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Sensation & Perception 1

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Sensation & Perception 1

  1. 1. Sensation! Perception! ! &
  2. 2. Sensation & Perception In psychology, sensation and perception are stages of processing the sensory systems, such as vision, auditory, and pain sensory systems.
  3. 3. Sensation & Perception Sensation is the impact of a stimulus on receptor cells in our sensory organs: the eyes, ears, nose, tongue, and fingertips (among other parts of the body that sense feeling/touch). Stimuli from the environment are transformed into neural signals. Perception is the mental process of understanding the sensory input received in our brains: it is awareness or understanding of the real-world cause of the sensory input. The neural signals we receive from our sensory organs are processed in the brain, and the brain creates useful information and meaning about the world around us. +
  4. 4. Sensation & Perception + = Sensation + Perception = our interpretation of reality around us.
  5. 5. Transduction Transduction is the process of turning environmental information into neural impulses. • In the eyes, light waves create neural impulses • In the nose, chemical reactions from gaseous molecules create neural impulses • On the tongue, chemical reactions create neural impulses • In the ear, sound waves create neural impulses • Within the skin, pressure, pain, and temperature create neural impulses
  6. 6. Transduction Information gathered from your sensory organs is converted into neural impulses that are carried through the peripheral nervous system to your brain. After this process of “transduction” has occurred, the brain can convert the impulses into information.
  7. 7. Fraser’s Spiral Is it actually a spiral? The Fraser’s Spiral is an example of how our perception does not always match reality. If you trace the rings of the spiral, your finger will end where you started - forming a perfect circle.
  8. 8. Checker- shadow Illusion Are squares A and B the same color? Our minds see colors relative to those around them. Next to lighter squares, square A appears dark, and next to darker squares, square B appears light.
  9. 9. Video1
  10. 10. Checker- shadow Illusion If you still don’t believe the squares are the same color, open the image on photo- editing software and test it for yourself.
  11. 11. Video 2
  12. 12. Video 3
  13. 13. Absolute Threshold The weakest amount of a stimulus that a person can detect 50% of the time. Sight Seeing a candle flame 30 miles away on a clear night Hearing Hearing a watch ticking 20 feet away Touch Feeling a bee’s wing falling a distance of 1cm onto your cheek Smell Smelling one drop of perfume in a three room house Taste Tasting one teaspoon of sugar dissolved in two gallons of water
  14. 14. Video 4
  15. 15. Difference Threshold The smallest amount of change in a physical stimulus that a person can detect 50% of the time. This is also called the “just noticeable difference.” If someone turns the music up slowly, at what point do you notice it has become louder? If you hold a handful of sand, and someone adds one grain at a time to the pile, when do you notice it has become heavier? If your best friend trims a half inch off of their hair, will you notice the difference?
  16. 16. Video 5
  17. 17. Signal Detection Theory It is impossible to process every simultaneous stimulus equally in our brains. Instead, we focus our attention on certain things while at the same time attempting to ignore the flood of information entering our senses.  When we do this, we are making a determination as to what is important to sense and what should be in the background.  This concept is referred to as signal detection because we detect what we want to focus on, and ignore or minimize everything else.
  18. 18. Signal Detection Theory Signal detection theory is also about our individual ability to recognize a stimulus when others are present. Will you hear your phone ring if music is playing on the radio?Your ability to recognize a stimulus is called a “hit”: failure to recognize one is called a “miss.” You can also experience a “false alarm” if you think you noticed a stimulus, but there was actually none present (like when you think your phone rang, but it really didn’t)! Signals
  19. 19. Sensory Adaptation Sensory adaptation is our ability become to less sensitive to an unchanging stimulus. Ever wonder why we notice certain smells or sounds right away and then after a while they fade into the background? If a stimulus has become redundant or remains unchanged for an extended period of time, we begin to ignore it. Without sensory adaptation, you would feel the constant pressure of clothes on your body - you would be bombarded with sensory information.
  20. 20. Sensory Adaptation Clock ticking in the room? Funny smell in the room? Eventually you will stop noticing them. Eating spicy food? Eventually it will taste less spicy. Step into a hot bath? At first it might feel too hot, but eventually it feels cooler. Walk into a dark room? At first it will be too dark to see, but then it becomes lighter. These are examples of sensory adaptation.

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