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The role and design of instructional materials

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The role and design of instructional materials

  1. 1. The role and design of instructional materials Presented by: Hay Sovichea 1 Prepared by: Hay Sovichea (MA Student)
  2. 2. Contents  Authentic versus created materials Textbooks  Evaluating textbooks  Adapting textbooks  Preparing materials for a program Managing a materials writing project  Monitoring the use of materials 2 Prepared by: Hay Sovichea (MA Student)
  3. 3. The role and design of instructional materials  Teaching materials are a key component in most language programs that the teachers use as the basis for much of the language input the leaners receive and the language practice that occurs in the classroom.  Inexperienced teachers, materials may also serve as a form of teacher training – they provide ideas on how to plan and teach lessons as well as formats that teachers can use.  The materials may take the of: a. Printed materials such as books, workbooks, worksheet.. b. Non printed materials such as cassette or audio, 3 Prepared by: Hay Sovichea (MA Student)
  4. 4. The role and design of instructional materials c. Materials that comprise both print and nonprint sources such as self-access materials and materials on the intertet.  Cunningsworth (1995, 7) summarizes the role of materials (particularly course books) in language teaching as: A resource for presentation materials (spoken and written) A source of activities for learner practice and communicative interaction A reference source for learner on grammar, vocabulary, pronunciation, and so on 4 Prepared by: Hay Sovichea (MA Student) A source of stimulation and ideas for classroom
  5. 5. The role and design of instructional materials A syllabus ( where they reflect learning objectives that have already been determined) A support for less experienced teachers who have yet to gain in confidence • Dudley-Evans and St. John (1998, 170-171) suggest that for teachers of ESP courses, materials serve the following functions: 1) As a source of language 2) As a learning support 3) For motivation and stimulation 4) For reference 5 Prepared by: Hay Sovichea (MA Student)
  6. 6. Authentic versus created materials Authentic materials refers to the use in teaching of texts, photo graphs, video selections, and other teaching resources that were not specially prepared for pedagogical purposes. Created materials refers to textbooks and other specially developed instructional resources.  Advantages claiming for authentic materials are (Phillips and Shettles worth 1978; Clarke 1989; Peacock 1997): 1) They have the positive effect on learner motivation 6 Prepared by: Hay Sovichea (MA Student) 2) They provide authentic cultural information about the target culture
  7. 7. Authentic versus created materials 1) They provide exposure to real language 2) They relate more closely to learners ’needs 3) They support a more creative approach to teaching  However, critics of the use of authentic materials point out: 1) Created materials can also be motivating for learners 2) Authentic materials often contain difficult language 3) Created materials may be superior to authentic 7 Prepared by: Hay Sovichea (MA Student) material
  8. 8. Textbooks  Textbooks are used in different ways in language programs such as a reading textbook, a writing textbook, a grammar textbook, a speaking textbook, a listening textbook together with audiocassettes or CDs.  The use of commercial textbooks in teaching has both advantages and disadvantages, depending on how they are used  Among the principal advantages are: 1. They provide structure and a syllabus for a program. 2. They help standardize instruction. 8 Prepared by: Hay Sovichea (MA Student)
  9. 9. Textbooks 4. They provide a variety of resources. 5. They are efficient. 6. They can provide effective language models and input. 7. They can train teachers. 8. They are visually appealing.  Disadvantages are: 1. They may contain inauthentic language. 2. They may distort content. 3. They may not reflect students ’ needs. 4. They can deskill teachers 5. They are expensive. 9 Prepared by: Hay Sovichea (MA Student)
  10. 10. Evaluating textbooks  To evaluate textbooks we need the information on the following issues: The role of the textbook in the program  Is there a well-developed curriculum that describes the objectives syllabus and content of the program or will this be determined by the text book?  Will the book or the textbook series provide the core of the program, or is it one of several different books that will be used?  Will it be used with small classes or large ones?  Will learners be expected to buy a workbook as well or should the textbook provide all the practice 10 stuPredpearend tbsy: Hnaey Seodvic?hea (MA Student)
  11. 11. Evaluating textbooks The teachers in the program How experienced are the teachers in the program and what is their level of training?  Are they native speakers of English? If not, how well do they speak English? Do teachers tend to follow the textbook closely or do they use the book simply as a resource?  Do teachers play a part in selecting the books they teach from?  Are teachers free to adapt and supplement the book? 11 Prepared by: Hay Sovichea (MA Student)
  12. 12. Evaluating textbooks The learners in the program  Is each student required to buy a book? What do learners typically expect in a textbook?  Will they use the book in class and at home? How will they use the book in class? Is it the primary source of classroom activities? How much are they prepared to pay for a book?  Two factors are involved in the development of commercial textbooks: 1. The books representing the interests of the author 2. The books representing the interests of publisher 12 Prepared by: Hay Sovichea (MA Student)
  13. 13. Evaluating textbooks Criteria for textbook evaluation Cunningsworth (1995) proposes 4 criteria for evaluating textbooks, particularly course books: 1. They should correspond to learners ’s needs. 2. They should reflect the uses (present or future) that learners will make of the language. 3. They should take account of students ’s needs as learners and should facilitate their learning processes, without dogmatically imposing arigid “method.” 4. They should have a clear role as a support for learning. 13 Prepared by: Hay Sovichea (MA Student)
  14. 14. Evaluating textbooks Cunningsworth (1995) presents a checklist for textbook evaluation and selection:  Aims and approaches  Design and organization  Language content  Skills  Topic  Methodology  Teachers’ books  Practical consideration 14 Prepared by: Hay Sovichea (MA Student)
  15. 15. Adapting textbooks  Most teachers are not creators of teaching materials but providers of good materials.  Dudley-Evans and St. John (1998, 173) suggest that a good provider of materials will be able to: 1. Select appropriately from what is available 2. Be creative with what is available 3. Modify activities to suit learners ’needs 4. Supplement by providing extra activities (and extra input) 15 Prepared by: Hay Sovichea (MA Student)
  16. 16. Adapting textbooks  Commercial textbooks are used with some forms of adaptation to make them more suitable for particular context. The forms are: 1. Modifying content 2. Adding or deleting content 3. Reorganizing content 4. Addressing omissions 5. Modifying tasks 6. Extending tasks 16 Prepared by: Hay Sovichea (MA Student)
  17. 17. Preparing materials for a program  For the setting up a material development project need to be carefully considered both the advantages and disadvantages at the outset (start).  Advantages: Advantages of building a materials development component into a program include: - Relevance: Directly relevant to students’ and institutional needs. - Develop expertise: Develop expertise among staff, giving them a greater understanding of the characteristics and concerns. - Flexibility: Materials produced within the institution can be revised or adapted as needed, giving them greater flexibility than a commercial course book. 17 Prepared by: Hay Sovichea (MA Student)
  18. 18. Preparing materials for a program  Disadvantages : - Cost: Quality materials take time to produce and adequate staff time as well as resources need to be allocated to such a project. - Quality: Teacher-made materials will not normally have the same standard of design and production. - Training: To prepare teachers for materials writing projects, adequate training should be provided. 18 Prepared by: Hay Sovichea (MA Student)
  19. 19. Preparing materials for a program  Decisions in materials design - Developing aims - Developing objectives - Developing a syllabus - Organizing the course into units - Developing a structure for units - Sequencing units 19 Prepared by: Hay Sovichea (MA Student)
  20. 20. Managing a materials writing project  The management of a team-based writing project involves the following issues:  Selecting the project team  Project director Writers  Media specialist  Editor  Illustrator 20 Prepared by: Hay Sovichea (MA Student)
  21. 21. Managing a materials writing project  Designer  Planning the number of stages involved  Identifying reviewers  Planning the writing schedule  Piloting the materials  Design and production 21 Prepared by: Hay Sovichea (MA Student)
  22. 22. Monitoring the use of materials  As the teachers use materials they adapt and transform them to suit the needs of particular groups of learners and their own teaching styles.  Therefore, it is useful to collect information on how teachers use course books and other teaching materials in their teaching.  The collected information serve the following purposes: To document effective ways of using materials To provide feedback on how materials work To keep a record of additions, deletions, and supplementary materials teachers may have used with the materials 22 Prepared by: Hay Sovichea (MA Student)
  23. 23. Monitoring the use of materials Monitoring may take the following forms:  Observation: classroom visits  Feedback sessions: group meeting, teachers discuss their experience with material. Written reports: the use of reflection sheets of written feedback, teachers make brief notes about what worked well and what did not work well or give suggestions.  Reviews: written reviews by teacher or group of teacher on their experiences with a set of materials.  Students’ review: comments from students. 23 Prepared by: Hay Sovichea (MA Student)
  24. 24. Discussion Questions 1. What roles do instructional materials play in your language program? 2. Have you any experience with using authentic materials in teaching? 3. What do you think is an appropriate role for commercial materials in a language program? 4. Examine a commercial textbook and its suitability for a specific teaching context. What criteria would you use to evaluate it? In what way do you think the book would need to be adapted to suit the needs of the program? 5. Other … 24 Prepared by: Hay Sovichea (MA Student)
  25. 25. Reference JACK C. RICHARDS,(2001) CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT in LANGUAGE TEACHING, southeast Asian Ministers of Education Organization, Regional Language Centre, Singapore 25 Prepared by: Hay Sovichea (MA Student)