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Center for history in psychology

  1. 1. Center for the History of Psychology Museum of Psychology showcases and interprets documents, media, and artifacts from the Center’s vast special collections. The larger portion of the CHP is the archives.
  2. 2. Originally established in 1965 by Drs. John Popplestone and Marion White McPherson. (Called Archives of the History of American Psychology until 2010) Popplestone said the field would never amount to anything without a central archive. McPherson responded “That’s the best idea you’ve had in quite a while.” Mission: promote the history of psychology and related human sciences to the broadest community possible.
  3. 3. Phrenology Head Used to test “personality” in late 1800s, early 1900s Museum displays many artifacts and tools.
  4. 4. Phrenology Head Notice in an actual head, they are bumps b/c the prominence of the bump on the head is what signifies the characteristic.
  5. 5. Psychograph Used to measure the bumps on the skull and give an “accurate” personality diagnosis.
  6. 6. Popular machine, then novelty machine in later years
  7. 7. Bobo Doll Groundbreaking study revealing that aggression begets more aggression. Previous theory thought that watching someone be aggressive would drain the aggression out of you.
  8. 8. Skinner box
  9. 9. Barnabus (the rat) study box Notice the multiple layers within the box The rat starts at the bottom, releasing various obstacles, then ending at top, where he took an elevator down
  10. 10. Barnabus was very famous for “backward chaining” Learning the last behavior first, then building on them. This is how complex behaviors are trained in animals.
  11. 11. Skinner “Air crib” Climate controlled environment for infants. Meant to make parenting easier by dispensing with the worries of temperature, germs, and laundry. Skinner’s second daughter spent first 2 years here.
  12. 12. Mass marketed… …Not a big seller.
  13. 13. Obedience to Authority Shock Box Looks like a genuine machine that produces shocks.
  14. 14. Imagine pushing these levers
  15. 15. Magneto Electric Machine (1854) Used to deliver shocks to patients to treat mental illness.
  16. 16. DSMs How we diagnosis mental illness.
  17. 17. Notice how small the first two are compared to the rest—in three we introduced the idea of a list of criteria that could be met for a diagnosis
  18. 18. I’m looking for some participants….Who wants to join?
  19. 19. Stanford Prison Study We all learned that human nature sucks.
  21. 21. Why Study History? 1. Perspective 2. Deeper understanding 3. Recognition of fads and fashions 4. Avoiding repetition of mistakes 5. A source of valuable ideas 6. Curiosity (Hergenhahn, 2001)
  22. 22. Way back….. Ancient Greeks Socrates Rationalist Knowledge is in-born
  23. 23. Guiding Principles to understanding how philosophy connects to psychology • What separates the Rationalists, Empiricists, and Romantics? • How do these ideas return when psychology as a discipline is developed?
  24. 24. Way back… Plato-sensations are only shadows (Rationalist) Nature/Nurture debate (that’s right its this old) Tripartate Soul explains humanity 1. Appetitive (desire for pleasure)-abdomen 2. Courageous (spirit/emotions)-heart/chest 3. Rational (moral principles)-brain Conflict between these states of the soul Measure your body area to determine your talents
  25. 25. Way back…. Aristotle--Inductive reasoning – Observe phenomenon, then make theories – Also belief that knowledge came from experiences (empiricist) Theory of Memory Objects, events, and people are linked in memory through similarity, contrast, and contiguity (happening at the same time Frequency and Ease of memory associations
  26. 26. Way back… Aristotle Theory of Catharsis Emotional/Psychological response to drama Seat of consciousness Wrote “De anima” On the Mind = ancient father of psychology
  27. 27. Fast Forward-17th century Century of the “scientist” • No concept of “scientist” at beginning so science and philosophy were entirely linked at beginning, but not at end – Galileo Galilei (earth circles the sun) – Blaise Pascal (computing, mathematics, adding machine—Steve Jobs of his time) – Isaac Newton (apples falling) – Rene Decartes (Mind-Body interaction)
  28. 28. Rene Descartes (1596-1650) • Wealthy rebel • Rationalist • Contributions – Mind-Body Interaction – First physiological psychologist – Concept of stimulus-response – Brain at center of mind (not heart)
  29. 29. “I think, therefore I am” • Body (material) vs. Mind (nonmaterial) • Mind-Body Interactionism Step 1: difference between reflexes and directive behavior Reflexes do not include “mind” Directive behavior does
  30. 30. How the nerves are designed
  31. 31. Mind-Body connection
  32. 32. Memories
  33. 33. What was right? • Nerves are the message system of the body – Electrical impulses and chemicals, not filaments and animal spirits • Stimulus-response model • Speed of memory increases with experience
  34. 34. Empiricism (17th century-19th century) • Knowledge through experience • Social ramifications • Famous empiricists: – Thomas Hobbes (1588-1679) – John Locke (1632-1704) – David Hume (1711-1776) – John Mill (1773-1836) – John Stuart Mill (1806-1873)
  35. 35. John Locke • He was the first to attack “innate ideas” • “Blank slate” • Simple and complex ideas • Humans are motivated by search for pleasure and avoidance of pain • Education was important b/c nurture was more important than nature
  36. 36. John Stuart Mill • Product of empiricism • Struggle is to understand “the mind” 1. Every sensation forms an idea which is a weaker form of sensation 2. Similar ideas excite one another 3. Law of contiguity (associations) 4. More vivid the experience, the stronger the association 5. More frequent the association, the stronger it is • Disagreed with father: ideas combine to form something new, can’t always be broken down
  37. 37. Methodology of Science • Natural Laws • Primary vs. Secondary Laws • “Inexact” sciences • Human nature vs. ethology
  38. 38. Jean-Jacques Rosseau (1712-1778) • Romanticism • Personal life = society sucks • Reaction to Hobbes view of human nature – Noble savage – No original sin • Private will vs. General will • Education