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Behavioristic School
Cognitive School
Humanistic School
Psychology for Social Workers
3. Learning /Learning Disabilities/M...
Psychology for Social Workers
3. Learning /Learning Disabilities/Memory /Forgetting
Definition
Learning is the act of acquiring new,
or modifying and reinforcing,
existing knowledge, behaviors,
skills, valu...
Psychology for Social Workers
3. Learning /Learning Disabilities/Memory /Forgetting
Psychology for Social Workers
3. Learning /Learning Disabilities/Memory /Forgetting
This school suggests that all
behavior...
Social Learning
Social learning theory explains how
people learn new behaviors, values, and
attitudes by observing the beh...
perception, attention, language, memory & thinking
learning is viewed as an
information processor
Stimulus
/input
Response...
The Formal Operational Stage: The final stage of
Piaget's theory involves an increase in logic, the ability
to use deducti...
Social Cognitive Theory
Social cognitive theory explains
psychosocial functioning in terms of
triadic (1. a model 2.cognit...
Constructivism.
It is a learning theory views
learning as the product of
experience (building new
knowledge by accessing p...
Discovery Learning
Discovery learning is an
inquiry based, constructivist
learning theory that takes
place in problem solv...
Communities of Practice
Community of Practice is a social
learning process that occurs
when people who have a
common inter...
Problem Based Learning
PBL is a way to organize learning around
ill-structured problems so that students
simultaneously ac...
Humanism
‘Humanism is a paradigm / philosophy /
pedagogical approach that believes
learning is viewed as a personal act to...
Emotional Intelligence
Learning is to prepare children's
and adults to develop
competencies to meet the
demands life. Lear...
Psychology for Social Workers
3. Learning /Learning Disabilities/Memory /Forgetting
Hierarchy of Needs
Humanistic learning
theory emphasizes on the
individual needs in
learning. When all levels
of Maslow's ...
Experiential Learning
Experiential learning is the process of
making meaning from direct
experience, i.e., "learning from
...
Self Determination
Humans are often motivated to act by
external rewards such as money, prizes, and
acclaim (known as extr...
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Theories of Learning

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Learning resources compiled by S.Rengasamy for the students doing their Bachelor and Master of Social Work Course

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Theories of Learning

  1. 1. Behavioristic School Cognitive School Humanistic School Psychology for Social Workers 3. Learning /Learning Disabilities/Memory /Forgetting
  2. 2. Psychology for Social Workers 3. Learning /Learning Disabilities/Memory /Forgetting
  3. 3. Definition Learning is the act of acquiring new, or modifying and reinforcing, existing knowledge, behaviors, skills, values, or preferences and may involve synthesizing different types of information. Learning theories Learning theories are conceptual frameworks describing how information is absorbed, processed, and retained during learning. Cognitive, emotional, and environmental influences, as well as prior experience, all play a part in how understanding, or a world view, is acquired or changed, and knowledge and skills retained. Psychology for Social Workers 3. Learning /Learning Disabilities/Memory/Forgetting
  4. 4. Psychology for Social Workers 3. Learning /Learning Disabilities/Memory /Forgetting
  5. 5. Psychology for Social Workers 3. Learning /Learning Disabilities/Memory /Forgetting This school suggests that all behavior can be explained by environmental causes rather than by internal forces. Behaviorism is focused on observable behavior.
  6. 6. Social Learning Social learning theory explains how people learn new behaviors, values, and attitudes by observing the behavior of others and its consequences, and modify their own behavior accordingly. Social learning requires observing a behaviour, remembering the observed behavior, the ability to replicate the behavior, and a motivation to act the same way. Psychology for Social Workers 3. Learning /Learning Disabilities/Memory /Forgetting Conditioning A process through which behavior is learned. The two major types of conditioning, respondent conditioning (classical conditioning) and operant conditioning Classical conditioning involves learning a new behavior via the process of association. In simple terms two stimuli are linked together to produce a new learned response in a person or animal. Operant conditioning (instrumental conditioning) is a method of learning that occurs through rewards and punishments for behavior. Through operant conditioning, an association is made between a behavior and a consequence for that behavior. Human beings learn behaviour through conditioning and interacting with the environment
  7. 7. perception, attention, language, memory & thinking learning is viewed as an information processor Stimulus /input Response /output Cognitivism Cognitive School is concerned with the development of a person's thought processes. Learning as a Mental Process Cognition literally means “knowing”. In other words, psychologists from this approach study cognition which is ‘the mental act or process by which knowledge is acquired.’ Cognitive psychology focuses on the way humans process information, looking at how we treat information that comes in to the person (what behaviorists would call stimuli), and how this treatment leads to responses. In other words, they are interested in the variables that mediate between stimulus/input and response/output. Cognitive psychologists study internal processes including perception, attention, language, memory and thinking. A learner is viewed as an information processor Psychology for Social Workers 3. Learning /Learning Disabilities/Memory /Forgetting
  8. 8. The Formal Operational Stage: The final stage of Piaget's theory involves an increase in logic, the ability to use deductive reasoning, and an understanding of abstract ideas. The Sensorimotor Stage: During this stage, infants and toddlers acquire knowledge through sensory experiences and manipulating objects. The Preoperational Stage: At this stage, kids learn through pretend play but still struggle with logic and taking the point of view of other people. The Concrete Operational Stage: Kids at this point of development begin to think more logically, but their thinking can also be very rigid. They tend to struggle with abstract and hypothetical concepts. Stages of Cognitive Development 1 2 3 4 Psychology for Social Workers 3. Learning /Learning Disabilities/Memory /Forgetting
  9. 9. Social Cognitive Theory Social cognitive theory explains psychosocial functioning in terms of triadic (1. a model 2.cognitive and personal factors 3.environmental events) reciprocal causation. 1. By observing others (models), people acquire knowledge of rules, skills, strategies, beliefs, and attitudes. Individuals also learn about the usefulness and appropriateness of behaviors 2. observing models and the consequences of modeled behaviors and they act in accordance with their beliefs concerning the expected outcomes 3.environmental events of actions Psychology for Social Workers 3. Learning /Learning Disabilities/Memory /Forgetting
  10. 10. Constructivism. It is a learning theory views learning as the product of experience (building new knowledge by accessing past experiences - Cognitive constructivism) and social discourse (expanding understanding through social interactions - social constructivism) Knowledge is Constructed; the Learner is an Active Creator Psychology for Social Workers 3. Learning /Learning Disabilities/Memory /Forgetting
  11. 11. Discovery Learning Discovery learning is an inquiry based, constructivist learning theory that takes place in problem solving situations where the learner draws on his or her own past experience and existing knowledge to discover facts and relationships and new truths to be learned e.g. business games, simulations -Jerome Bruner Psychology for Social Workers 3. Learning /Learning Disabilities/Memory /Forgetting
  12. 12. Communities of Practice Community of Practice is a social learning process that occurs when people who have a common interest in a subject or area collaborate over an extended period of time, sharing ideas and strategies, determine solutions, and build innovations Jean Lave Psychology for Social Workers 3. Learning /Learning Disabilities/Memory /Forgetting
  13. 13. Problem Based Learning PBL is a way to organize learning around ill-structured problems so that students simultaneously acquire new knowledge and experience in wrestling with problems” In PBL, a teacher present a problem, not lectures or assignments or exercises. Since the "content" related to the problem is not handed out, learning becomes active in the sense that one is motivated to discover the relevant content necessary to solve the problem. In PBL, a teacher acts as facilitator and mentor, rather than a source of "solutions." Psychology for Social Workers 3. Learning /Learning Disabilities/Memory /Forgetting
  14. 14. Humanism ‘Humanism is a paradigm / philosophy / pedagogical approach that believes learning is viewed as a personal act to fulfil one’s potential. Emotions and Affect Play a Role in Learning Some of the major ideas and concepts that emerged as a result of the humanist movement include an emphasis on things such as: Hierarchy of needs Self determination Self-actualization Emotional intelligence Psychology for Social Workers 3. Learning /Learning Disabilities/Memory /Forgetting
  15. 15. Emotional Intelligence Learning is to prepare children's and adults to develop competencies to meet the demands life. Learning includes not only the subjects but also to learn to identify, assess, and control one's own emotions, the emotions of others and that of groups. Learning to discriminate between different emotions and label them appropriately, and to use emotional information to guide thinking and behavior. Psychology for Social Workers 3. Learning /Learning Disabilities/Memory /Forgetting
  16. 16. Psychology for Social Workers 3. Learning /Learning Disabilities/Memory /Forgetting
  17. 17. Hierarchy of Needs Humanistic learning theory emphasizes on the individual needs in learning. When all levels of Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs are met, students are at their full potential for learning. Student’s with empty stomach, students who are not accepted and loved by their teachers and peers face serious problems in learning Psychology for Social Workers 3. Learning /Learning Disabilities/Memory /Forgetting
  18. 18. Experiential Learning Experiential learning is the process of making meaning from direct experience, i.e., "learning from experience". Learning is the process whereby knowledge is created through the transformation of experience. Learning takes place in four stages 1.concrete experience or doing 2. reflective observation or observing 3. abstract conceptualization or thinking 4. active experimentation or planning
  19. 19. Self Determination Humans are often motivated to act by external rewards such as money, prizes, and acclaim (known as extrinsic motivation), Self- Determination Theory (SDT) focuses primarily on internal sources of motivation such as a need to gain knowledge (competence) or independence (autonomy) or to relate (known as intrinsic motivation). If the learner experience competence when challenged and given prompt feedback, experience autonomy and support to explore, to take initiative and develop solutions for the problems and experience relatedness when listened and responded by others, the learner feels salification of intrinsic needs and motivated and engage in learning actively. Psychology for Social Workers 3. Learning /Learning Disabilities/Memory /Forgetting

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