long
Lon...
ψ θ
φ
B
x
L
x
B
z
L
y
L
z
B
y
TV

P
V

R

Az
El
Bx
SOLO
Assume that the platform with the sensor measure continuously a...
( )kkx |ˆ
( )kx
( )1|1 ++ kkP
( )1| −kkP
( )1|1ˆ ++ kkx
( )1+kx
( )kkP |
( )kkP |1+
( )kkx |1ˆ +
( )kt ( )1+kt
Real Trajec...
SOLO
The problem is more complicated when they are Multiple Targets. In this case we must
determinate which measurement is...
85
General ProblemSOLO
If more Sensors are involved using Sensor Data Fusion we can improve.
In this case we have a Multi-...
86
General ProblemSOLO
Return to Table of Content
Functional Diagram of a Tracking System
A Tracking System performs the f...
87
Flow of Air Data to Key Avionics Sub-systems
Aircraft Avionics
Airborne Radars
See “Airborne Radars” PDF
for a detailed...
SOLO Airborne Radars
Second Generation Fighters Radars
Airborne Radars Ranging in Boresight Only used
for Gunsight Computa...
SOLO Airborne Radars
Third Generation Fighters Radars
A/A and A/G Modes.
A/A Mode:
Support Lead Computing Gunsight, in Gun...
SOLO Airborne Radars
90
SOLO Airborne Radars
91
92
SOLO
Example: Airborne Electronic Scan Antenna
SENSORS
SOLO Airborne Radars
Missions
• Air-to-Air Missions
Air combat makes extensive use of multi-mode radar capabilities
Perfor...
SOLO Airborne Radars
Spick M., “The Great Book of Modern Warplanes”, Salamander, 2003
F-18 AN/APG-65
Scan Modes
94
SOLO Airborne Radars
Spick M., “The Great Book of Modern Warplanes”, Salamander, 2003
A Downlook Search
in air-to-air mode...
SOLO Airborne Radars
Four-bar scan
Two -bar scan
One -bar scan
20x20deg air-combat scan
10x40deg
air-combat
scan
F-16 AN/A...
SOLO Airborne Radars
Missions (continue – 1)
• Air-to-Air Missions (continue – 1)
• Track-while-scan (TWS)
This Medium or ...
SOLO Lead Computing Gunsight
In the Lead Mode, the Pilot maneuvers the Aircraft to keep the Pipper (Optical Sight)
On the ...
SOLO Airborne Radars
Spick M., “The Great Book of Modern Warplanes”, Salamander, 2003
• Air-to-Surface Missions
The follow...
SOLO Airborne Radars
Spick M., “The Great Book of Modern Warplanes”, Salamander, 2003
• Air-to-Surface Missions (continue ...
SOLO Airborne Radars
Air-to-Surface Missions (continue – 2)
Stimson, G.W., “Introduction to Airborne Radar”, 1st
Ed., Hugh...
SOLO
• Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR)
Used to provide Radar Imaging of areas on the ground.
• Air-to-Surface Missions (con...
SOLO Airborne Radars
• Air-to-Surface Missions (continue – 5)
• Ground Moving Target Indicator (GMTI)
Used to detect movin...
SOLO Airborne Radars
• Air-to-Surface Missions (continue – 6)
http://www.secretprojects.co.uk/ebooks/APG-68.pdf
APG-68, F-...
SOLO Airborne Radars
• Air-to-Surface Missions (continue – 7)
Doppler Beam Sharpening
Ocean City, Maryland
APG -68 F-16’s ...
SOLO Airborne Radars
Airborne Radar Modes
Single
Target
Track
(STT)
Range
While
Scan
(RWS)
Air
Combat
Mode
(ACM)
High
Prio...
SOLO Airborne Radars
Missions
• Air-to-Air Missions
Waveform Type Typical Function Remarks
Velocity Search (VS) HPRF Pulse...
SOLO Airborne Radars
Missions
• Air-to-Ground Missions
Waveform Type Typical Function Remarks
Terrain Avoidance LPRF Non-c...
SOLO
Airborne Radars
AN/APG Series
AN/APG-1, S band interception radar for P-61
AN/APG-2, S band interception radar for P-...
SOLO Airborne Radars
AN/APG Series (continuous 1)
AN/APG-23, Fire control radar for B-36A
AN/APG-24, Fire control radar fo...
SOLO Airborne Radars
AN/APG Series (continuous 2)
AN/APG-51, Hughes Aircraft interception radar for F3H-2, F3D Skyknight
A...
SOLO Airborne Radars
112
SOLO
Return to
Table of Content
113
SOLO Airborne Radars F-16 Display
114
SOLO Airborne Radars
http://www.ausairpower.net/TE-Fighter-Cockpits.html
115
SOLO Airborne Radars
http://www.ausairpower.net/TE-Fighter-Cockpits.html
The identical Master Monitor Display and Multi-Fu...
SOLO Airborne Radars
Spick M., “The Great Book of Modern Warplanes”, Salamander, 2003
117
F/A-18E/F APG-79 AESA RADAR
118
AN/APG-79 is another AESA radar which was developed in US by Raytheon for
F/A-18E/F starting from 2000. The first fly test...
120
Su-34 Pilot, Co-Pilot Side-by-Side Cockpit
121
122Comparison of Fighters Radar Ranges
Airborne Radars
And their maximal effective detection range to the fighters in
the world should be:
* F-15C & Su-27 (RCS = 10~15m2
): 450 ...
APG-67 V4 (T-50)
For RCS 0.0001 m2 class target: 3~4 km+
For RCS 0.001 m2 class target: 5~6 km+
For RCS 0.1 m2 class targe...
Detection Ranges of Different Fighters -Radars
SOLO Airborne Radars
NOAR AESA (JAS-39 C/D PLUS, post-2013)
For RCS 0.0001 ...
126
Infrared/Optical Systems See “E-O and IR Systems Pyloads” PDF
for a detailed presentation.
127
Target Identification System, Electro-Optical (TISEO)
F-4 (V) Phantom
E-O and IR Systems Payloads
F-14. Close-up of th...
128
E-O and IR Systems Payloads
MiG-29 nose showing radome and IRST
IRST
Su-35S demonstrator with exposed
Irbis-E phased a...
129
E-O and IR Systems Payloads
Su-35S Electro-Optical System turret
(© 2009 Vitaliy V. Kuzmin)
Thales Damocles electro-op...
SOLO
RAFAEL LITENING
Multi-Sensor, Multi-Mission Targeting & Navigation Pod
E-O and IR Systems Payloads
130
SOLO
RAFAEL RECCELITE
Real-Time Tactical Reconnaissance System
E-O and IR Systems Payloads
131
SOLO
E-O and IR Systems Payloads
132
SOLO
E-O and IR Systems Payloads
LANTIRN (Low Altitude Navigation and Targeting Infrared for Night)
Primary function:
Low ...
SOLO
E-O and IR Systems Payloads
Sniper XR Specifications
Length: 239 cm
Diameter: 300 mm
Total weight:
440 lb (181
kg)
Op...
SOLO
E-O and IR Systems Payloads
NORTHROP AN/AAQ-37
Electro Optical Distributed Aperture System (DAS)
AN/AAQ-37 Electro Op...
SOLO
E-O and IR Systems Payloads
NORTHROP AN/AAQ-37
Electro Optical Distributed Aperture System (DAS)
AN/AAQ-37 Electro Op...
SOLO
Electronic Warfare (EW)
137Typical Batelfield Scenario
SOLO
Electronic Warfare (EW)
138Radio-Frequency Spectrum
SOLO
Electronic Warfare (EW)
139Electronic Warfare Elements
SOLO
Electronic Warfare (EW)
140
Functional Layout of the Radar
Warning Receiver (RWR)
Defensive Aids Subsystems (DASS)
• ...
SOLO
Electronic Warfare (EW)
141
Defensive Aids Subsystems (DASS)
Typical Laser Warning System
(SAAB Avitron)
Example of F...
SOLO
Electronic Warfare (EW)
142
Defensive Aids Subsystems (DASS)
AN/ALQ-214 Concept of Operation
SOLO
Electronic Warfare (EW)
143
Simplified Overview of F/A 18E/F Countermeasures Suite
SOLO
144
Fighter Aircraft Weapon System
The Weapons System of a Fighter has the following tasks:
- Keep Inventory Status o...
Continue to
Fighter Aircraft Avionics
Part IV
SOLO
145
Fighter Aircraft Avionics
References
SOLO
146
PHAK Chapter 1 - 17
http://www.gov/library/manuals/aviation/pilot_handbook/media/
George M. Siouris, “...
References (continue – 1)
SOLO
147
Fighter Aircraft Avionics
S. Hermelin, “Air Vehicle in Spherical Earth Atmosphere”
S. H...
References (continue – 2)
SOLO
148
Fighter Aircraft Avionics
S. Hermelin, “Spherical Trigonometry”
S. Hermelin, “Modern Ai...
149
SOLO
Technion
Israeli Institute of Technology
1964 – 1968 BSc EE
1968 – 1971 MSc EE
Israeli Air Force
1970 – 1974
RAFA...
150
SOUND WAVESSOLO
Disturbances propagate by molecular collision, at the sped of sound a,
along a spherical surface cente...
151
SOUND WAVESSOLO
Sound Wave Definition:
∆ p
p
p p
p1
2 1
1
1=
−
<<
ρ ρ ρ2 1
2 1
2 1
= +
= +
= +
∆
∆
∆
p p p
h h h
For w...
152
SPEED OF SOUND AND MACH NUMBERSOLO
Speed of Sound is given by
0=






∂
∂
=
ds
p
a
ρ
RT
p
C
C
T
dT
R
C
p
T
dT...
153
NORMAL SHOCK WAVESSOLO
Normal Shock Wave ( Adiabatic), Perfect Gas
 
G Q= =0 0,
Mach Number Relations (1)
( )
( )
( ...
154
NORMAL SHOCK WAVESSOLO
Normal Shock Wave ( Adiabatic), Perfect Gas
 
G Q= =0 0,
Mach Number Relations (2)
( ) ( ) ( ...
155
NORMAL SHOCK WAVESSOLO
Normal Shock Wave ( Adiabatic), Perfect Gas
 
G Q= =0 0,
Mach Number Relations (3)
( )
( )
( ...
156
STEADY QUASI ONE-DIMENSIONAL FLOWSOLO
STAGNATION CONDITIONS
(C.E.) constuhuh =+=+ 2
22
2
11
2
1
2
1
The stagnation con...
SOLO
157
Civilian Aircraft Avionics
Flight Cockpit
CIRRUS PERSPECTIVE
Cirrus Perspective Avionics Demo, Youtube Cirrus SR2...
SOLO
158
Flight Displays
CIRRUS PERSPECTIVE
Civilian Aircraft Avionics
SOLO
159
Flight Displays
CIRRUS PERSPECTIVE
Civilian Aircraft Avionics
SOLO
160
Flight Displays
CIRRUS PERSPECTIVE
Civilian Aircraft Avionics
SOLO
161
Flight Displays
CIRRUS PERSPECTIVE
Civilian Aircraft Avionics
SOLO
162
Flight Displays
CIRRUS PERSPECTIVE
Civilian Aircraft Avionics
SOLO
163
Flight Displays
CIRRUS PERSPECTIVE
Civilian Aircraft Avionics
SOLO
164
Flight Displays
CIRRUS PERSPECTIVE
Civilian Aircraft Avionics
SOLO
165
Flight Displays
CIRRUS PERSPECTIVE
Civilian Aircraft Avionics
166
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10 fighter aircraft avionics - part iii

  1. 1. Fighter Aircraft Avionics Part III SOLO HERMELIN Updated: 04.04.13 1
  2. 2. Table of Content SOLO Fighter Aircraft Avionics 2 Introduction Jet Fighter Generations Second Generation (1950-1965( Third Generation (1965-1975( First generation (1945-1955( Fourth Generation (1970-2010( 4.5Generation Fifth Generation (1995 - 2025( Aircraft Avionics Third Generation Avionics Fourth Generation Avionics 4.5Generation Avionics Fifth Generation Avionics Cockpit Displays Communication (internal and external( Data Entry and Control Flight Control Fighter Aircraft
  3. 3. Table of Content (continue – 1( SOLO Fighter Aircraft Avionics Aircraft Propulsion System Aircraft Flight Performance Navigation Earth Atmosphere Flight Instruments Power Generation System Environmental Control System Aircraft Aerodynamics Fuel System Jet Engine Vertical/Short Take-Off and Landing (VSTOL( Engine Control System Flight Management System Aircraft Flight Control Aircraft Flight Control Surfaces Aircraft Flight Control Examples Fighter Aircraft Avionics I I
  4. 4. Table of Content (continue – 2( SOLO 4 Fighter Aircraft Avionics Equations of Motion of an Air Vehicle in Ellipsoidal Earth Atmosphere Fighter Aircraft Weapon System References Safety Procedures Tracking Systems Aircraft Sensors Airborne Radars Infrared/Optical Systems Electronic Warfare Air-to-Ground Missions Bombs Air-to-Surface Missiles (ASM( or Air-to-Ground Missiles (AGM( Fighter Aircraft Weapon Examples Air-to-Air Missiles (AAM( Fighter Gun Avionics IV
  5. 5. Continue from Fighter Aircraft Avionics Part II SOLO 5 Fighter Aircraft Avionics
  6. 6. SOLO 6 Aircraft Flight Performance
  7. 7. SOLO 7 Aircraft Flight Performance Drag
  8. 8. SOLO 8 Aircraft Flight Performance Drag
  9. 9. SOLO 9 Aircraft Flight Performance Drag
  10. 10. SOLO 10 Aircraft Flight Performance In combat, a pilot is faced with a variety of limiting factors. Some limitations are constant, such as gravity, drag, and thrust-to-weight ratio. Other limitations vary with speed and altitude, such as turn radius, turn rate, and the specific energy of the aircraft. The fighter pilot uses Basic Fighter Maneuvers (BFM( to turn these limitations into tactical advantages. A faster, heavier aircraft may not be able to evade a more maneuverable aircraft in a turning battle, but can often choose to break off the fight and escape by diving or using its thrust to provide a speed advantage. A lighter, more maneuverable aircraft can not usually choose to escape, but must use its smaller turning radius at higher speeds to evade the attacker's guns, and to try to circle around behind the attacker.[13] BFM are a constant series of trade-offs between these limitations to conserve the specific energy state of the aircraft. Even if there is no great difference between the energy states of combating aircraft, there will be as soon as the attacker accelerates to catch up with the defender. Instead of applying thrust, a pilot may use gravity to provide a sudden increase in kinetic energy (speed(, by diving, at a cost in the potential energy that was stored in the form of altitude. Similarly, by climbing the pilot can use gravity to provide a decrease in speed, conserving the aircraft's kinetic energy by changing it into altitude. This can help an attacker to prevent an overshoot, while keeping the energy available in case one does occur Energy Management
  11. 11. SOLO 11 Aircraft Flight Performance
  12. 12. SOLO 12 Aircraft Flight Performance
  13. 13. 13 Aircraft Flight Performance
  14. 14. 14 Aircraft Flight Performance
  15. 15. 15 Aircraft Flight Performance
  16. 16. 16 Aircraft Flight Performance
  17. 17. SOLO 17 Aircraft Flight Performance
  18. 18. SOLO 18 Aircraft Flight Performance
  19. 19. 19 NavigationSOLO Flight on Earth Great Circles The Shortest Flight Path between two points 1 and 2 on the Earth is on the Great Circles (centered at Earth Center( passing through those points. 1 2 111 ,, λφR 222 ,, λφR The Great Circle Distance between two points 1 and 2 is ρ. The average Radius on the Great Circle is a = (R1+R2(/2 θρ ⋅= a R – radius ϕ - Latitude λ - Longitude kmNmNma 852.11deg/76.60/ =≈ρ
  20. 20. 20 Spherical TrigonometrySOLO Assume three points on a unit radius sphere, defined by the vectors →→→ CBA 1,1,1 Laws of Cosines for Spherical Triangle Sides ab abc ca cab bc bca ˆsinˆsin ˆcosˆcosˆcos ˆcos ˆsinˆsin ˆcosˆcosˆcosˆcos ˆsinˆsin ˆcosˆcosˆcos ˆcos − = − = − = γ β α Law of Sines for Spherical Triangle Sides. cba abccba cba ˆsinˆsinˆsin ˆcosˆcosˆcos2ˆcosˆcosˆcos1 ˆsin ˆsin ˆsin ˆsin ˆsin ˆsin 222 +−−− === γβα The three great circles passing trough those three points define a spherical triangle with CBA ,, - three spherical triangle vertices cba ˆ,ˆˆ -three spherical triangle side angles γβα ˆ,ˆˆ - three spherical triangle angles defined by the angles between the tangents to the great circles at the vertices.
  21. 21. 21 SOLO Assume three points on a unit radius sphere, defined by the vectors →→→ CBA 1,1,1 Laws of Cosines for Spherical Triangle Sides The three great circles passing trough those three points define a spherical triangle with CBA ,, - three spherical triangle vertices cba ˆ,ˆˆ -three spherical triangle side angles γβα ˆ,ˆˆ - three spherical triangle angles defined by the angles between the tangents to the great circles at the vertices. βα βαγ αγ αγβ γβ γβα ˆsinˆsin ˆcosˆcosˆcos ˆcos ˆsinˆsin ˆcosˆcosˆcosˆcos ˆsinˆsin ˆcosˆcosˆcos ˆcos + = + = + = c b a Spherical Trigonometry
  22. 22. 22 Flow of Air Data to Key Avionics Sub-systems Aircraft Avionics Navigation See “Navigation Systems” PDF for a detailed presentation.
  23. 23. 23 NavigationSOLO Flight on Earth Great Circles 1 2 111 ,, λφR 222 ,, λφR The Great Circle Distance between two points 1 and 2 is ρ. θρ ⋅= a R – radius ϕ - Latitude λ - Longitude ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )212121 cos90sin90sin90cos90cos /coscos λλφφφφ ρθ −⋅−⋅−+−⋅−= =  a From the Law of Cosines for Spherical Triangles or ( ) ( )212121 coscoscossinsin/cos λλφφφφρ −⋅⋅+⋅=a ( ){ }212121 1 coscoscossinsincos λλφφφφρ −⋅⋅+⋅⋅= − a The Initial Heading Angle ψ0 can be obtained using the Law of Cosines for Spherical Triangles as follows ( ) ( )a a /sincos /cossinsin cos 1 12 0 ρφ ρφφ ψ ⋅ ⋅− = ( )[ ] ( )[ ]2 222 22221 coscoscossinsin1cos coscoscossinsinsinsin cos λλφφφφφ λλφφφφφφ ψ −⋅⋅+⋅−⋅ −⋅⋅+⋅⋅− = − The Heading Angle ψ from the Present Position (R,ϕ,λ( to Destination Point (R2,ϕ2,λ2(
  24. 24. 24 NavigationSOLO Flight on Earth Great Circles The Distance on the Great Circle between two points 1 and 2 is ρ. 1 2 111 ,, λφR 222 ,, λφR R – radius ϕ - Latitude λ - Longitude The Time required to travel along the Great Circle between points 1 and 2 is given by ( ){ } 22 212121 1 coscoscossinsincos yxHoriz HorizHoriz VVV V a V t += −⋅⋅+⋅⋅==∆ − λλφφφφ ρ ( ){ }212121 1 coscoscossinsincos λλφφφφρ −⋅⋅+⋅⋅= − a
  25. 25. 25 NavigationSOLO Flight on Earth Great Circles 1 2 111 ,, λφR 222 ,, λφR If the Aircraft flies with an Heading Error Δψ we want to calculate the Down Range Error Xd and Cross Range Error Yd, in the Spherical Triangle APB. R – radius ϕ - Latitude λ - Longitude Using the Law of Cosines for Spherical Triangle APB we have ( ) ( )aaYd /sin 90sin /sin sin ρ ψ  = ∆ ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) 2/sin/sin /cos/cos/cos 0ˆcos 21 90ˆ RR a aYaX aYaXa P dd dd P + = ⋅ ⋅− == = ρ  Using the Law of Sines for Spherical Triangle APB we have ( ) ( )      ⋅= − aY a aX d d /cos /cos cos 1 ρ ( )[ ]ψρ ∆⋅⋅= − sin/sinsin 1 aaYd
  26. 26. SOLO 26 Navigation Methods of Navigation • Dead Reckoning (e.g. Inertial Navigation( • Externally Dependent (e.g. GPS( • Database Matching (e.g Celestial Navigation, or Terrain Referenced Navigation( See “Navigation Systems.ppt” for a detailed description
  27. 27. SOLO 27 Navigation Dead Reckoning Navigation
  28. 28. Inertial rotation sensors classification: Rotation sensorsRotation sensors GyroscopicGyroscopic Rate GyrosRate GyrosFree GyrosFree Gyros Non-GyroscopicNon-Gyroscopic Vibration Sensors Vibration Sensors Rate SensorsRate Sensors Angular accelerometers Angular accelerometers DTGDTG RGRGRIGRIGRVGRVG General purpose General purpose MHDMHDOptic Sensors Optic Sensors RLGRLG IOGIOGFOGFOG Silicon )MEMS( Silicon )MEMS( HRGHRG Tuning Fork Tuning Fork QuartzQuartz CeramicCeramic Navigation 28
  29. 29. 29
  30. 30. Rate gyro DTG – Dynamically Tuned Gyro Flex Inversion Cardan joint 30
  31. 31. 31 Main Components of a DTG Transverse Cut of a DTG Rate gyro DTG – Dynamically Tuned Gyro
  32. 32. SOLO 32 Navigation Inertial Navigation Systems (a) Strapdown There are two way to attach the Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU( to the platform: 1.IMU on Gimbals that keeps it Leveled to Earth Surface (the old type( 2.IMU strap to the Aircraft Body (Strapdown( (the modern way(
  33. 33. SOLO 33 Navigation Inertial Navigation Systems
  34. 34. SOLO 34 Navigation Inertial Navigation Systems
  35. 35. 35 SOLO Strapdown Algorithm (Vector Notation( Navigation
  36. 36. 36 SOLO Strapdown Algorithm Navigation
  37. 37. SOLO 37 Navigation Inertial Navigation Systems Gyrocompass
  38. 38. SOLO 38 Navigation Radar Altimeter
  39. 39. SOLO 39 Navigation Externally Navigation Add Systems eLORAN LORAN - C Global Navigation Satelite System (GNSS( Distance Measuring Equipment (DME( VHF Omni Directional Radio-Range (VOR( System Data Base Matching Terrain Referenced Navigation (TRN( Navigation Multi-Sensor Integration Instrument Landing System (ILS(
  40. 40. SOLO 40 Navigation Global Navigation Satelite System (GNSS( Satellites of the GPS GLONASS and GALILEO Systems Four Satellite Navigation Systems have been designed to give three dimensional Position, Velocity and Time data almost enywhere in the world with an accuracy of a few meters • The Global Positioning System, GPS (USA( • The Global Navigation Satellite System , GLONASS (Rusia( • GALILEO (European Union( • COMPASS (China( They all uses the Time of Arrival (range determination( Radio Navigation Systems.
  41. 41. SOLO 41 Navigation Global Navigation Satelite System (GNSS(
  42. 42. SOLO 42 Navigation Global Navigation Satelite System (GNSS(
  43. 43. SOLO 43 Navigation Global Navigation Satelite System (GNSS) Differential GPS Systems (DGPS) Differential GPS Systems (DGPS) techniques are based on installing one or more Reference Receivers at known locations and the measured and known ranges to the Satellites are broadcast to the other GPS Users in the vicinity. This removes much of the Ranging Errors caused by atmospheric conditions (locally) and Satellite Orbits and Clock Errors (globally).
  44. 44. Global Positioning System (GPS) SOLO 44 Navigation A visual example of the GPS constellation in motion with the Earth rotating. Notice how the number of satellites in view from a given point on the Earth's surface, in this example at 45°N, changes with time The Global Positioning System (GPS) is a space- based satellite navigation system that provides location and time information in all weather, anywhere on or near the Earth, where there is an unobstructed line of sight to four or more GPS satellites. It is maintained by the United States government and is freely accessible to anyone with a GPS receiver. Ground monitor station used from 1984 to 2007, on display at the Air Force Space & Missile Museum A GPS receiver calculates its position by precisely timing the signals sent by GPS satellites high above the Earth. Each satellite continually transmits messages that include: • the time the message was transmitted • satellite position at time of message transmission Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS)
  45. 45. Satellite Position SOLO 45 Navigation GZ GX GY Equatorial Plane εY εZ εX Ascending Node Satellite Orbit Periapsis Direction Vernal Equinox Direction Ω ω i → N1 Θ A sixth element is required to determine the position of the satellite along the orbit at a given time. 1. a semi-major axis – a constant defining the size of the conic orbit. 2. e, eccentricity – a constant defining the shape of the conic orbit. 3. i, inclination – the angle between Ze and the specific angular momentum of the orbit vrh  ×= 4. Ω, longitude of the ascending node – the angle, in the Equatorial Plane, between the unit vector and the point where the satellite crosses trough the Equatorial Plane in a northerly direction (ascending node) measured counterclockwise where viewed from the northern hemisphere. 5. ω, argument of periapsis – the angle, in the plane of satellite’s orbit, between ascending node and the periapsis point, measured in the direction of the satellite’s motion. 6. T, time of periapsis passage – the time when the satellite was at the periapsis.
  46. 46. GPS Broadcast Ephemerides SOLO 46 Navigation
  47. 47. GPS Broadcast Ephemerides SOLO 47 Navigation ( ) Θ+=           =           = ωuur ur y x q ellipse ellipse Orbit 0 sin cos 0  ( ) 2 1 0 cos sin 0 e an ue u y x q ellipse ellipse Orbit Orbit − ⋅ ⋅           + − =           =    ( ) oecoec ttt ⋅+−⋅=Θ ωω [ ] [ ] [ ]           −−Ω−=           =           0 sin cos 0 313 ur ur iy x C z y x ellipse ellipse G G ωε Θ+= ωu
  48. 48. 48 GPS Broadcast Ephemerides SOLO Navigation
  49. 49. Global Positioning System SOLO 49 Navigation - x, y, z Satellite Coordinate in Geocentric-Equatorial Coordinate System ( ) ( ) ( )222 ZzYyXx −+−+−=ρ - X, Y, Z User Coordinate in Geocentric-Equatorial Coordinate System Squaring both sides gives The User to Satellite Range is given by ( ) ( ) ( ) ZzYyXxzyxZYX ZzYyXx r ⋅⋅−⋅⋅−⋅⋅−+++++= −+−+−= 222222222 2222 2  ρ The four unknown are X, Y, Z, Crr. Satellite position (x,y,z) is calculated from received Satellite Ephemeris Data. Since we have four unknowns we need data from at least four Satellites. ( ) ZzYyXxCrrrzyxr ⋅⋅−⋅⋅−⋅⋅−=−++− 22222222 ρ where r = Earth Radius This is true if (x,y,z) and (X,Y,Z) are measured at the same time. The GPS Satellites clocks are more accurate then the Receiver clock. Let assume that Crr is the range-square bias due to time bias between Receiver GPS and Satellites clocks. Therefore instead of the real Range ρ the Receiver GPS measures the Pseudo-range ρr..
  50. 50. Global Positioning System SOLO 50 Navigation
  51. 51. Global Positioning System SOLO 51 Navigation Using data from four Satellites we obtain ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) 444444 22 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 333333 22 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 222222 22 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 111111 22 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 222 222 222 222 ZzYyXxCrrrzyx ZzYyXxCrrrzyx ZzYyXxCrrrzyx ZzYyXxCrrrzyx r r r r ⋅⋅−⋅⋅−⋅⋅−=−++− ⋅⋅−⋅⋅−⋅⋅−=−++− ⋅⋅−⋅⋅−⋅⋅−=−++− ⋅⋅−⋅⋅−⋅⋅−=−++− ρ ρ ρ ρ or ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )      14 1444 22 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 22 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 22 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 22 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 444 333 222 111 1222 1222 1222 1222 x xx R r r r r PM rzyx rzyx rzyx rzyx Crr Z Y X zyx zyx zyx zyx               −++− −++− −++− −++− =                         ⋅−⋅−⋅− ⋅−⋅−⋅− ⋅−⋅−⋅− ⋅−⋅−⋅− ρ ρ ρ ρ 14 1 4414 xxx RM Crr Z Y X P − =             =
  52. 52. Global Positioning System SOLO 52 Navigation
  53. 53. Global Positioning System SOLO 53 Navigation
  54. 54. Global Positioning System SOLO 54 Navigation GPS Satellite GPS Control Station
  55. 55. Global Positioning System SOLO 55 Navigation The key to the system accuracy is the fact that all signal components are controlled by Atomic Clocks. • Block II Satellites have four on-board clocks: two rubidium and two cesium clocks. The long term frequency stability of these clocks reaches a few part in 10-13 and 10-14 over one day. • Block III will use hydrogen masers with stability of 10-14 to 10-15 over one day. The Fundamental L-Band Frequency of 10.23 MHz is produced from those Clocks. Coherently derived from the Fundamental Frequency are three signals (with in-phase (cos), and quadrature-phase (sin) components): - L1 = 154 x 10.23 MHz = 1575.42 MHz - L2 = 120 x 10.23 MHz = 1227.60 MHz - L3 = 115 x 10.23 MHz = 1176.45 MHz The in-phase components of L1 signal, is bi-phase modulated by a 50-bps data stream and a pseudorandom code called C/A-code (Coarse Civilian) consisting of a 1023-chip sequence, that has a period of 1 ms and a chipping rate of 1.023 MHz: ( )  ( ) ( ) ( ) signalL code ompseudorand AC ulation bps power carrier I ttctdPts −− +⋅⋅⋅⋅= 1/ mod 50 cos2 θω
  56. 56. Global Positioning System SOLO 56 Navigation The quadrature-phase components of L1, L2 and L3 signals, are bi-phase modulated by the 50-bps data stream but a different pseudorandom code called P-code (Precision-code) or Precision Positioning Service (PPS) for US Military use, , that has a period of 1 week and a chipping rate of 10.23 MHz: ( )  ( ) ( ) ( ) signalsLLL code ompseudorand P ulation bps power carrier Q ttptdPts −− +⋅⋅⋅⋅= 3,2,1 mod 50 sin2 θω
  57. 57. Global Positioning System SOLO 57 Navigation
  58. 58. GPS Signal Spectrum SOLO 58 Navigation
  59. 59. Global Positioning System SOLO 59 Navigation GPS User Segment (GPS Receiver)
  60. 60. Global Positioning System SOLO 60 Navigation GPS User Segment (GPS Receiver)
  61. 61. SOLO 61 Navigation Differential GPS Augmented Systems
  62. 62. SOLO 62 Navigation Differential GPS Augmented Systems
  63. 63. SOLO 63 Navigation
  64. 64. GNSS Aviation Operational Performance Requirements SOLO 64 Navigation
  65. 65. SOLO 65 Navigation Externally Navigation Add Systems LORAN - C A LORAN receiver measures the Time Difference of arrival between pulses from pairs of stations. This time difference measurement places the Receiver somewhere along a Hyperbolic Line of Position (LOP). The intersection of two or more Hyperbolic LOPs, provided by two or more Time Difference measurement, defines the Receiver’s Position. Accuracies of 150 to 300 m are typical. LOP from Transmitter Stations (1&2 and 1&3) LORAN – C (LOng RAnge Navigation) is a Time Difference Of Arrival (TDOA), Low-Frequency Navigation and Timing System originally designed for Ship and Aircraft Navigation.
  66. 66. SOLO 66 Navigation Externally Navigation Add Systems eLORAN eLORAN receiver employ Time of Arrival (TOA) position techniques, similar to those used in Satellite Navigation Systems. They track the signals of many LORAN Stations at the same time and use them to make accurate and reliable Position and Timing measurements. It is now possible to obtain absolut accuracies of 8 – 20 m and recover time to 50 ns with new low-cost receivers in areas served by eLORAN. The Differential eLORAN Concept Enhanced LORAN , or eLORAN, is an International initiative underway to upgrade the traditional LORAN – C System for modern applications. The infrastructure is being installed in the US, and a variation of eLORAN is already operational in northwest Europe. A Combined GPS/eLORAN Receiver and Antenna from Reelektronika
  67. 67. SOLO 67 Navigation Externally Navigation Add Systems Distance Measuring Equipment (DME) Aircraft DME Range Determination System Distance Measuring Equipment (DME) Stations for Aircraft Navigation were developed in the late 1950’s and are still in world-wide use as primary Navigation Aid. The DME Ground Station receive a signal from the User ant transmits it back. The User’s Receiving Equipment measures the total round trip time for the interrogation/replay sequence, which is then halved and converted into a Slant Range between the User’s Aircraft and the DME Station There are no plans to improve the DME Network, through it is forecast to remain in service for many years. Over time the system will be relegated to a secondary role as a backup to GNSS-based navigation,
  68. 68. SOLO 68 Navigation Externally Navigation Add Systems Angle (Bearing Determination) Determining Bearing to a VOR Station VHF Omni Directional Radio-Range (VOR) System The VHF Omni Directional Radio-Range (VOR) System is comp[rised of a serie of Ground-Based Beacons operating in the VHF Band (108 to 118 MHz). A VOR Station transmits a reference carrier Frequency Modulated (FM) with: 30 Hz signal from the main antenna. An Amplitude Modulated (AM) carrier electrically swept around several smaller Antennas surrounding the main Antenna. This rotating pattern creates a 30 Hz Doppler effect on the Receiver. The Phase Difference of the two 30 Hz signals gives the User’s Azimuth with respect to the North from the VOR Site. The Bearing measurement accuracy of a VOR System is typically on the order of 2 degrees, with a range that extends from 25 to 130 miles. Private Pilot Airplane - Navigation – ASA, Movie
  69. 69. SOLO 69 Navigation Externally Navigation Add Systems TACAN is the Military Enhancement of VOR/DME VHF Omni Directional Radio-Range (VOR) System TACAN (Tactical Air Navigation) is an enhanced VOR/DME System designed for Military applications. The VOR component of TACAN, which operates in the UHF spectrum, make use of two-frequency principle, enabling higher bearing accuracies. The DME Component of TACAN operates with the same specifications as civil DME. The accuracy of the azimuth component is about ±1 degree, while the accuracy of the DME position is ± 0.1 nautical miles. For Military usage a primary drawback is the lack of radio silence caused by Aircraft DME Transmission.
  70. 70. SOLO 70 Navigation Data Base Matching
  71. 71. SOLO 71 Navigation Terrain Referenced Navigation (TRN)
  72. 72. SOLO 72 Navigation Terrain Referenced Navigation (TRN)
  73. 73. SOLO 73 Navigation Externally Navigation Add Systems
  74. 74. SOLO 74 Aircraft Avionics Navigation Instrument Landing System (ILS)
  75. 75. SOLO 75 Navigation Navigation Multi-Sensor Integration Navigation Data
  76. 76. 76 Aircraft SensorsSOLO Introduction Classification of Sensors by the type of energy they use for sensing: We deal with sensors used for target detection, identification, acquisition and tracking, seekers for missile guidance. • Electromagnetic Effect that are distinct by EM frequency: - Micro-Wave Electro-Optical: * Visible * IR * Laser - Millimeter Wave Radars • Acoustic Systems Classification of Sensors by the source of energy they use for sensing: • Passive where the source of energy is in the objects that are sensed Example: Visible, IR, Acoustic Systems • Semi – Active where the source of energy is actively produced externally to the Sensor and sent toward the target that reflected it back to the sensor Example: Radars, Laser, Acoustic Systems • Active where the source of energy is actively produced by the Sensor and sent toward the target that reflected it back to the sensor
  77. 77. 77 SOLO Introduction Classification of Sensors by the Measurements Type: • Range and Direction to the Target (Active Sensors) • Direction to the Target only (Passive and Semi-Active Sensors) • Imaging of the Object • Non-Imaging See “Sensors.ppt” for a detailed description Aircraft Sensors
  78. 78. I 0Ex 0Ey Iz Northx Easty Downz Bx By Bz Ω Iy Ix tΩ tΩ Long Lat 0Ez Ex Ey Ez AV  α β Target (T) (object) Platform (B) (sensor) SOLO To perform this task a common coordinate system is used. Example: In a Earth neigh borough the Local Level Local North coordinate system (Latitude, Longitude, Height above Sea Level) can be used to specify the position and direction of motion of all objects. The information is gathered by sensors that are carried by platforms (B) that can be static or moving (earth vehicles, aircraft, missiles, satellites,…) relative to the predefined coordinate system. It is assumed that the platforms positions and velocities, including their errors, are known and can be used for this task: SensorDownSensorEastSensorNordSensorDownSensorEastSensorNord SensorLevelSeaSensorSensorSensorLevelSeaSensorSensor VVVVVV HLongLatHLongLat σσσ σσσ ,,,,, ,,,,, The objects (T) positions and velocities are obtained by combining the information of objects-to-sensors relative position and velocities and their errors to the information of sensors (B) positions and velocities and their errors. See “Tracking Systems” PDF for a detailed presentation. General Problem of a Tracking System in the Earth Environment Provide information of the position and direction of movement (including estimated errors) of uncooperative objects, to different located users. 78
  79. 79. ψ θ φ B x L x B z L y L z B y TV  P V  R  Az El Bx SOLO Assume that the platform with the sensor measure continuously and without error in the platform coordinates the object (Target – T) and platform positions and velocities . The relative position vector is defined by three independent parameters. A possible choice of those parameters is: R  ( )           − =                     −          − =           = ElR ElAzR ElAzRR ElEl ElEl AzAz AzAz Rz Ry Rx R B B B B sin cossin coscos 0 0 cos0sin 010 sin0cos 100 0cossin 0sincos  R - Range from platform to object Az - Sensor Azimuth angle relative to platform El - Sensor Elevation angle relative to platform Rotation Matrix from LLLN to B (Euler Angles): [ ] [ ] [ ]           −+ +− − == θφψφψθφψφψθφ θφψφψθφψφψθφ θψθψθ ψθφ cccssscsscsc csccssssccss ssccc CB L 321 ψ - azimuth angle θ - pitch angle φ - roll angle General Problem of a Tracking System in the Earth Environment 79
  80. 80. SOLO Assume that the platform with the sensor measure continuously and without error in the platform coordinates the object (Target – T) and platform (B) positions and velocities . I 0Ex 0Ey Iz Northx Easty Downz Bx By Bz Ω Iy Ix tΩ tΩ Long Lat 0Ez Ex Ey Ez AV  α β Target (T) (object) Platform (B) (sensor) The origin of the LLLN coordinate system is located at the projection of the center of gravity CG of the platform on the Earth surface, with zDown axis pointed down, xNorth, yEast plan parallel to the local level, with xNorth pointed to the local North and yEast pointed to the local East. The platform is located at: Latitude = Lat, Longitude = Long, Height = H Rotation Matrix from E to L [ ] [ ] ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) =           −           − − =−−= 100 0cossin 0sincos sin0cos 010 cos0sin 2/ 32 LongLong LongLong LatLat LatLat LongLatC L E π ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )          −−− − −− = LatLongLatLongLat LongLong LatLongLatLongLat sinsincoscoscos 0cossin cossinsincossin The earth radius is ( ) 26.298/1&10378135.6sin1 6 0 2 0 =⋅=+= emRLateRRpB The position of the platform in E coordinates is ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )          − − − += LongLat Long LongLat HRR BpB E B coscos sin cossin  General Problem of a Tracking System in the Earth Environment 80
  81. 81. ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )          − − − +=           = TT T TT TpT zET yET xET E T LongLat Long LongLat HR R R R R coscos sin cossin  I 0Ex 0Ey Iz Northx Easty Downz Bx By Bz Ω Iy Ix tΩ tΩ Long Lat 0Ez Ex Ey Ez AV  α β Target (T) (object) Platform (B) (sensor) SOLO The position of the platform (B) in E coordinates is ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )          − − − += LongLat Long LongLat HRR Bp E B coscos sin cossin  The position of the target (T) relative to platform (B) in E coordinates is ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )BTB L TL E BL B E L E RCCRCCR  == The position of the target (T) in E coordinates is ( ) ( ) ( )EE B zET yET xET E T RR R R R R  +=           = Since the relation to target latitude LatT, longitude LongT and height HT is given by: we have ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )[ ]TpTyETT pTzETyETxETTTpT zETxETT HRRLong RRRRHLateRR RRLat +−= −++=+= = − − /sin &sin1 /tan 1 2/12222 0 1 ψ θ φ B x L x B z L y L z B y T V  P V  R  Az El Bx General Problem of a Tracking System in the Earth Environment 81
  82. 82. ψ θ φ B x L x B z L y L z B y TV  P V  R  Az El Bx SOLO Assume that the platform with the sensor measure continuously and without error in the platform coordinates the object (Target – T) and platform positions and velocities . Therefore the velocity vector of the object (T) relative to the platform (B) can be obtained by direct differentiation of the relative range R  BTIB B BT VVR td Rd V    −=×+= ←ω. or BIB BI T T VR td Rd td Rd V    +×+== ←ω TV  P V  ( )2 tR  Az El B xB x Bx ( )1 tR  ( )3tR  General Problem of a Tracking System in the Earth Environment 82
  83. 83. ( )kkx |ˆ ( )kx ( )1|1 ++ kkP ( )1| −kkP ( )1|1ˆ ++ kkx ( )1+kx ( )kkP | ( )kkP |1+ ( )kkx |1ˆ + ( )kt ( )1+kt Real Trajectory Estimated Trajectory ( )2+kt ( )1|2 ++ kkP ( )1|2ˆ ++ kkx ( )2|2 ++ kkP ( )2|2ˆ ++ kkx ( )3+kt Measurement Events Predicted Errors Updated Errors SOLO The platform with the sensors measure at discrete time and with measurement error. It may happen that no data (no target detection) is obtained for each measurement. Therefore it is necessary to estimate the target trajectory parameters and their errors from the measurements events, and to predict them between measurements events. tk - time of measurements - sensor measurements( )k tz - parameters of the real trajectory at time t.( )tx - predicted parameters of the trajectory at time t.( )tx  - predicted parameters errors at time t (tk < t < tk+1).( )kttP / - updated parameters errors at measurement time tk.( )kk ttP / ( )txz , Filter (Estimator/Predictor) ( )k txz , kt ( )tx  ( )kttP / T V  PV  ( )2 tR  Az El B x Bx Bx ( )1 tR  ( )3tR  1 1 1 General Problem of a Tracking System in the Earth Environment 83
  84. 84. SOLO The problem is more complicated when they are Multiple Targets. In this case we must determinate which measurement is associated to which target. This is done before filtering. TV  P V  ( )2 tR  Az El Bx Bx Bx ( )1tR  ( )3 tR  Bx Bx 1 2 3 32 1 Bx Bx Bx 1 3 2 1 ( )ktxz ,11 ( )k txz ,22 ( )k txz ,33 ( )kk ttP /11 − ( )kk ttP /12 − ( )kk ttP /13 − ( )k tx3  ( )k tx2  ( )k tx1  ( )kk ttP /1 ( )kk ttP /2 ( )kk ttP /3 Filter (Estimator/Predictor) Target # 1 ( )tx1  ( )k ttP /1 Filter (Estimator/Predictor) Target # N ( )txN  ( )kN ttP / ( )txz , ( )ktxz , k t Data Association ( )tz1 ( )tzN General Problem of a Tracking System in the Earth Environment Return to Table of Content 84
  85. 85. 85 General ProblemSOLO If more Sensors are involved using Sensor Data Fusion we can improve. In this case we have a Multi-Sensor Multi-Target situation To perform this task we must perform Alignment of the Sensors Data in Time (synchronization) and in Space (example GPS that provides accurate time & position) Run This
  86. 86. 86 General ProblemSOLO Return to Table of Content Functional Diagram of a Tracking System A Tracking System performs the following functions: • Sensors Data Processing and Measurement Formation that provides Targets Data • Observation-to-Track Association that relates Target Detected Data to Existing Track Files. • Track Maintenance (Initialization, Confirmation and deletion) of the Targets Detected by the Sensors. • Filtering and Prediction , for each Track processes the Data Associated to the Track, Filter the Target State (Position, and may be Velocity and Acceleration) from Noise, and Predict the Target State and Errors (Covariance Matrix) at the next Sensors Measurement. • Gating Computations that, using the Predicted Target State, provides the Gating to enabling distinguishing between the Measurement from the Target of the specific Track File to other Targets Detected by the Sensors.
  87. 87. 87 Flow of Air Data to Key Avionics Sub-systems Aircraft Avionics Airborne Radars See “Airborne Radars” PDF for a detailed presentation.
  88. 88. SOLO Airborne Radars Second Generation Fighters Radars Airborne Radars Ranging in Boresight Only used for Gunsight Computation , for Semi Active Missiles, and for A/G Weapon Release Computations. They where equipped also with Rear Warning Radar (RWR) Systems. Cutaway view of the Mirage III Thomson CSF Cyrano dual mode Air / Ground r Radar 88
  89. 89. SOLO Airborne Radars Third Generation Fighters Radars A/A and A/G Modes. A/A Mode: Support Lead Computing Gunsight, in Gun Mode. Gimbaled Antenna capable to Track one Air Target and provide Illumination for Semi-Active A/A Missiles. Provide data for Pilot Steering Commands for A/A Missiles, and data for computation of A/A Missiles Launch Envelopes. A/G Mode Provide data for Dumb Bomb Release Provide data for HARM Missiles Provide Data for TV Missiles F4 Phantom Westinghouse AN/APQ120 Radar 89
  90. 90. SOLO Airborne Radars 90
  91. 91. SOLO Airborne Radars 91
  92. 92. 92 SOLO Example: Airborne Electronic Scan Antenna SENSORS
  93. 93. SOLO Airborne Radars Missions • Air-to-Air Missions Air combat makes extensive use of multi-mode radar capabilities Performed by a single pilot that has to fly the aircraft in the same time, or by a a second pilot (Navigator – in a two seats fighter aircraft). In all cases the same Radar is installed in a single seat as in a two seats fighter aircraft. For this reason the Radar System is operated with minimum pilot interference (semi-automatic modes) • Velocity Search Mode This is the longest range search mode in most multi-mode airborne radars. It is look-down and High-PRF. It looks to targets which are flowing toward the aircraft radar. It is primarily a Doppler mode and range is often not measured. Search is in both azimuth and elevation. • Range-while-search Mode This is a medium range look-down search mode to find target range as well as Doppler. It can be High-PRF and use Modulated Pulse Doppler wave, or Medium PRF. Return to Table of Content 93
  94. 94. SOLO Airborne Radars Spick M., “The Great Book of Modern Warplanes”, Salamander, 2003 F-18 AN/APG-65 Scan Modes 94
  95. 95. SOLO Airborne Radars Spick M., “The Great Book of Modern Warplanes”, Salamander, 2003 A Downlook Search in air-to-air mode in Medium PRF, of F-16 AN/APG-66 radar. F-16 Falcon 95
  96. 96. SOLO Airborne Radars Four-bar scan Two -bar scan One -bar scan 20x20deg air-combat scan 10x40deg air-combat scan F-16 AN/APG-66 Scan Modes Spick M., “The Great Book of Modern Warplanes”, Salamander, 2003 96
  97. 97. SOLO Airborne Radars Missions (continue – 1) • Air-to-Air Missions (continue – 1) • Track-while-scan (TWS) This Medium or High-PRF mode is similar to range-while-search, except that on a limited number of targets track-files are initiated and maintained in the Radar processor. These files are used to identify threats, control weapons, and to initiate single-target tracks. • Track This is a mode when a single target is tracked (STT) or a high priority target (HPT) is tracked at a higher rate, while other targets are tracked-while-scan. • Range for Aircraft Gun This is a short range single target track (STT). In this mode the radar controls cockpit display which tells the pilot how to point the aircraft so that a gun is pointed to the predicted bullet impact points with the target. 97
  98. 98. SOLO Lead Computing Gunsight In the Lead Mode, the Pilot maneuvers the Aircraft to keep the Pipper (Optical Sight) On the Target for at least half a second and then he pushes the Gun Trigger to fire a Volley of Projectiles. The Gunsight computes the Lead of Aircraft Boresight (Gun Direction) such that some of the Volley Projectiles will Hit the Target. 98
  99. 99. SOLO Airborne Radars Spick M., “The Great Book of Modern Warplanes”, Salamander, 2003 • Air-to-Surface Missions The following Modes are implemented: • Terrain Avoidance (TA) • Real Beam Map (RBM) Used at low altitude above ground flight situations. • Beacon Direction Tracking (BCN) Used for navigation purposes, when the radar receives the return from known Beacons to determine aircraft position relative to Beacons. 99
  100. 100. SOLO Airborne Radars Spick M., “The Great Book of Modern Warplanes”, Salamander, 2003 • Air-to-Surface Missions (continue – 1) • Air-to-Ground Ranging (AGR) Used to provide the range to a designed ground target to the Weapon Delivery System, in order to compute the best automatic release time. 100
  101. 101. SOLO Airborne Radars Air-to-Surface Missions (continue – 2) Stimson, G.W., “Introduction to Airborne Radar”, 1st Ed., Hughes Aircraft Company, 2nd ed., Scitech Publishing, 1998 101
  102. 102. SOLO • Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) Used to provide Radar Imaging of areas on the ground. • Air-to-Surface Missions (continue – 4) Airborne Radars State of the art high resolution imaging Synthetic Aperture Radars can produce spot maps of areas hundreds of metres to kilometres in size at tens of NMI of range, with resolutions at this time as fine as one foot. In the simplest of terms, you can use such radars to produce geometrically accurate surface maps in which the smallest feature size is a foot. Therefore buildings, roads, structures, vehicles, parked aircraft, ships, fences, radio masts, radar antennas and any other features of interest can be detected, identified and accurately located in relation to the surrounding terrain. 102
  103. 103. SOLO Airborne Radars • Air-to-Surface Missions (continue – 5) • Ground Moving Target Indicator (GMTI) Used to detect moving vehicles on the ground. State of the art Ground Moving Target Indicator radars can detect slowly moving surface vehicles, taxiing aircraft, and hovering helicopters. In many instances, these radars can also exploit fine Doppler modulations in the radar return to identify the vehicle class or type, and even rotating radar antennas. A radar which combines GMTI and SAR technologies can accurately detect, locate and identify virtually any surface target, from a standoff range at a very shallow slant angle, under any weather conditions. Combined with GPS guided bombs, this is a revolutionary capability, because it extends the existing around the clock bombing capability to an all weather standoff bombing capability. The established thermal imaging/laser guided bombing technology requires that direct line of sight exists to the target, that the cloudbase is above the bombing aircraft, and that the humidity and precipitation situation is not severe. Many bombing sorties were aborted during the Gulf War as these conditions were not satisfied. Moreover getting close enough to the target to use a thermal imager exposes the aircraft to air defences. 103
  104. 104. SOLO Airborne Radars • Air-to-Surface Missions (continue – 6) http://www.secretprojects.co.uk/ebooks/APG-68.pdf APG-68, F-16’s Falcon Radar, in Doppler Beam Sharpening Mode 104
  105. 105. SOLO Airborne Radars • Air-to-Surface Missions (continue – 7) Doppler Beam Sharpening Ocean City, Maryland APG -68 F-16’s Radar Return to Table of Content 105
  106. 106. SOLO Airborne Radars Airborne Radar Modes Single Target Track (STT) Range While Scan (RWS) Air Combat Mode (ACM) High Priority Track (HPT) Air-to-Air Air-to-Surface Boresight (BST) Track While Scan (RWS) Sea Surface Search (SEA) Real Beam Map (RBM) Doppler Beam Sharpening (DBSM) Ground Target Moving Indication (GMTI) Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) Terrain Avoidance (TA) Beacon (BCN) Air-to-Ground Ranging (AGR) Return to Table of Content 106
  107. 107. SOLO Airborne Radars Missions • Air-to-Air Missions Waveform Type Typical Function Remarks Velocity Search (VS) HPRF Pulsed Doppler Long range detection High duty factor, Fine Doppler resolution; target clutter-free region; best for head-on geometries Range-While-Search (RWS) HPRF + LFM Pulsed Doppler Long range detection with coarse range estimate Linear FM over dwell Range Gated HPRF (RGHPRF) HPRF Pulsed Doppler Long range detection Provides ambiguous range measurement MPRF Search MPRF Pulsed Doppler All-aspect detection Improved detection for tail-chase; good range and Doppler resolution Single Target Track (STT) MPRF/ HPRF Pulsed Doppler Fire control MPRF and HPRF may be interleaved Track-While-Scan (TWS) MPRF Pulsed Doppler Multiple target tracking Track updated provided during normal search revisits Multiple Target Track (MTT) MPRF/ HPRF Pulsed Doppler Multiple target tracking Track updated scheduled independent of search scan (achievable through ESA) Low PRF Doppler Search LPRF Pulsed Doppler Airborne target detection Used by some radars; much less effective than MPRF and HPRF modes Low PRF Doppler Track LPRF Pulsed Doppler Airborne target tracking Used by some radars; much less effective than MPRF and HPRF modes Air-to-Air Ranging LPRF Noncoherent Short range weapon No clutter at ranges closer than target Radar Mode 107
  108. 108. SOLO Airborne Radars Missions • Air-to-Ground Missions Waveform Type Typical Function Remarks Terrain Avoidance LPRF Non-coherent Covert Navigation Flight path selected to fly between hills and mountains Terrain Following LPRF Non-coherent Covert Navigation Constant Low altitude maintained Air-to-Ground Ranging LPRF Non-coherent Bomb Delivery Determine range to target area Ground Map LPRF Non-coherent Navigation Azimuth resolution limitted by real beam Ground Beam sharpening (DBS) LPRF Coherent Navigation Improved azimuth resolution Synthetic Aperture (SAR) - Stip Map LPRF Coherent Intelligence, Surveillance, Reconnaissance Moderate resolution imagery of stationary targets and clutter Synthetic Aperture (SAR) - Spotlight LPRF Coherent Intelligence, Surveillance, Reconnaissance High resolution imagery of stationary targets and clutter Ground Moving Target Indicator (GMTI) LPRF Coherent Detection of Moving Vehicles Must detect small differences in velocity between targets and clutter Maritime Target Track (MTT) LPRF Coherent Detection of Sea Ships Must detect small differences in velocity between ships and sea Radar Mode 108
  109. 109. SOLO Airborne Radars AN/APG Series AN/APG-1, S band interception radar for P-61 AN/APG-2, S band interception radar for P-61B AN/APG-3, General Electric tail gun aiming radar for B-29 and B-36B AN/APG-4, L band low altitude torpedo release / aiming radar for TBM, with nicknamed Sniffer. AN/APG-5, S band ranging / gun aiming radar for B-17, B-24 and F-86A AN/APG-6, L band low altitude bombing radar nickednamed Super Sniffer. Improved AN/APG-4. AN/APG-7, Bombing radar to control glide bombs AN/APG-8, S band turret gun aiming radar for B-29B AN/APG-9, L band low altitude bombing radar. Improved AN/APG-6 AN/APG-11, L band bombing radar AN/APG-12, L band low altitude bombing radar. Improved AN/APG-9 AN/APG-13, General Electric 75 mm nose gun aiming radar for B-25H. AN/APG-14, S band gun aiming radar for B-29 AN/APG-15, S band tail gun aiming radar for B-29B and PB4Y Privateer AN/APG-16, improved AN/APG-2 gun aiming radar for B-32. AN/APG-17, improved AN/APG-4 L band low altitude torpedo release / aiming radar and bombing radar AN/APG-18, X band gun aiming radar by Glenn L. Martin Company for turret guns, improved AN/APG-5 AN/APG-19, X band gun aiming radar by Glenn L. Martin Company, improved AN/APG-8 and AN/APG-18. AN/APG-20, L band low altitude bombing radar. Improved AN/APG-12 AN/APG-21, ranging radar for ground attack AN/APG-22, X band gun aiming radar by Raytheon http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_radars#AN.2FAPY_Series 109
  110. 110. SOLO Airborne Radars AN/APG Series (continuous 1) AN/APG-23, Fire control radar for B-36A AN/APG-24, Fire control radar for B-36B AN/APG-25, X band gun aiming radar for F-100 AN/APG-26, Westinghouse Electric (1886) fire control radar for F3D Skyknight AN/APG-27, Gun aiming radar for tail guns of Convair XB-46 and Martin XB-48 AN/APG-28, Interception radar for F-82 Twin Mustang AN/APG-30, Sperry Corporation X band fire control radar for B-45, B-47, F-86E/F, F-100, F-84E, F-8A, F-4E & others AN/APG-31, Raytheon gun aiming radar for B-57 AN/APG-32, General Electric X band tail gun aiming radar for B-36D/F and B-47E AN/APG-33, Hughes Aircraft X band fire control radar for F-89A, F-94A/B AN/APG-34, gun aiming radar for F-104C AN/APG-35, fire control radar for F3D Skyknight AN/APG-36, fire control radar for F2H-2N and F-86D AN/APG-37, Hughes Aircraft fire control radar for F2H-4 and F-86D/K/L AN/APG-39, gun aiming radar for B-47E AN/APG-40, Hughes Aircraft fire control radar for F-89D, F-94C AN/APG-41, General Electric tail gun aiming radar for B-36H AN/APG-43, Raytheon continuous wave interception radar AN/APG-45, General Electric miniaturized AN/APG-30 for maritime patrol aircraft AN/APG-46, original fire control radar of A-6A. AN/APG-50, F-4 Phantom II fire control radar http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_radars#AN.2FAPY_Series 110
  111. 111. SOLO Airborne Radars AN/APG Series (continuous 2) AN/APG-51, Hughes Aircraft interception radar for F3H-2, F3D Skyknight AN/APG-53, Stewart-Warner fire control radar for A-4 Skyhawk AN/APG-55, Westinghouse Electric (1886) pulse Doppler interception radar AN/APG-56, improved AN/APG-30 for F-86 AN/APG-57, Gould Electronics fire control radar AN/APG-59, Westinghouse Electric (1886) pulse-Doppler radar for F-4J, part of AN/AWG-10 AN/APG-60, Doppler radar that is part of AN/AWG-11 for F-4K AN/APG-61, fire control radar for F-4M, part of AN/AWG-12 AN/APG-63 and AN/APG-70, for the F-15 Eagle AN/APG-64, development of AN/APG-63, never went into production AN/APG-65 and AN/APG-73, for the F/A-18 Hornet AN/APG-66 and [AN/APG-68], for the F-16 Falcon AN/APG-67 General Electric X band multimode pulse-Doppler radar for F-20 Tigershark and AIDC F-CK-1 Ching-kuo AN/APG-69, improved AN/APQ-159 fire control radar by Emerson Electric Company for Northrop F-5 upgrade AN/APG-71, for the F-14D Tomcat AN/APG-74, Norden Systems pod-mounted airborne radar AN/APG-76, Norden Systems multimode Ku band pulse-Doppler radar for F-4 Phantom II upgrade AN/APG-77, for the F-22 Raptor AN/APG-78 millimetre wave Long Bow fire control radar for AH-64D Longbow Apache AN/APG-79, for the F/A-18E/F Super Hornet AN/APG-80, for the F-16E/F Block 60 Desert Falcon AN/APG-81, for the F-35 Lightning II http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_radars#AN.2FAPY_Series 111
  112. 112. SOLO Airborne Radars 112
  113. 113. SOLO Return to Table of Content 113
  114. 114. SOLO Airborne Radars F-16 Display 114
  115. 115. SOLO Airborne Radars http://www.ausairpower.net/TE-Fighter-Cockpits.html 115
  116. 116. SOLO Airborne Radars http://www.ausairpower.net/TE-Fighter-Cockpits.html The identical Master Monitor Display and Multi-Function Display are completely Interchangeable as regards the information they show. At the left is a typical Radar Display. At the right is a typical Weapon-delivery Management Display. F/A-18 Displays 116
  117. 117. SOLO Airborne Radars Spick M., “The Great Book of Modern Warplanes”, Salamander, 2003 117
  118. 118. F/A-18E/F APG-79 AESA RADAR 118
  119. 119. AN/APG-79 is another AESA radar which was developed in US by Raytheon for F/A-18E/F starting from 2000. The first fly tests were started in 2003. The first serial radar was transferred to Boeing for installation on F/A-18E/F board only in Jan. 2005. The initial operational readiness was achieved in 2007. EA-18G 'growler' EW aircraft came with this radar too. This radar is including IDECM inbuilt EW system. Its mass is about 300 kg. http://igorrgroup.blogspot.co.il/2009/08/aesa-radars-for-fighters-brief-review.html 119
  120. 120. 120
  121. 121. Su-34 Pilot, Co-Pilot Side-by-Side Cockpit 121
  122. 122. 122Comparison of Fighters Radar Ranges Airborne Radars
  123. 123. And their maximal effective detection range to the fighters in the world should be: * F-15C & Su-27 (RCS = 10~15m2 ): 450 ~ 600 km * Tornado (RCS = 8 m2 ): 420 ~ 500 km * MIG-29 (RCS = 5 m2 ): 370 ~ 450 km * F/A-18C (RCS = 3 m2 )): 330 ~ 395 km * F-16C (RCS = 1.2 m2 )): 260 ~ 310 km * JAS39 (RCS = 0.5 m2 )): 210 ~ 250 km * Su-47 (RCS = 0.3 m2 )): 185 ~ 220 km * Rafale (RCS = 0.1~0.2 m2 )): 140 ~ 200 km * F-18E (RCS = 0.1 m2 )): 140 ~ 170 km * MIG-42 (RCS = 0.1 m2 )): 140 ~ 170 km * EF2K (RCS = 0.05~0.1 m2 )): 120 ~ 170 km * F-35A (RCS = 0.0015 m2 )): 50 ~ 60 km * F/A-22 (RCS < or = 0.0002~0.0005 m2 )): < or = 30 ~ 45 km Source: http://www.defence.pk/forums/air-warfare/20908-rcs-different-fighters.html#ixzz2Dy RCS OF Different Fighters Airborne RadarsSOLO 123
  124. 124. APG-67 V4 (T-50) For RCS 0.0001 m2 class target: 3~4 km+ For RCS 0.001 m2 class target: 5~6 km+ For RCS 0.1 m2 class target: 17~20 km+ For RCS 1.0 m2 class target: 30~36 km+ For RCS 5.0 m2 class target: 45~53 km+ For RCS 10.0 m2 class target: 53~63 km+ APG-68 V5 (F-16 C/D) For RCS 0.0001 m2 class target: 3~4 km+ For RCS 0.001 m2 class target: 6~7 km+ For RCS 0.1 m2 class target: 18~22 km+ For RCS 1.0 m2 class target: 32~40 km+ For RCS 5.0 m2 class target: 50~60 km+ For RCS 10.0 m2 class target: 60~72 km+ RDY (M2000-5) For RCS 0.0001 m2 class target: 4~5 km+ For RCS 0.001 m2 class target: 7~8 km+ For RCS 0.1 m2 class target: 22~27 km+ For RCS 1.0 m2 class target: 40~47 km+ For RCS 5.0 m2 class target: 60~70 km+ For RCS 10.0 m2 class target: 70~84 km+ APG-68 V9 (F-16 C/D/I and RDY-2 iM2000-5MK2 and -9) For RCS 0.0001 m2 class target: 4~5 km+ For RCS 0.001 m2 class target: 8~9 km+ For RCS 0.1 m2 class target: 25~30 km+ For RCS 1.0 m2 class target: 46~54 km+ For RCS 5.0 m2 class target: 66~80 km+ For RCS 10.0 m2 class target: 78~95 km+ PS-05A (JAS-39 A/B/C/D) For RCS 0.0001 m2 class target: 5~6 km+ For RCS 0.001 m2 class target: 9~10 km+ For RCS 0.1 m2 class target: 27~32 km+ For RCS 1.0 m2 class target: 48~56 km+ For RCS 5.0 m2 class target: 72~84 km+ For RCS 10.0 m2 class target: 85~100 km+ APG-73 (F/A-18E/F, Block1) For RCS 0.0001 m2 class target: 5~6 km+ For RCS 0.001 m2 class target: 10~11 km+ For RCS 0.1 m2 class target: 32~36 km+ For RCS 1.0 m2 class target: 56~64 km+ For RCS 5.0 m2 class target: 84~96 km+ For RCS 10.0 m2 class target:100~114km+dfC RBE-2 PESA (Rafale F1/F2/F3) For RCS 0.0001 m2 class target: 7~9 km+ For RCS 0.001 m2 class target: 13~15 km+ For RCS 0.1 m2 class target: 41~49 km+ For RCS 1.0 m2 class target: 73~87 km+ For RCS 5.0 m2 class target: 110~130 km+ For RCS 10.0 m2 class target: 130~154 km+ APG-63 (F-15C) For RCS 0.0001 m2 class target: 9 km+ For RCS 0.001 m2 class target: 16 km+ For RCS 0.1 m2 class target: 51 km+ For RCS 1.0 m2 class target: 90 km+ For RCS 5.0 m2 class target: 135 km+ For RCS 10.0 m2 class target: 160 km+t Detection Ranges of Different Fighters -Radars SOLO Airborne Radars 124
  125. 125. Detection Ranges of Different Fighters -Radars SOLO Airborne Radars NOAR AESA (JAS-39 C/D PLUS, post-2013) For RCS 0.0001 m2 class target: 10~11 km+ For RCS 0.001 m2 class target: 18~20 km+ For RCS 0.1 m2 class target: 56~62 km+ For RCS 1.0 m2 class target: 100~110 km+ For RCS 5.0 m2 class target: 150~165 km+ For RCS 10.0 m2 class target: 178~195 km+ APG-80 AESA (F-16E) For RCS 0.0001 m2 class target: 11 km+ For RCS 0.001 m2 class target: 20 km+ For RCS 0.1 m2 class target: 62 km+ For RCS 1.0 m2 class target: 110 km+ For RCS 5.0 m2 class target: 165 km+ For RCS 10.0 m2 class target: 195 km+ RBE-2 AESA (Rafale F4, post-2012) For RCS 0.0001 m2 class target: 11~13 km+ For RCS 0.001 m2 class target: 20~23 km+ For RCS 0.1 m2 class target: 62~73 km+ For RCS 1.0 m2 class target: 110~130 km+ For RCS 5.0 m2 class target: 165~195 km+ For RCS 10.0 m2 class target: 195~230 km+ CAPTOR (EF-2000 Tranch 1 and 2) For RCS 0.0001 m2 class target: 12 km+ For RCS 0.001 m2 class target: 22 km+ For RCS 0.1 m2 class target: 70 km+ For RCS 1.0 m2 class target: 124 km+ For RCS 5.0 m2 class target: 185 km+ For RCS 10.0 m2 class target: 220 km+ APG-79 AESA (F/A-18E/F and EA-18G, Block 2 and 3) For RCS 0.0001 m2 class target: 13 km+ For RCS 0.001 m2 class target: 22 km+ For RCS 0.1 m2 class target: 72 km+ For RCS 1.0 m2 class target: 128 km+ For RCS 5.0 m2 class target: 192 km+ For RCS 10.0 m2 class target: 228 km+ APG-81 AESA (F-35A/B/C) For RCS 0.0001 m2 class target: 16 km+ For RCS 0.001 m2 class target: 28 km+ For RCS 0.1 m2 class target: 90 km+ For RCS 1.0 m2 class target: 160 km+ For RCS 5.0 m2 class target: 240 km+ For RCS 10.0 m2 class target: 285 km+ APG-63 V2/V3/V4 AESA (F-15C/E/SG) For RCS 0.0001 m2 class target: 14~19 km+ For RCS 0.001 m2 class target: 25~33 km+ For RCS 0.1 m2 class target: 81~104 km+ For RCS 1.0 m2 class target: 144~185 km+ For RCS 5.0 m2 class target: 215~278 km+ For RCS 10.0 m2 class target: 255~330 km+ CAESAR AESA (EF-2000 Tranch3, post-2015 with 1,500 T/Rs) For RCS 0.0001 m2 class target: 18~21 km+ For RCS 0.001 m2 class target: 32~38 km+ For RCS 0.1 m2 class target: 104~122 km+ For RCS 1.0 m2 class target: 185~216 km+ For RCS 5.0 m2 class target: 278~324 km+ For RCS 10.0 m2 class target: 330~385 km+ APG-77 AESA (F-22A) For RCS 0.0001 m2 class target: 20 km+ For RCS 0.001 m2 class target: 35 km+ For RCS 0.1 m2 class target: 112 km+ For RCS 1.0 m2 class target: 200 km+ For RCS 5.0 m2 class target: 300 km+ For RCS 10.0 m2 class target: 355 km+125
  126. 126. 126 Infrared/Optical Systems See “E-O and IR Systems Pyloads” PDF for a detailed presentation.
  127. 127. 127 Target Identification System, Electro-Optical (TISEO) F-4 (V) Phantom E-O and IR Systems Payloads F-14. Close-up of the TVSU camera. This sensor is equivalent to the Target Identification System Electro-Optic (TISEO) sensor on the F-4E Phantom. The fairing under the camera is the ARN-100 antenna. The red item is the forward anti- collision light Northrop AN/AXX-1 Television Camera System (TCS). TCS represents the TISEO/TCS family of stabilised TV telescopes, used by the USAF and USN on air defence and air superiority fighters. TCS provides sharp close-up images of hostile aircraft outside of visual range. Typical identification ranges quoted are. DC-10 at 85 miles, F-111 at 40 miles, C-130 at 35 miles and F-5 at 10 miles. TCS could be fitted to the F-18, though currently only the F-14A is equipped. Below installation on F-14D with IRST (Northrop images). Northrop AN/AXX-1 Television Camera System (TCS). TCS represents the TISEO/TCS family of stabilised TV telescopes, used by the USAF and USN on air defence and air superiority fighters. TCS provides sharp close-up images of hostile aircraft outside of visual range. Typical identification ranges quoted are. DC-10 at 85 miles, F-111 at 40 miles, C-130 at 35 miles and F-5 at 10 miles. TCS could be fitted to the F-18, though currently only the F-14A is equipped. Below installation on F-14D with IRST (Northrop images).
  128. 128. 128 E-O and IR Systems Payloads MiG-29 nose showing radome and IRST IRST Su-35S demonstrator with exposed Irbis-E phased array and 90 degree off boresight steerable OLS-35 IRST turret. The now well established trend in Russian sensors for BVR combat is increasing range performance and countermeasures resistance. The 20 kiloWatt peak power N035 Irbis E radar is the most powerful in its class. (KnAAPO) Forward Looking Infrared(FLIR) - Infrared Search and Track System (IRST) IRST sensor on the Su-27 Su-27: The OLS-27 Infrared Search and Track (IRST)
  129. 129. 129 E-O and IR Systems Payloads Su-35S Electro-Optical System turret (© 2009 Vitaliy V. Kuzmin) Thales Damocles electro-optical targeting pod (Wikipedia image). The UOMZ Sapsan E Electro-Optical Targeting System pod is likely to be offered as an alternative to the licenced French Thales Damocles targeting pod (© 2009 Vitaliy V. Kuzmin The UOMZ Sapsan E Electro-Optical Targeting System pod is likely to be offered as an alternative to the licenced French Thales Damocles targeting pod (© 2009 Vitaliy V. Kuzmin
  130. 130. SOLO RAFAEL LITENING Multi-Sensor, Multi-Mission Targeting & Navigation Pod E-O and IR Systems Payloads 130
  131. 131. SOLO RAFAEL RECCELITE Real-Time Tactical Reconnaissance System E-O and IR Systems Payloads 131
  132. 132. SOLO E-O and IR Systems Payloads 132
  133. 133. SOLO E-O and IR Systems Payloads LANTIRN (Low Altitude Navigation and Targeting Infrared for Night) Primary function: Low altitude navigation and targeting infrared for night flying Contractor: Lockheed Martin, Inc. Length: AN/AAQ-13 Navigation pod AN/AAQ-14 targeting pod Length: 78.2 inches (1.99 meters) 98.5 inches (2.51 meters) Diameter: 12 inches (.31 meters) 15 inches (.38 meters) Weight: 470 pounds (211.5 kilograms) 524 pounds (235.8 kilograms) Sensors: Infrared and terrain following radar Infrared laser designator and ranging Unit Cost: Navigation pod, $1.38 million targeting pod, $3.2 million Aircraft: F-15E, F-16C/D, F-14 Introduction Date: March 1987 133
  134. 134. SOLO E-O and IR Systems Payloads Sniper XR Specifications Length: 239 cm Diameter: 300 mm Total weight: 440 lb (181 kg) Operational altitude: +40,000 Sensor: 640x480 FPA Daylight sensor: CCDTV Wide Field of view: 4x4 Narrow field of view: 1x1 Field of regard: +35 / -155 Roll: continuous Laser: Diode pumped laser designator To meet the requirements to have a Sniper pod of several components. The most important part is a high-resolution FLIRSensor, which in the mid- infrared spectrum (engl. mid infrared) Works and CCDBased work. This sensor allows the detection of enemy targets at night or under adverse conditions. The range is located around the three-to five-fold over that of a LANTIRN-Pods of the first generation. For use in daylight and a CCD-TV camera can be used. Both sensors are fully stabilized and equipped with softwareAlgorithms for digital processing of images. A Datalink to transfer the acquired images to allied forces as well as a data storage can always be upgraded. For tracking and marking of targets serve two separate laser systems. Both offer a so-called (engl.) Eye-safe Mode to prevent eye damage in densely populated areas or in training. The air cell causes less drag than previous models and has limited Stealth Features. LOCKHEED Sniper XR (Pantera) Targeting Pod 134
  135. 135. SOLO E-O and IR Systems Payloads NORTHROP AN/AAQ-37 Electro Optical Distributed Aperture System (DAS) AN/AAQ-37 Electro Optical Distributed Aperture System that equips the F-35 Lightening 2. The suit of six electro-optical sensors that comprise the system will enhance the F-35's survivability and operational effectiveness by warning the pilot of incoming aircraft and missile threats, providing day/night vision and supporting the navigation function of the F-35's forward- looking infrared sensor. The DAS provides: * Missile detection and tracking * Launch point detection * Situational awareness IRST & cueing * Weapons support * Day/night navigation At the designated AN/AAQ-37, also known as DAS (Distributed Aperture System), is a infrarotgestütztes Sensor system. It consists of six separate IR cameras, which are arranged on the airframe that the entire sky can be monitored[29] . It is primarily a Raketenwarngerät conceived, but also has other functions. How can firing SAM- And FlakPositions are detected automatically and available on-board weapons (JDAM, for example) should fight[29] While appropriate countermeasures (Flares, Chaff and ECM) Are well-spent. Also from any direction approaching bombers can be captured and subsequently with Fire and ForgetWeapons (to be attacked like AIM- 9X or AIM-120) without the F-35 put through maneuvers in firing position must During a Air melee identified with a number of parties own and enemy aircraft, and is pursuing the AAQ-37, all planes, so that the pilot even with similar looking machines can always distinguish between friend and foe During night missions, the system serves as a substitute for conventional Night Vision Goggles. In combination with the HMDS helmet may use the pilot in any direction on a night vision image quality, with the sharpness in some of the human Eye equal. This is a significant advance over the usual, on the helmet- mounted night vision devices, since they can cover, by their construction and the cockpit pulpit only a relatively small field of view. Combined with the onboard computer also vehicles on the ground can be safely pursued 135 Key attribute of the DAS are: Dual-Band MWIR (3-5 μm) and LWIR (8-10 μm) using a 640 – 512 FPA. Each measures ~ 7x5x4 in, weighs ~ 9 lb And consumes less than 20 W. Sensor are devices with Megapixel Capability (1000x1000).
  136. 136. SOLO E-O and IR Systems Payloads NORTHROP AN/AAQ-37 Electro Optical Distributed Aperture System (DAS) AN/AAQ-37 Electro Optical Distributed Aperture System that equips the F-35 Lightening 2. 136 F35 EO Sensor Vertical Coverage and EOTS Installation F35 Horizontal Coverage Using DAS Sensors
  137. 137. SOLO Electronic Warfare (EW) 137Typical Batelfield Scenario
  138. 138. SOLO Electronic Warfare (EW) 138Radio-Frequency Spectrum
  139. 139. SOLO Electronic Warfare (EW) 139Electronic Warfare Elements
  140. 140. SOLO Electronic Warfare (EW) 140 Functional Layout of the Radar Warning Receiver (RWR) Defensive Aids Subsystems (DASS) • Radar Warning Receiver (RWR) • Missile Warning Receiver • Laser Warning Receiver • Countermeasure Dispensers (CMD) – Chaff or Flares • Towed Decoys
  141. 141. SOLO Electronic Warfare (EW) 141 Defensive Aids Subsystems (DASS) Typical Laser Warning System (SAAB Avitron) Example of Flare Dispensing Example of Towed Decoy
  142. 142. SOLO Electronic Warfare (EW) 142 Defensive Aids Subsystems (DASS) AN/ALQ-214 Concept of Operation
  143. 143. SOLO Electronic Warfare (EW) 143 Simplified Overview of F/A 18E/F Countermeasures Suite
  144. 144. SOLO 144 Fighter Aircraft Weapon System The Weapons System of a Fighter has the following tasks: - Keep Inventory Status of all Weapons - Provide Safety to Personal (Ground, Pilots) during all Life Phases of Operation (on Ground and in Flight) - Help the Pilot to Activate the Weapons to perform their missions. Attack and Defense Missions: - Air-to-Ground Attack - Air-to-Air Attack -- Defense against incoming treats The type of Weapons on a Fighter : - Guns (Air-to-Air/ Air-to-Ground) - Missiles (Air-to-Air/ Air-to-Ground) -Bombs (Air-to-Ground) - Dispensers (Chaff, Flares) - ECCM Pods
  145. 145. Continue to Fighter Aircraft Avionics Part IV SOLO 145 Fighter Aircraft Avionics
  146. 146. References SOLO 146 PHAK Chapter 1 - 17 http://www.gov/library/manuals/aviation/pilot_handbook/media/ George M. Siouris, “Aerospace Avionics Systems, A Modern Synthesis”, Academic Press, Inc., 1993 R.P.G. Collinson, “Introduction to Avionics”, Chapman & Hall, Inc., 1996, 1997, 1998 Ian Moir, Allan Seabridge, “Aircraft Systems, Mechanical, Electrical and Avionics Subsystem Integration”, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., 3th Ed., 2008 Fighter Aircraft Avionics Ian Moir, Allan Seabridge, “Military Avionics Systems”, John Wiley & Sons, LTD., 2006
  147. 147. References (continue – 1) SOLO 147 Fighter Aircraft Avionics S. Hermelin, “Air Vehicle in Spherical Earth Atmosphere” S. Hermelin, “Airborne Radar”, Part1, Part2, Example1, Example2 S. Hermelin, “Tracking Systems” S. Hermelin, “Navigation Systems” S. Hermelin, “Earth Atmosphere” S. Hermelin, “Earth Gravitation” S. Hermelin, “Aircraft Flight Instruments” S. Hermelin, “Computing Gunsight, HUD and HMS” S. Hermelin, “Aircraft Flight Performance” S. Hermelin, “Sensors Systems: Surveillance, Ground Mapping, Target Tracking” S. Hermelin, “Air-to-Air Combat”
  148. 148. References (continue – 2) SOLO 148 Fighter Aircraft Avionics S. Hermelin, “Spherical Trigonometry” S. Hermelin, “Modern Aircraft Cutaway”
  149. 149. 149 SOLO Technion Israeli Institute of Technology 1964 – 1968 BSc EE 1968 – 1971 MSc EE Israeli Air Force 1970 – 1974 RAFAEL Israeli Armament Development Authority 1974 – 2013 Stanford University 1983 – 1986 PhD AA
  150. 150. 150 SOUND WAVESSOLO Disturbances propagate by molecular collision, at the sped of sound a, along a spherical surface centered at the disturbances source position. The source of disturbances moves with the velocity V. -when the source moves at subsonic velocity V < a, it will stay inside the family of spherical sound waves. -when the source moves at supersonic velocity V > a, it will stay outside the family of spherical sound waves. These wave fronts form a disturbance envelope given by two lines tangent to the family of spherical sound waves. Those lines are called Mach waves, and form an angle μ with the disturbance source velocity: a V M M =      = − & 1 sin 1 µ
  151. 151. 151 SOUND WAVESSOLO Sound Wave Definition: ∆ p p p p p1 2 1 1 1= − << ρ ρ ρ2 1 2 1 2 1 = + = + = + ∆ ∆ ∆ p p p h h h For weak shocks u p 1 2 = ∆ ∆ρ 1 1 11 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 2 1 1 uuuuuu ρ ρ ρ ρρρ ρ ρ ρ ∆ −≅ ∆ + = ∆+ ==(C.M.) ( ) ( ) ppuuupuupu ∆++      ∆ −=+=+ 11 1 11122111 2 11 ρ ρ ρρρ(C.L.M.) Since the changes within the sound wave are small, the flow gradients are small. Therefore the dissipative effects of friction and thermal conduction are negligible and since no heat is added the sound wave is isotropic. Since au =1 s p a       ∂ ∂ = ρ 2 valid for all gases
  152. 152. 152 SPEED OF SOUND AND MACH NUMBERSOLO Speed of Sound is given by 0=       ∂ ∂ = ds p a ρ RT p C C T dT R C p T dT R C d dp d R T dT Cds p dp R T dT Cds v p v p ds v p γ ρ ρ ρ ρ ρ ===      ⇒        =−= =−= =00 0 but for an ideal, calorically perfect gas ρ γγ ρ p RTa TChPerfectyCaloricall RTpIdeal p ==       = = The Mach Number is defined as RT u a u M γ == ∆ 1 2 1 1 111 −−       =      =      = γ γ γ γ γ ρ ρ a a T T p p The Isentropic Chain: a ad T Tdd p pd sd 1 2 1 0 − = − ==→= γ γ γ γ ρ ρ γ
  153. 153. 153 NORMAL SHOCK WAVESSOLO Normal Shock Wave ( Adiabatic), Perfect Gas   G Q= =0 0, Mach Number Relations (1) ( ) ( ) ( )   ( ) 12 2 2 2 1 2 1 2 2 22 2 2 1 22 1 2 2 2 2 22 1 1 2 1 12 22 2 11 1 2 2 221 2 11 2211 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 * 12 1 2 1 12 1 1 4.. ... .. uu u a u a uaa uaa au h a u h a EC uu u p u p pupuMLC uuMC p a −=−                  − − + = − − + = → − + =+ − =+ − →−=−→    +=+ = ∗ ∗ = γγ γγ γγ γ γ γγ ρρρρ ρρ ρ γ Field Equations: 122 2 2 1 1 2 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 uuu u a u u a −= − + + − − − + ∗∗ γ γ γ γ γ γ γ γ u u a1 2 2 = ∗ u a u a M M1 2 1 21 1∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ = → = Prandtl’s Relation u p ρ T e u p ρ T e τ 11 q 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 1 2 ( ) γ γ γ γ γ γ γ γ γ γ 2 1 2 1 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 21 2 1212 2 21 12 + = − −= + →−=− − + −+ ∗ ∗ uu a uuuua uu uu Ludwig Prandtl (1875-1953)
  154. 154. 154 NORMAL SHOCK WAVESSOLO Normal Shock Wave ( Adiabatic), Perfect Gas   G Q= =0 0, Mach Number Relations (2) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )[ ] ( )( ) ( ) M M M M M M M M M 2 2 2 2 1 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 2 1 1 2 1 1 2 1 1 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 = + − − = + − − = + + − + − − = − + + / + − / / + − / + − − ∗ = ∗ ∗ ∗ γ γ γ γ γ γ γ γ γ γ γ γ γ γ or ( ) M M M M M H H A A 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 21 2 1 2 1 1 2 1 2 2 1 1 1 2 1 2 1 1 = + − − − = + + − + + − = = γ γ γ γ γ γ γ ( ) ( ) ρ ρ γ γ 2 1 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 1 2 = = = = = + − + = ∗ ∗ A A u u u u u u a M M M u p ρ T e u p ρ T e τ 11 q 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 1 2
  155. 155. 155 NORMAL SHOCK WAVESSOLO Normal Shock Wave ( Adiabatic), Perfect Gas   G Q= =0 0, Mach Number Relations (3) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) p p u p u u u a M M M M M M M 2 1 1 2 1 1 2 1 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 2 1 = + −       = + −       = + − − + +       = + / + − / − − + ρ γ ρ ρ γ γ γ γ γ γ γ or (C.L.M.) ( ) p p M2 1 1 2 1 2 1 1= + + − γ γ ( ) ( ) ( ) h h T T p p M M M a a h C T p RTp 2 1 2 1 2 1 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 2 1 1 2 1 1 1 2 1 = = = + + −       − + + = = = ρ ρ ρ γ γ γ γ ( ) ( ) ( ) s s R T T p p M M M 2 1 2 1 1 2 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 2 1 2 1 1 2 1 1 1 2 1 − =                       = + + −       − + +                 − − − − ln ln γ γ γ γ γ γ γ γ γ γ ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) s s R M M M 2 1 1 1 2 1 2 3 2 2 1 2 41 2 2 3 1 1 2 1 1 − ≈ + − − + − + − << γ γ γ γ K Shapiro p.125 u p ρ T e u p ρ T e τ 11 q 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 1 2
  156. 156. 156 STEADY QUASI ONE-DIMENSIONAL FLOWSOLO STAGNATION CONDITIONS (C.E.) constuhuh =+=+ 2 22 2 11 2 1 2 1 The stagnation condition 0 is attained by reaching u = 0 2 / 21202 020 2 1 1 1 2 1 2 1 22 1 2 M TR u Tc u T T c u TTuhh TRa auM Rc pp Tch p p − += − +=+=→+=→+= = = − = = γ γ γ γγ γ Using the Isentropic Chain relation, we obtain: 2 1 0102000 2 1 1 M p p a a h h T T − +=      =      =      == − − γ ρ ρ γ γ γ Steady , Adiabatic + Inviscid = Reversible, , ( ) q Q= =0 0, ( )~ ~ τ = 0 ( )   G = 0 ∂ ∂ t =      0
  157. 157. SOLO 157 Civilian Aircraft Avionics Flight Cockpit CIRRUS PERSPECTIVE Cirrus Perspective Avionics Demo, Youtube Cirrus SR22 Tampa Landing in Heavy Rain
  158. 158. SOLO 158 Flight Displays CIRRUS PERSPECTIVE Civilian Aircraft Avionics
  159. 159. SOLO 159 Flight Displays CIRRUS PERSPECTIVE Civilian Aircraft Avionics
  160. 160. SOLO 160 Flight Displays CIRRUS PERSPECTIVE Civilian Aircraft Avionics
  161. 161. SOLO 161 Flight Displays CIRRUS PERSPECTIVE Civilian Aircraft Avionics
  162. 162. SOLO 162 Flight Displays CIRRUS PERSPECTIVE Civilian Aircraft Avionics
  163. 163. SOLO 163 Flight Displays CIRRUS PERSPECTIVE Civilian Aircraft Avionics
  164. 164. SOLO 164 Flight Displays CIRRUS PERSPECTIVE Civilian Aircraft Avionics
  165. 165. SOLO 165 Flight Displays CIRRUS PERSPECTIVE Civilian Aircraft Avionics
  166. 166. 166

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