A humanoid robot is a robot that resembles human both in
appearance and behavior.
In general, humanoid robots have a torso, a head, two arms,
and two legs.
Leonardo da Vinci designed and built the first known
humanoid robot in 1495.
Initial aim of humanoid research was to build better orthosis
and prosthesis for human beings.
Humanoid robots with artificial intelligence algorithms could
be useful for distant space exploration missions.
Humanoid robots are being developed to perform dangerous
jobs and other human tasks like personal assistance etc.
Proprioceptive Sensors :-
It senses the position, the orientation and the speed of the humanoid's body and joints.
Humanoid robots uses –
Accelerometers → To measure the acceleration.
Tilt Sensors → To measure inclination.
Force Sensors → To measure contact force with environment.
Position Sensors → To indicate the actual position of robot.
Exteroceptive Sensors :-
It measures the proximity of objects in relation to the robot’s frame of
Humanoid robots uses –
Tactile Sensors → It provides data on what has been touched.
Vision Sensors → Recognizes objects and determines their properties.
Sound Sensors → To hear speech and environmental sound.
These are the motors responsible for motion in the robot.
Mainly rotary actuators are employed in humanoid robots.
They can either be electric, pneumatic, hydraulic, piezoelectric or
Hydraulic and electric actuators have a very rigid behavior and are used
with complex feedback control strategies.
Electric actuators operates well at high speed and low load applications
while hydraulic actuators operates well at low speed and high load
Piezoelectric actuators generate a small movement with a high force capability when
voltage is applied.
They can be used for ultra-precise positioning and for generating and handling high
forces or pressures in static or dynamic situations.
Ultrasonic actuators are designed to produce movements in a micrometer order at
ultrasonic frequencies i.e. over 20 kHz.
They are useful for controlling vibration, positioning applications and quick
Pneumatic actuators operate on the basis of gas compressibility and are designed for
low speed and low or medium load applications.
9. WHEELED HUMANOID ROBOT
Need to modify the surrounding.
Movement is possible only on flat floors.
10. BIPED HUMANOID ROBOT
No need to change the surrounding.
Exactly human like structure.
Can move on any type of floor.
Capable of climbing stairs.
Can perform tasks faster, accurately, effectively and efficiently than
Can work 24/7 without salary and food.
Can perform exhaustive and repetitive jobs without getting bored.
Can be used in research and rescue operations and for surveillance
Can also be used for entertainment purposes.
Have no emotions.
Need high power supply for operating.
Need regular maintenance.
High cost of manufacture.
Not fully reliable or trustworthy.
The majority of robots today, solve comfort problems but there are
Robotics is still very costly and it requires a lot more research and
users to bring down the costs to a decent level.
As the technology improves, there will be new ways to use robots
which will bring new hopes and new potentials.
K. Hirai,M. Hirose,Y. Haikawa and T. Takenaka,”The Development of Humanoid
Robot”, Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. on Robotics and Automation, pp. 1321-1326, 1998.
Brady, M., Holler Bach, J.M., Johnson, T., Lozano-Perez, T. and Mason, M.
(1982), Robot Motion: Planning and Control. MIT Press.
Russell, R. A. (1990). Robot Tactile Sensing. Prentice Hall.
Everett, H. R. (1995). Sensors for Mobile Robots: Theory and Application. AK
Craig, J. J. (1986). Introduction to Robotics: Mechanics and Control. Addison