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Sustainable
Architecture
Ar.Suvarna Lele
2
Architecture and Sustainability
3
Sustainability
represents a
transition from a
period of
deterioration of
the natural
environment to a
more humane
and na...
Sustainable development has been defined in many ways, but the most frequently
quoted definition is from Our Common Future...
Ecosystem services
• Oxygen and water
• Detoxification and decomposition of wastes
• Conserve soils and their fertility
• ...
SUSTAINABLE: Ecological and
economical way of living to make
human kind healthy and happy
ARCHITECTURE :The art and
scienc...
- Ecological Architecture:
-Small is good
-Passive Solar Design
-Active Solar Design-High levels Of insulation.
-Efficient...
-Site selection and analysis-
-Site characteristics such as vegetation, topography, geology, climate, natural
access, sola...
Energy Efficient
Architecture
Industry 25%
Transportation 27%
Buildings 48%
CO2 Production by Country in 2006
• Country CO2 Produced % total world emissions
• metric tonnes
• U.S. 5,752 20.2%
• Chin...
What is an ecological
footprint?
It is a measure of our consumption
and/or emissions as a result of our
lifestyle.
The bot...
Buildings, as they are designed and used today, contribute
to serious environmental and economical problems because
of exc...
CLIMATE RESPONSIVE
ARCHITECTURE
PRECEDENTS
ANALYSIS OF SITE AND CLIMATE
ANALYSIS OF BUILDING PROGRAMME
SITE CONSTRAINTS CL...
Study of climatic
conditions
The Multivariate Condition
• Climate varies around the globe and indigenous architecture used to
respond to climate
• 20th...
The Multivariate Condition
Source:LeonardBachman,UniversityofHouston
The Comfort Zone
The Comfort Zone refers to the range of temperature conditions of air
movement, humidity and exposure to ...
-Understanding solar geometry is
essential in order to:
- do passive building design (for
heating and cooling)
- orient bu...
The impact of the sun on our buildings is a direct result of our distance
from the equator.
This affects amounts of solar ...
Since little winter heating can be expected from east and west
windows, shading devices on those orientations can be desig...
Solar Transmission through Varying Types of Glasses
Sun path diagram Sun path-a typical example
Vertical and horizontal shadow angle
Designing to the Comfort Zone vs. Comfort Point:
This famous
illustration is taken
from “Design with
Climate”, by Victor
O...
A bioclimatic chart is a preliminary analysis
tool used during the early planning stages
of a building project.
In the pro...
Desirable wind directions for different zones
Wind roses for wind speed and directions
Energy efficiency techniques
Passive features
What is Passive Design?
• is based upon climate considerations
• attempts to control comfort (heating and cooling) without...
The Tiered Approach to Design
Image: Norbert Lechner, “Heating, Cooling, Lighting”
Solar Chimney
This solar chimney draws
air through
a geothermal heat
exchange to
provide passive home
cooling
Warm air ris...
Evaporative cooling
Lowers indoor air tempreture by evaporating water.Effective in hot
and dry climates.The sensible heat ...
Embedding the structure partially in earth for conditioning
the inner tempreture.
Earth Berming
Photovoltaic arrays
A panel of-5M X 5M generates 1.8kwh.
Shading devices
Solar shades Shadings
Vertical gardensAwningsPergolasTrellis
Shading films
Energy-Conserving Landscapes
Selecting Plants
Adaptability and Hardiness
Wind Control
Using Plants to Conserve Energy
Wind...
Plantation Guidelines
NAME OF THE
TREE
HEIGHT
(in m)
SPREAD
(in m)
TYPE AND USE
Bottle brush 5-8 4-5 Ever green.Used in parks and landscapes.
In...
Vegetation can be
used to shade the
building and create
a cool micro climate
around the building.
Courtyard spaces can provide a
cool semi private interior
microclimate from which to
draw cool air into the building.
Reduce Energy Loads: Day lighting
The tiered approach to reducing energy requirements with
DAYLIGHTING:
Use energy efficie...
Daylighting does not equal
sunlight!
Daylighting is about bringing
natural LIGHT into a space.
Many daylit spaces do not
W...
Energy Conserving Electrical appliances
Energy saved is energy gained
Cost effective technologies and materials
Material Choices
• When designing buildings we
usually have a choice as to
what material to specify
• Materials can be com...
Energy Intensity of Building Materials
240 1290
6220 6770
32178
660
700
4400
0
5000
10000
15000
20000
25000
30000
35000
En...
Cement
18%
Iron & Steel
10%
Bricks
17%
Timber
13%
Sand
7%
Aggregate
8%
Labour
27%
Approximate Break-up of total Constructi...
PROJECT
AND
SITE
MANAGEMENT
MODULAR
CO_ORDINATION
AND
RATIONALISATION
PRE DESIGN
ANALYSIS AND
SYSTEMS
APPROACH
ALTERNATE
T...
Material Primary energy requirements of
Building Materials (MJ/kg)
Very high energy:
Aluminium
PlasticsCopper
Stainless st...
• Conventional Energy Efficient materials
• 1.Bamboo, Bamboo Based Particle Board & Ply Board, Bamboo Matting
• 2.Bricks s...
• 11.Ferro-cement boards for door and window shutters
• 12.Ferro-cement Roofing Channels
• 13.Fly-ash Sand Lime Bricks and...
• 21.Polymerised water proof compound
• 22.Portland PozzolanaCement Flyash/ CalcinedClay Based
• 23.Portland Slag Cement
•...
Environment-friendly, Energy-efficient Technologies
Fly Ash Hollow Blocks
Interlocking Fly Ash Blocks
Fly Ash Bricks Diffe...
Environment-friendly, Energy-efficient Technologies
RCC Planks & Joists Micro Concrete Roofing
Tiles
Ferro cement Roofing
...
Environment-friendly, Energy-efficient Technologies
Ferro cement Beams
Concrete door/window
Frames
Concrete Pavers
Others
Bricks
•Clay of a
region should
determine
the size of
bricks
•The size of brick has been
standardized resulting in poor qu...
SCHEMATIC VIEW OF TILEMOULD FOR MAKING
TILE
TILE MANUFACTURING PROCESS
All surfaces
require
a non erodable
diaphragm to
ma...
Structures in compression: Funicular shells
Alternate Materials and technologies developed by Government
bodies and Individuals
Jaunpur Slum Rehabilitation
Bar Chart
Activities,durations and amounts are plotted on a graph
Estimates:
to keep check on the materials and
costs
Modular Co-ordination
Use of modules in construction for simplification
Precasting and pre fabrication tecnniques Developed by CBRI and
BTMPC
Precasting And Prefabrication
Resource and Waste management
Rainwater collection and purification
Energy efficiency techniques
It is preferable to use renewable
materials, but when it is not
possible one can source:
– Recycled materials or
materials...
Collection Of Materials
Options In Recycling Of Wastes
Water and Waste
Management
Biogas Plant
PREVAILING SCENARIO-INDIAN TOWNS
1.India is undergoing transition from rural to urban
society.
2.Increasing migration from...
What makes a Sustainable City?
• Transportation systems that ensure nodal
connectivity, diverse public transport, and safe...
Contaminated Air and Water
Dangerous Air Pollution
• Poor air quality in Dhaka alone is estimated to lead to
15,000 premat...
CRSCI
Climate Resilient Sustainable Cities Initiative
Policy, Planning
& Legislation
Demonstration
Capacity
Development
Tr...
Sustainable Solutions
• Hydrology
– Safe water supply and delivery
– Sanitation and waste management
• Energy
– Clean, ren...
Town Planning
Research
& Analysis
Elizabeth Burns, Christopher Kearney,
Gwendolyn Johnson, Anna Lavinia Schmitz
LA4198 LA ...
Elements of a Successful Town Center
• Cohesive design creating a unique character
• Active Main Street
• Safe neighborhoo...
Welcoming Identity
• Start with a sense of arrival
Street banner in West Chester, PA
http://www.haverford.com/docs/Haverfo...
Main Streets
Sidewalk café in Gainesville, FL
http://www.haverford.com/docs/Haverford_Township_Compr
ehensive_Plan_Addendu...
Mixed-use
• Offers a place to Live-Work-Shop-Play
• Should consist of a mix of commercial/retail,
office/professional and ...
Infilling
• Creates a dense and vibrant
town center
• Helps to define the image and
feel of the town center
• Capitalizes ...
Neighborhoods
• Promote socialization amongst diverse
age groups and cultures
• Streets are narrow and tree-lined
• Pedest...
Public Spaces
Ferry Plaza Farmers Market at
San Francisco, California
http://www.ferrybuildingmarketplace.co
m/farmers_mar...
Traffic Calming
 Curb extensions
 Roundabouts
 Raised crosswalks
 Tree-lined streets
 Median islands
 Use of materia...
Pedestrian Circulation
One mile walk in sprawling development
http://www.walkscore.com/walkableneighborhood
s.shtml
One mi...
Sustainability
• Stormwater BMPs minimize
land disturbance and runoff,
recharge aquifers, preserve
water quality restoring...
Low-Impact Development
• Eco-based watershed approach
• Protects and expands the natural surface drainage
• Treatment Trai...
Stormwater Management
• Connecting and integrating regional and
neighborhood systems
• As a resource to replenish urban st...
Stormwater BMP
• Bioswales and infiltration basins
• Infiltration planters and
rain gardens
• Eco and green roofs
• Trees ...
Energy Efficiency
Generate energy:
• Solar panels
• Passive and active
solar systems
• Wind turbines
Conserve energy:
• Gr...
SINGAPORE-A Sustainable CITY
Designing our city looks at
how Singapore is planned
for long-term
sustainability, encouragin...
While our challenges today are vastly different from the 1960s, our
priority remains the same: catering for economic growt...
Resources:Singapore has in place innovative
environmental policies and technologies
to manage our precious water, waste an...
Decisions for the future
The challenge of balancing land use needs within Singapore has never been an
easy one. In making ...
Jurong Island
Jurong Island as a chemicals
hub was conceived in 1991. It
not only supports our
industrial
needs but frees ...
Compact city Housing for all
Quality living
Sustaining growth:
Given our limited resources, we will need tocontinue to
sustain our economic growth to provide good job...
Going public :Public transport is a more effective and also environmentally-friendly way to travel as compared
to cars.
Th...
Play options:To complete the total quality living environment, creative strategies have been adopted
to leverage on Singap...
Architectural significanceand rarity
Cultural, social,
religious and historical significance
contribution to
the environme...
Smarter power grids
Climatic mapping:To help create cooler and more comfortable environments for
people to enjoy, URA is leading an ongoing cl...
living lab
For cities to address complex urbanisation and
environmental challenges of the future, there is a need
to const...
Jurong Lake District
Jurong Lake District is the largest of three new growth
areas being developed. Covering 360 ha of lan...
Singapore 2030 is no Utopia
but nevertheless, I envision it to be a
place
where ordinary people show civic pride,
are much...
•Conclusion
•It becomes necessary to adopt the use of alternative building
materials & Construction technologies due to ad...
The process of Sustainable Design is a complex
exercise involving interactive relationships
between Parameters of diverse ...
Sustainable Architecture and Sustainable Cities
Sustainable Architecture and Sustainable Cities
Sustainable Architecture and Sustainable Cities
Sustainable Architecture and Sustainable Cities
Sustainable Architecture and Sustainable Cities
Sustainable Architecture and Sustainable Cities
Sustainable Architecture and Sustainable Cities
Sustainable Architecture and Sustainable Cities
Sustainable Architecture and Sustainable Cities
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Sustainable Architecture and Sustainable Cities

"Sustainable development is development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.
SUSTAINABLE: Ecological and economical way of living to make human kind healthy and happy
�ARCHITECTURE :The art and science of making buildings.
Includes technology as well as aesthetics

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Sustainable Architecture and Sustainable Cities

  1. 1. Sustainable Architecture Ar.Suvarna Lele
  2. 2. 2 Architecture and Sustainability
  3. 3. 3 Sustainability represents a transition from a period of deterioration of the natural environment to a more humane and natural environment. Sustainable development ”Meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs” Brundtland Report, 1987, United Nati
  4. 4. Sustainable development has been defined in many ways, but the most frequently quoted definition is from Our Common Future, also known as the Brundtland Report:[1] "Sustainable development is development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. The natural environment works like a living organism, so also the built environment. The people react with it and it reacts with people. The Urban environments are the mirror with which we reflect our beings; to look at our cities is to see into our future (Ozoenemene 2004). Simonds (1961) admits that when we recreate environment, the environment recreates us. What is Sustainable development????
  5. 5. Ecosystem services • Oxygen and water • Detoxification and decomposition of wastes • Conserve soils and their fertility • Pollination of flowers & Dispersal of seeds • Protection from the ultraviolet rays • Maintenance of biodiversity • Moderation of weather extremes and their impacts • Provision of aesthetic beauty and intellectual and spiritual stimulation for the human spirit Threats to Environment Severest threat is from us, humans – Pollution• Air-CO2, SO2, NO, CFC. Water-Industrial effluents, Sewage, Pesticides, Fertilizers. Noise pollution, Radiation. Soil- solid wastes, effluents . Destruction of Natural Habitats- Deforestation, Hunting, Reclamation, – Alter the Environment Green house Gases, Ozone depleting substances. Natural calamities. Earth Quakes, Forest fires, Volcanoes, Cyclones, ....
  6. 6. SUSTAINABLE: Ecological and economical way of living to make human kind healthy and happy ARCHITECTURE :The art and science of making buildings. Includes technology as well as aesthetics ? WASTE RESOURCES ENERGY
  7. 7. - Ecological Architecture: -Small is good -Passive Solar Design -Active Solar Design-High levels Of insulation. -Efficient use of water and electricity Thermal mass Ventilation. -Efficient lighting -Waste Management: -Through Designing Grey water systems -Low flow taps and showers - Building materials -Use of renewable ,nontoxic materials -Use of recycled, reusable materials -Use of local resources to reduce transport -Pre Design Analysis-an integrated approach to design: client representative, project manager, planning consultant, architectural consultant, civil, mechanical, electrical, plumbing and structural engineers as well as landscape architect, interior designer, sustainability consultant and other consultants as required by the project need to work together to ensure environmental sustainability. SUSTAINABLE ARCHITECTURE HOW DO WE ACHIEVE IT?
  8. 8. -Site selection and analysis- -Site characteristics such as vegetation, topography, geology, climate, natural access, solar orientation patterns, water and drainage, and existing utility and transportation should be analyzed and assessed -A thorough topographic site plan depicting topography, natural and built features of existing conditions should be prepared. This will enhance the design and add aesthetic, economic and practical value. -Integration of the building and structures with the site so as to maximize and preserves positive site characteristics and enhances human comfort, safety and health. -Indoor Air Quality – -Indoor air pollution can be controlled by selecting products and finishes that are low or non-toxic and low VOCs (Volatile Organic Compounds) emitting. Common sources of indoor chemical contaminants are adhesive, carpeting, upholstery, manufactured wood products, pesticides and cleaning agents. - A careful design of a Heating, Ventilation, and Air-Conditioning (HVAC) systems with adequate supply of outdoor air, good ventilation rates, even air distribution should be considered.
  9. 9. Energy Efficient Architecture
  10. 10. Industry 25% Transportation 27% Buildings 48%
  11. 11. CO2 Production by Country in 2006 • Country CO2 Produced % total world emissions • metric tonnes • U.S. 5,752 20.2% • China 6,103 21.5% • European Union 1,314 13.8% • Russia 1,564 5.5% • India 1,510 5.3% • Japan 1,293 4.6% • Canada 545 1.9% The Global situation in the past 10 years has become many times WORSE. China’s emissions INCREASED by 668% in 10 years. Source: Wikipedia, accessed Sept 3, 2009
  12. 12. What is an ecological footprint? It is a measure of our consumption and/or emissions as a result of our lifestyle. The bottom line is SMALLER IS BETTER! Calculating your “ecological footprint” … can naturally extend to an understanding of your “carbon footprint” Source:http://www.cycleoflife.ca/kids/education.htm If we are not going to be part of the PROBLEM. We are going to learn how to be part of the SOLUTION!
  13. 13. Buildings, as they are designed and used today, contribute to serious environmental and economical problems because of excessive consumption of energy and other natural resources. The close connection between energy use in buildings and environmental damage arises because energy-intensive and monetarily expensive solutions sought to construct a building and meet its demands for heating, cooling, ventilation, and lighting cause severe depletion of invaluable environmental resources. However, buildings can be designed to meet the occupant’s need for thermal and visual comfort at reduced levels of energy and resources consumption. Energy resource efficiency in new constructions can be effected by adopting an Integrated Approach To Building Design.
  14. 14. CLIMATE RESPONSIVE ARCHITECTURE PRECEDENTS ANALYSIS OF SITE AND CLIMATE ANALYSIS OF BUILDING PROGRAMME SITE CONSTRAINTS CLIMATE ECONOMY MATERIAL AVAILIBILITY SOCIAL FABRIC SUN WIND TEMPRETURE RELATIVE HUMIDITY MICROCLIMATE OCCUPANCY ELECTRIC LIGHTING EQUIPMENT INFLUENCE COMBINING CLIMATE/SITE BIOCLIMATIC CHARTSHEATING AND COOLING PATTRENSBALANCE POINT TEMPRETURE PASSIVE COOLING AND HEATING ANALYSIS OF BUILDING FORM AND ENVELOPE
  15. 15. Study of climatic conditions
  16. 16. The Multivariate Condition • Climate varies around the globe and indigenous architecture used to respond to climate • 20th century buildings became exclusively dependent on mechanical systems to heat and cool buildings • International Style Architecture, characterized by sealed buildings, tried to create an architectural style that ignored climate • This has resulted in a proliferation of architecture that does not properly respond to its climate • Such buildings now account for between 40% and 70% of energy use in North America – and this cannot be sustained given Climate Change (GHG) and fossil fuel shortages • This lesson will examine how to reconnect issues of local climate and building design Buildings and Climate
  17. 17. The Multivariate Condition Source:LeonardBachman,UniversityofHouston
  18. 18. The Comfort Zone The Comfort Zone refers to the range of temperature conditions of air movement, humidity and exposure to direct sunlight, under which a moderately clothed human feels “comfortable”. This will be different for Indoor versus Outdoor conditions. These will be different for different CLIMATE types. This will be different for different cultures combined with climate conditions - what are people used to?? As Architects we use our buildings to not only create comfortable indoor environments, but also pleasing and useful spaces outside of our buildings. There exists a RANGE of comfort that we need to design within.
  19. 19. -Understanding solar geometry is essential in order to: - do passive building design (for heating and cooling) - orient buildings properly - understand seasonal changes in the building and its surroundings - design shading devices - use the sun to animate our architecture. Why Solar Geometry? The Perimeter Institute in Waterloo uses the sun to daylight and add character to the space.
  20. 20. The impact of the sun on our buildings is a direct result of our distance from the equator. This affects amounts of solar radiation as well as solar geometry. Solar Geometry
  21. 21. Since little winter heating can be expected from east and west windows, shading devices on those orientations can be designed purely on the basis of the summer requirement.
  22. 22. Solar Transmission through Varying Types of Glasses
  23. 23. Sun path diagram Sun path-a typical example Vertical and horizontal shadow angle
  24. 24. Designing to the Comfort Zone vs. Comfort Point: This famous illustration is taken from “Design with Climate”, by Victor Olgyay, published in 1963. This is the finite point of expected comfort for 100% mechanical heating and cooling. To achieve CN, we must work within the broader area AND DECREASE the “line” to 18C – point of calculation of heating degree days. REDUCINGOPERATINGENERGY
  25. 25. A bioclimatic chart is a preliminary analysis tool used during the early planning stages of a building project. In the process known as bioclimatic architecture, an architect uses the bioclimatic chart to design buildings that include the most efficient passive cooling and heating strategies based on the climate and location of a building site, according to the Center for Renewable Energy Sources and Saving.
  26. 26. Desirable wind directions for different zones Wind roses for wind speed and directions
  27. 27. Energy efficiency techniques Passive features
  28. 28. What is Passive Design? • is based upon climate considerations • attempts to control comfort (heating and cooling) without consuming fuels • uses the orientation of the building to control heat gain and heat loss • uses the shape of the building (plan, section) to control air flow • uses materials to control heat • maximizes use of free solar energy for heating and lighting • maximizes use of free ventilation for cooling • uses shade (natural or architectural) to control heat gain
  29. 29. The Tiered Approach to Design Image: Norbert Lechner, “Heating, Cooling, Lighting”
  30. 30. Solar Chimney This solar chimney draws air through a geothermal heat exchange to provide passive home cooling Warm air rises and escapes through chimney,which creates an air current for the cooler air from underground tunnels to replace the warm air.
  31. 31. Evaporative cooling Lowers indoor air tempreture by evaporating water.Effective in hot and dry climates.The sensible heat of air is used to evaporate water, Thereby cooling the air,which in turn cools the living space of the building.
  32. 32. Embedding the structure partially in earth for conditioning the inner tempreture. Earth Berming
  33. 33. Photovoltaic arrays A panel of-5M X 5M generates 1.8kwh.
  34. 34. Shading devices Solar shades Shadings Vertical gardensAwningsPergolasTrellis Shading films
  35. 35. Energy-Conserving Landscapes Selecting Plants Adaptability and Hardiness Wind Control Using Plants to Conserve Energy Windbreaks Wind Channels Landscaping Guidelines
  36. 36. Plantation Guidelines
  37. 37. NAME OF THE TREE HEIGHT (in m) SPREAD (in m) TYPE AND USE Bottle brush 5-8 4-5 Ever green.Used in parks and landscapes. Indian laburnum 10-14 9-14 Deciduous.Ornamental. Javanese cassia 9-12 7.5 -9 Deciduous.Roadside planting,parks and gardens. Casurina 15-22 9-13 Evergreen,ornamental,thin,light shade Gul mohor 10-16 15-20 Decidious.Roads,lawns,gardens Nilgiri 25-45 9-12 Evergreen.Gardens,highways Silver oak 15-22 6-9 Evergreen.Windbreak and shading tree Hibiscus 9-16 9-12 Evergreen.Wind breaks and soil erosions. Jacaranda 9-15 9-14 Deciduous.Decorative.Gardens,roadsides Arjuna 6-11 7-10 Deciduous.Ornamental. Champa 9-15 7-11 Evergreen.Ornamental.Residences Bakul 12-15 12-19 Evergreen.Shading roads,gardens,parks. Chameli 4-6 6-8 Deciduous.Fragrent flowers Palas 7-13 6-9 Deciduous.ornamental and shading. Neem 12-20 15-22 Deciduous.Shading tree. Ashok 15-22 7-11 Evergreen.Ornamental.deep shade Mango 15-22 12-19 Evergreen.Shading,fruit tree Mulberry 12-15 9-14 Decidious.shading during summers
  38. 38. Vegetation can be used to shade the building and create a cool micro climate around the building.
  39. 39. Courtyard spaces can provide a cool semi private interior microclimate from which to draw cool air into the building.
  40. 40. Reduce Energy Loads: Day lighting The tiered approach to reducing energy requirements with DAYLIGHTING: Use energy efficient fixtures! Maximize the amount of energy/electricity required for artificial lighting that comes from renewable sources. Source: Lechner. Heating, Cooling, Lighting. Tier 1 Tier 2 Tier 3 Orientation and planning of building to allow light to reach maximum no. of spaces Glare, color, reflectivity and material concerns Efficient artificial Lighting w/ sensors
  41. 41. Daylighting does not equal sunlight! Daylighting is about bringing natural LIGHT into a space. Many daylit spaces do not WANT or NEED direct sunlight. Direct beam sunlight is about HEATING the space. Beijing National Theatre
  42. 42. Energy Conserving Electrical appliances Energy saved is energy gained
  43. 43. Cost effective technologies and materials
  44. 44. Material Choices • When designing buildings we usually have a choice as to what material to specify • Materials can be compared as being more or less harmful to the environment • We should obviously choose less harmful materials • We should use materials that use less energy • We should use materials that make our buildings more efficient • Materials should be both beautiful and enduring The George and Kathy Dembroski Centre for Horticulture, Toronto
  45. 45. Energy Intensity of Building Materials 240 1290 6220 6770 32178 660 700 4400 0 5000 10000 15000 20000 25000 30000 35000 EnergyContent(MJ) Coarse Aggregates/t Bricks/t Lime/t Cement/t Steel/t Concrete Blocks /t Hollow Concrete Blocks /t Bricks /'000 How do we substitute these materials?
  46. 46. Cement 18% Iron & Steel 10% Bricks 17% Timber 13% Sand 7% Aggregate 8% Labour 27% Approximate Break-up of total Construction Cost in Materials and Labour How to substitute energy intensive materials? How to economies on material costs?
  47. 47. PROJECT AND SITE MANAGEMENT MODULAR CO_ORDINATION AND RATIONALISATION PRE DESIGN ANALYSIS AND SYSTEMS APPROACH ALTERNATE TECHNOLOGIES LOW COST MATERIALS COST EFFECTIVE CONSTRUCTION
  48. 48. Material Primary energy requirements of Building Materials (MJ/kg) Very high energy: Aluminium PlasticsCopper Stainless steel 200-250 50-100100+ 100 High energy: Steel Lead, Zinc Glass Cement Plaster board 20-60 25+ 12-25 5-8 8-10 Medium energy: Lime Clay bricks and tiles Concrete In Situ Blocks PrecastSand-lime brick Timber (sawn) 3-5 2-7 0.8-1.5 0.8-3.5 1.5-8 0.8-1.2 0.1-5 Low energy: Sand, aggregate Fly ash, volcanic ash Soil Adobe <0.5<0.5 <0.5 <0.2 Comparative Energy Requirements of Building Materials Do we have energy efficient alternatives ?
  49. 49. • Conventional Energy Efficient materials • 1.Bamboo, Bamboo Based Particle Board & Ply Board, Bamboo Matting • 2.Bricks sun dried • 3.Precast cement concrete blocks, lintels, slab. Structural and non- structural modular elements • 4.Calcined Phospho- Gypsum Wall Panels • 5.Calcium silicate boards and Tiles • 6.Cellular Light Weight Concrete Blocks • 7.Cement Paint • 8.Clay roofing tiles • 9.Water, polyurethane and acrylic based chemical admixtures for corrosion removal, rust prevention, water proofing • 10.Epoxy Resin System, Flooring, sealants, adhesives and admixtures
  50. 50. • 11.Ferro-cement boards for door and window shutters • 12.Ferro-cement Roofing Channels • 13.Fly-ash Sand Lime Bricks and PaverBlocks • 14.Gypsum Board, Tiles, Plaster, Blocks, gypsum plaster fibrejute/sisal and glass fibrecomposites • 15.Laminated Wood Plastic Components • 16.Marble Mosaic Tiles • 17.MDF Boards and Mouldings • 18.Micro Concrete Roofing Tiles • 19.ParticalBoards • 20.Polymerisedwater proof compound
  51. 51. • 21.Polymerised water proof compound • 22.Portland PozzolanaCement Flyash/ CalcinedClay Based • 23.Portland Slag Cement • 24.RCC Door Frames • 25.Ready Mix Cement Concrete • 26.Rubber Wood Finger Joint Board • 27.Stone dust • 28.Water proof compound, adhesive, Polymer, Powder
  52. 52. Environment-friendly, Energy-efficient Technologies Fly Ash Hollow Blocks Interlocking Fly Ash Blocks Fly Ash Bricks Different Walling Options Walling
  53. 53. Environment-friendly, Energy-efficient Technologies RCC Planks & Joists Micro Concrete Roofing Tiles Ferro cement Roofing Channels Bamboo Mat Corrugated Sheets RoofingRoofing
  54. 54. Environment-friendly, Energy-efficient Technologies Ferro cement Beams Concrete door/window Frames Concrete Pavers Others
  55. 55. Bricks •Clay of a region should determine the size of bricks •The size of brick has been standardized resulting in poor quality of bricks Perforated mud blocks •In ancient times thin bricks were burnt with local fuel as there was no coal.
  56. 56. SCHEMATIC VIEW OF TILEMOULD FOR MAKING TILE TILE MANUFACTURING PROCESS All surfaces require a non erodable diaphragm to make them resistant to erosion Surface Engineering
  57. 57. Structures in compression: Funicular shells
  58. 58. Alternate Materials and technologies developed by Government bodies and Individuals
  59. 59. Jaunpur Slum Rehabilitation
  60. 60. Bar Chart Activities,durations and amounts are plotted on a graph
  61. 61. Estimates: to keep check on the materials and costs
  62. 62. Modular Co-ordination Use of modules in construction for simplification
  63. 63. Precasting and pre fabrication tecnniques Developed by CBRI and BTMPC
  64. 64. Precasting And Prefabrication
  65. 65. Resource and Waste management
  66. 66. Rainwater collection and purification
  67. 67. Energy efficiency techniques
  68. 68. It is preferable to use renewable materials, but when it is not possible one can source: – Recycled materials or materials with a significant recycled content: such as steel where a good percentage of the product is put back into the manufacture of goods at the “end of life” – Reused materials: preferred as it is not necessary to put additional energy into remanufacturing the Virgin vs. Recycled or Reused TOHU, Permanent Bigtop, Montreal
  69. 69. Collection Of Materials
  70. 70. Options In Recycling Of Wastes
  71. 71. Water and Waste Management
  72. 72. Biogas Plant
  73. 73. PREVAILING SCENARIO-INDIAN TOWNS 1.India is undergoing transition from rural to urban society. 2.Increasing migration from rural to urban areas. 3.Mismatch between demand and supply of sites and services. 4.Disparity between high land costs ,cost of construction and lower incomes leading to non sustainable situation. 5.Construction sector provides employment to 16% of work force. 6. Lack of equitable supply of land, shelter and services at affordable prices. 7. Environmental paradigms neglected while design and planning. 8. Depletion of resources in construction and negligence of ecology in design. 9. Lack of application of cost effectiveness and energy efficient solutions in construction.
  74. 74. What makes a Sustainable City? • Transportation systems that ensure nodal connectivity, diverse public transport, and safe emissions levels • Clean and Secure Energy through efficiency and renewable energy sources • Safe Water and Sanitation provided and delivered to all community members • Land Use that maximizes efficiency and ensures sufficient green space • Basic Municipal Services such as healthcare and education. • Climate Resilience through long-term sustainable planning A sustainable city minimizes its impact on local and global environments while also improving the health and well-being of its inhabitants.
  75. 75. Contaminated Air and Water Dangerous Air Pollution • Poor air quality in Dhaka alone is estimated to lead to 15,000 premature deaths each year • Particulate matter concentrations reach 463mcm, over twenty times the WHO limit of 20mcm. Poor Water Quality, Quantity, and Delivery • Surface water quality suffers from urban and industrial contamination • Unsustainable groundwater extraction has led to declining water tables • Urban piped water supply systems in Bangladesh serve only 30% of households Environmental Vulnerability of the Poor • Low income groups are the most vulnerable because their health and livelihoods are highly dependent on ecosystem services • Slum communities lack sufficient access to income, food, healthcare, water, sanitation waste disposal, and basic infrastructure. Source: foxnews.com
  76. 76. CRSCI Climate Resilient Sustainable Cities Initiative Policy, Planning & Legislation Demonstration Capacity Development Transportation Land Use Climate Resilience Basic Municipal Services Water & Sanitation Energy & Efficiency Analysis of Current Capacity Develop knowledge products & capacity building strategy Implementation Analysis of Existing Policies, Plans, & Legislation Strategy for Improvement Implementation Suitability Analysis Planning Implementation
  77. 77. Sustainable Solutions • Hydrology – Safe water supply and delivery – Sanitation and waste management • Energy – Clean, renewable sources – Efficiency: green buildings & appliances • Habitat – Land use: open spaces, green roofs – Natural habitat protection and restoration
  78. 78. Town Planning Research & Analysis Elizabeth Burns, Christopher Kearney, Gwendolyn Johnson, Anna Lavinia Schmitz LA4198 LA Design Studio VI • Spring 2009 • Professors Stuart Appel and Bess Wellborn M O N T G O M E R Y T O W N S H I P C E N T E R
  79. 79. Elements of a Successful Town Center • Cohesive design creating a unique character • Active Main Street • Safe neighborhoods • Beautiful public spaces • Good circulation • Practices sustainability • Quality of Life Main Street, Amityville, NY http://www.gettyimages.com/Search/Search.aspx?contractUrl=2&language=en- US&family=creative& assetType=image&mt=photography&c=color&p=main%20street%20usa&src=standard#4 Neighborhood gathering place, Buffalo, NY http://www.planning.org/greatplaces/nei ghborhoods/2007/elmwoodvillage.htm Town parade in Sheridan, Wyoming http://www.planning.org/greatplaces/neighborhoods/2008/downtownsheridan.htm Sense of Place
  80. 80. Welcoming Identity • Start with a sense of arrival Street banner in West Chester, PA http://www.haverford.com/docs/Haverford_Township _Comprehensive_Plan_Addendum_Report.pdf Entrance at Playa Vista Great Neighborhoods Gateway sign in Media, PA http://www.haverford.com/docs/Haverford_Township _Comprehensive_Plan_Addendum_Report.pdf Entrance at Playa Vista Great Planned Communities, ed. Jo Allen Gause The Urban Institute Gateway Arch http://www.planning.org/gre atplaces/neighborhoods/20 08/downtownsheridan.htm
  81. 81. Main Streets Sidewalk café in Gainesville, FL http://www.haverford.com/docs/Haverford_Township_Compr ehensive_Plan_Addendum_Report.pdf • Human scale in a cohesive design with distinctive architecture • Defined at the both ends • Provides orientation to its users, and connects well to the larger pattern of ways • Encourages human interactions and social activities • Promotes safety of pedestrians and vehicles • Offers a variety of interesting activities and uses that create a varied streetscape Pedestrian crosswalk on Main Street http://www.woolpent.com/images/portofolio/ greentowncenter01.jpg
  82. 82. Mixed-use • Offers a place to Live-Work-Shop-Play • Should consist of a mix of commercial/retail, office/professional and residential uses • Allows people to live close to recreation, entertainment and services • Provides diversity and choice in services and accommodations • Helps to contain urban sprawl and vehicular use • Creates vibrancy in the town center throughout the day Mixed-use Main Street http://www.pasackvalleysoldhomesreport.com/image Mixed-use Main Street http://www.sawanee.com Mixed-use Main Street http://www.planning.org/greatplaces/stre ets/2008/washiingtonstreet.htm
  83. 83. Infilling • Creates a dense and vibrant town center • Helps to define the image and feel of the town center • Capitalizes on existing community assets such as parks, infrastructure, shopping areas and public transportation • Provides housing (both affordable and market value) near job centers and public transit • Creates new community assets such as day care centers, art districts, neighborhoods and shopping areas • Increases the productivity of underused property • Decreases the need to develop on open space and agricultural land Example of infilling where the new structure fits into the site with the right scale and form of the neighboring structures http://www.tndhomes.com Before and after infilling Ellen, Jones D., and Williamson June. "Infill around a live mall." Map. Retrofitting Suburbia. Hoboken: John Wiley and Sons, 2009
  84. 84. Neighborhoods • Promote socialization amongst diverse age groups and cultures • Streets are narrow and tree-lined • Pedestrian and bicycle friendly • High-density housing • Convenient shopping at locally owned businesses • Common building forms and materials • Relative safety and security • Public spaces • Established mass transportation • Memorable character • A variety of functional attributes that contribute to a resident’s day-to-day living (i.e. residential, commercial, or mixed-uses) Residential area http://www.redmon.com Tree covered sidewalks, Eastern Market, Washington, DC http://myapa.planning.org/grea tplaces/neighborhoods/eastern market.htm
  85. 85. Public Spaces Ferry Plaza Farmers Market at San Francisco, California http://www.ferrybuildingmarketplace.co m/farmers_market.php Inverness Square at McKienzie Towne, Alberta, Canada Great Planned Communities, ed. Jo Allen Gause The Urban Institute  Encourage human interaction  Promote community involvement and ownership  Reflect local identity and culture  Safe and welcoming to all  Relate to the surrounding land uses  Are well maintained
  86. 86. Traffic Calming  Curb extensions  Roundabouts  Raised crosswalks  Tree-lined streets  Median islands  Use of materials, i.e. cobblestone  Narrower roadways  Reduce speed limit Vehicular Circulation • Design roadway width appropriate to intended speed of travel • Promote safe and pleasant travel for all types of users • Improve environmental impact of streets • Provide public transportation options for community • Allow for alternate routes • Allow on-street parking supplemented by parking lots located behind the main streetParking behind Main Street businesses http://www.planningorg/greatplaces/streets/ 2007/mainstreetnorthampton.htm Residential street with curb extensions in Portland, Oregon http://fam3.stati8670_f5b5 babf6_o.jpg
  87. 87. Pedestrian Circulation One mile walk in sprawling development http://www.walkscore.com/walkableneighborhood s.shtml One mile walk in dense development http://www.walkscore.com/walkableneighborhoo ds.shtml • Pedestrian walkways connect residential neighborhoods, town center, and public open spaces • Dense development promotes greater potential for walking • Provide ample sidewalk width in relation to frequency and density of use • Short blocks allow for quicker routes A pedestrian- friendly street in Atlanta, Georgia http://www.flickr.com/ photos/ironchapman/3 39261944/
  88. 88. Sustainability • Stormwater BMPs minimize land disturbance and runoff, recharge aquifers, preserve water quality restoring the ecological hydrologic balance • Street trees, green roofs and green networks clean pollutants from the air, minimize the heat island effect and improve energy efficiency effectively reducing the carbon footprint Planters along the street convey, clean and infiltrate runoff from NW 12 Avenue In Portland, Oregon. http://www.asla.org/awards/2006/06winners/341.html Smart Growth Principles engage sustainability in the town planning process utilizing inherent ecological processes and storm water best management practices (BMPs) and materials
  89. 89. Low-Impact Development • Eco-based watershed approach • Protects and expands the natural surface drainage • Treatment Train: incorporates surface drainage and infiltration in concert with stormwater Best Management Practices (BMP) Restored Prairie surrounding residences as first step in stormwater train at Prairie Creek, Gray’s Lake, Illinois http://www.prairiecrossing.com/pc/site/index.html At Prairie Creek, a four step treatment train conveys runoff through vegetated swales, restored prairies and stormwater wetlands to a constructed lake removing 90% pollutants and solids, decreasing stormwater volume and increasing infiltration
  90. 90. Stormwater Management • Connecting and integrating regional and neighborhood systems • As a resource to replenish urban streams and balance hydrology • As an amenity — environmentally, culturally, artistically and socially • Enhancing urban spatial patterns • Restoring natural functions Heritage Park, Minnesota Gerling, c. & Keller, R., Skinny Streets and Green Neighborhoods At Heritage Park, a greenway utilizes stormwater gardens to link neighborhoods divided by a heavily traveled roadway Mount Tabor Middle School Rain Garden, Portland, Oregon Kevin Robert Perry, ASLA http://www.asla.org/awards/2007/07winners/517_nna.html
  91. 91. Stormwater BMP • Bioswales and infiltration basins • Infiltration planters and rain gardens • Eco and green roofs • Trees and vegetation • Cisterns • Pervious pavement, concrete, asphalt, pavement blocks and turf blocks Bioswale intercepting and infiltrating stormwater from adjacent parking lot http://www.portlandonline.com/bes/index.cfm?c=43110&
  92. 92. Energy Efficiency Generate energy: • Solar panels • Passive and active solar systems • Wind turbines Conserve energy: • Green roofs • Trees • Green buildings Solar panel array over a parking lot reduces heat island effect as well as collecting energy Green roof, Robertson Building, Toronto http://www.flickr.com/photo s/horticulturaltherapystuden t/864775470/page2/
  93. 93. SINGAPORE-A Sustainable CITY Designing our city looks at how Singapore is planned for long-term sustainability, encouraging us to think about how we can shape it and new ideas that can transform our future. Planning for Sustainibility sustainabilit
  94. 94. While our challenges today are vastly different from the 1960s, our priority remains the same: catering for economic growth and a good quality of life, maintaining a clean and green environment, and making the best use of our resources. Our objectives are: Economic: Sustain a robust and vibrant economy Social: Provide a good quality of living and a sense of well-being for all Environmental: Develop in an environmentally responsible manner Land and sea: Optimise our limited land and sea space
  95. 95. Resources:Singapore has in place innovative environmental policies and technologies to manage our precious water, waste and energy resources. climate change:The Sustainable Singapore Blueprint released by the Inter-Ministerial Committee in April 2009 has set out strategies to reduce our energy intensity, improve our water conservation and recycling participation rate. In December 2009
  96. 96. Decisions for the future The challenge of balancing land use needs within Singapore has never been an easy one. In making five decisions made by planners 40 years ago that have a significant impact on our lives today. Greening paid off Even in the 1960s when planners grappled with slums and overcrowding, greening was made a priority. Today, Singapore stands out as a City in a Garden. DID YOU KNOW? Since 1971, a Tree Planting Day has been held every year without fail, where Members of Parliament, community leaders, and others plant saplings throughout the island. Marina Bay realised Marina Bay as a seamless extension of the Central Business District, was first mooted in the 1970s. From just an empty land, it has become an iconic destination. DID YOU KNOW? Land around Marina Bay was reclaimed throughout the 1970s, 1980s and 1990s. The first detailed land use plan was exhibited in 1992. Planners have worked on this project from the 1970s until today. Airport relocated The international airport was relocated to the east as decided in the 1971 Concept Plan, allowing for several expansions. It is one of the busiest in the world. DID YOU KNOW? The idea of reclaiming land at Changi was inspired by then Prime Minister Lee Kuan Yew’s visit to Boston’s Logan Airport, where planes took off and landed over water, reducing aircraft noise took off and landed over water, reducing aircraft noise. took off and landed over water, reducing aircraft noise. 1960 1970 1971 NOW NOW NOW
  97. 97. Jurong Island Jurong Island as a chemicals hub was conceived in 1991. It not only supports our industrial needs but frees up land for other needs. It is one of Asia’s leading petrochemical hubs. DID YOU KNOW? Jurong Island has a dedicated “plug and play” infrastructure to help companies save on capital costs and build synergy through product integration The island has a rock cavern at a depth of 130 m, Southeast Asia’s first Underground liquid hydrocarbon storage facility. . 1991 NOW 2001 Bustling hubs The idea for commercial and regional centres was introduced in the 1991 Concept Plan. Tampines Regional and Novena Fringe Centres have since become bustling hubs. More are underway. DID YOU KNOW? The centres were mooted by planners as a way to better manage peak-hour congestion traffic in and out of the city and to bring jobs closer to homes. NOW
  98. 98. Compact city Housing for all Quality living
  99. 99. Sustaining growth: Given our limited resources, we will need tocontinue to sustain our economic growth to provide good jobs, maintain high living standards, and remain attractive to visitors and investors With increasing global competition and the rise of regional economies, maintaining our economic competitiveness will be even more important to attract growth opportunities to create more higher-value jobs. . Décentralisation: To reduce peak-hour congestion from traffic flowing in and out of the city-centre, regional and fringe centres outside of the city centre were introduced in the 1991 Concept Plan to bring jobs closer to home.
  100. 100. Going public :Public transport is a more effective and also environmentally-friendly way to travel as compared to cars. The rail network and bus services have been continuously enhanced to make public transport a more convenient way to travel.
  101. 101. Play options:To complete the total quality living environment, creative strategies have been adopted to leverage on Singapore’s key assets to enhance our leisure environment. One of them is the deliberate introduction of greenery everywhere . options The result is Singapore as a City in a Garden, from streetscape and skyrise greenery to parks within 400 m of most homes ,
  102. 102. Architectural significanceand rarity Cultural, social, religious and historical significance contribution to the environment and identity economic impact Economic impact
  103. 103. Smarter power grids
  104. 104. Climatic mapping:To help create cooler and more comfortable environments for people to enjoy, URA is leading an ongoing climatic mapping island-wide study that examines the impact of buildings, greenery, and urban spaces on micro- climatic conditions like air flow and temperatures.
  105. 105. living lab For cities to address complex urbanisation and environmental challenges of the future, there is a need to constantly seek out viable new ideas, technologies, and smarter solutions. Singapore sees itself as a living laboratory. In recent years, many companies and research institutes, in partnership with government agencies have developed new technologies and have been testing out new urban solutions in Singapore that can be commercialised and replicated elsewhere. Sustainable water solutions Intelligent transport systems Largest solar test-bed Climatic mapping Smarter power grids
  106. 106. Jurong Lake District Jurong Lake District is the largest of three new growth areas being developed. Covering 360 ha of land, it is envisioned to provide at least 500,000 sqm of office space, 250,000 sqm of retail, F&B, and entertainment space, 2,800 hotel rooms and a number of edutainment attractions. Marina Bay Marina Bay is Singapore’s most ambitious urban transformation project. It is envisioned as a vibrant 24/7 environmentally-friendly mixed use precinct where people live, work, and play in. Punggol Eco-Town Punggol Town is Singapore’s first waterfront ecotown. It is planned with a holistic framework that takes into account social, economic, and environmental considerations. Punggol is designed to have smallermore intimate estates with a central common green. CleanTech Park CleanTech Park is set to be the choice location for green-minded business owners. Developed by JTC Corporation, the 50 ha development will push the boundaries of sustainability, serving as a large-scale integrated “living laboratory” for test-bedding and demonstration of systems-level clean technology solutions.
  107. 107. Singapore 2030 is no Utopia but nevertheless, I envision it to be a place where ordinary people show civic pride, are much more conscious of the environmental consequences of their personal choices, where institutions and corporations adopt sustainable practices not just because it is economically or politically correct to do so, but because it is the responsible thing to do. To get there, government will need to further develop a carefully calibrated set of positive and negative incentives to align behaviour with consequences Above all, it needs to show the way in embedding sustainability throughout its practices and policies.
  108. 108. •Conclusion •It becomes necessary to adopt the use of alternative building materials & Construction technologies due to adverse effect of using scarce resources carelessly and eventual rise in the cost of the project. •The Sustainable Design should be seen in relation with the selection of ecological and economical materials, usage of recycled wastes and composites which can considerably affect the economy and ecology of construction •Product selection can begin after the establishment of project- specific environmental and economical goals.
  109. 109. The process of Sustainable Design is a complex exercise involving interactive relationships between Parameters of diverse nature and varying magnitudes. A logical process based on quantitative assessment leading to qualitative decisions that respond to economical and ecological context will result in satisfactory environment comfortable to the human beings, A SUSTAINABLE HABITAT CONCLUSION

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