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Vernacular arch and its adaptation in modern construction.

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The term “Vernacular architecture” in general refers to the informal building of structures through traditional building methods without using the services of a professional architect. It is the most widespread form of building .
Vernacular architecture has been growing over time with continuities changes, transformations and adaptations to the different social and economic conditions of each period.

Publié dans : Design
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Vernacular arch and its adaptation in modern construction.

  1. 1. Adaptations of Vernacular Architecture in Modern Constructions Ar.Suvarna Lele South Asian Vernacular Architecture Challenges to its continuity and strategies for its future CONFERENCE
  2. 2.  The term “Vernacular architecture” in general refers to the informal building of structures through traditional building methods without using the services of a professional architect. It is the most widespread form of building .  Vernacular architecture has been growing over time with continuities changes, transformations and adaptations to the different social and economic conditions of each period.
  3. 3.  Vernacular architecture has evolved through trial and error methods.  vernacular buildings and site planning depend on substantially experience, surrounding conditions, and local materials.  The continuity in vernacular architecture is related to space and time, involves structural, typological, functional and social issues.  One can observe this continuity in form of materials, technologies, planar and Design elements in Contemporary structures.
  4. 4.  Modern Architects have realized the significance of the simpler, Ecological principals incorporated in Vernacular Architecture and trying to adapt in modern in some form. We find something new and different in today’s architectural phenomena. It’s the form of the attempt to revoking traditions and vernacular into the modern era.  With introduction to modern technologies and materials people are trying to adhere to some principles from Vernacular Architecture.  The lessons learnt from Sustainable Architecture can facilitate in design of modern structures, which actually are against all ‘Green’ principals. Designers can create a sustainable environment by culminating traditional Vernacular with modern Architecture.
  5. 5.  Adaptation of Vernacular Architecture in modern constructions in terms of-  Vernacular Architecture culminates through the appropriate use of local materials, local technologies and local people .It is the outcome of the people’s needs at the time.  It is definitely sustainable as it is a product of several experimentations. The structures themselves cannot be prototyped but the technologies and materials can be adapted for the same. Materials and technologies:  The first factor influencing the development of vernacular construction practices is related to the availability of local building materials. In many areas, the locally available resources have governed the use of the following constituent materials for walls  Simple plans, load-bearing walls, use of natural materials for construction... Overall, vernacular architecture is a way of living.
  6. 6. EARTH CONSTRUCTIONS:ADOBE Using adobe has the following advantages: 1.It doesn’t pollute ecosystem and hence a ‘Green ‘material. It is inexpensive, stores thermal mass and has optimal heating transfer features for heating in the summer and cooling in the winter. 2.Soil is a suitable substance for construction and is available all around the world as well as the soil materials need the least amount of processing. 3.The use of adobe is very common in some of the world’s most hazard-prone regions, such as Latin America, Africa, the Indian subcontinent and other parts of Asia, the Middle East and Southern Europe. 4.Adobe constructions would be continued to be used in the poorer countries because of its easy availability and better thermal properties. Many experiments are going around the globe to improve upon the seismic properties of the adobe buildings
  7. 7. THANNAL HAND SCULPTED HOMES
  8. 8. Wattle & Daub/Cob Organic Farm Cottage in Bengaluru. Wattle and daub is a composite building material used for making walls, in which a woven lattice of wooden strips called wattle is daubed with a sticky material usually made of some combination of wet soil, clay, sand, animal dung and straw. Wattle and daub has been used for at least 6000 years and is still an important construction material in many parts of the world. Here bamboo is used as wattle and for daub cob mix is used. THANNAL HAND SCULPTED HOMES
  9. 9. Bamboo wattle completed with stone verandah
  10. 10. Beauty of Cob is you can sculpt with the wall in different shapes and forms. The dob can be of different materials that include sand, wasted rock powder, bees wax , lime,turmeric, casein, pearl millet as fiber with potters clay
  11. 11. Outside look of wattle & daub.Wall can take different inclinations .It can be curved in different dimensions and shapes.
  12. 12. Artistically sculpted openings with bamboo matting and daub.
  13. 13. Floor is made using waste stone from near by granite factory and with a blend of athangudi tiles..Seatings are of sculpted daub with small windows illuminating the space.
  14. 14. “Let the beauty we love be what we do. There are hundreds of ways to kneel and kiss the ground.” ― Rumi
  15. 15. Adaptations of Adobe in modern construction: Architects Hassan Fathy,Nadir Khalili and Indian Architects such as Laurie Baker,Chitra Vishwanath have used the adobe construction to build the structures. The master builder, Hassan Fathy (1900-1989) was one of the first architects to break with modern architecture and to found a new approach based on a conception of interpreting forms and masses from the past.
  16. 16. DESIGN ELEMENTS (ADOBE WALLS & WIND CATCHERS) Hassan Fathy Architecture
  17. 17. CEBs (Compressed Earth Blocks)  Compressed Earth Block (CEB) is one name given to earthen bricks compressed with hand-operated or motorized hydraulic machines.  Their main characteristics include uniform building component sizes, use of locally available materials and reduction of transportation.  Uniformly sized building components can result in less waste, faster construction and the possibility of using other pre-made components or modular manufactured building elements.  The use of natural, locally-available materials makes good housing available to more people, and keeps money in the local economy rather than spending it to import materials, fuel and replacement parts.
  18. 18. Adaptation of CEBs in Modern Constructions:  Compressed Earth Blocks emerged in the fifties. Since then there is a considerable progress in its production technology and its application in building has continued to progress.  Research centers, industrialists, entrepreneurs and builders have developed a very sophisticated body of knowledge, making this technology the equal today of competing construction technologies.  EB production are strictly manufactured to meet scientific requirements for product quality control that include identification, selection and extraction of the earth used, to quality assessment of the finished block.
  19. 19. The ‘Gnana Illam’house in an Indian village bridges old and new styles of Architecture-Old and New-Ar.V.Noel Jerald.
  20. 20. Some structures By Chitra Vishwanath
  21. 21. Auroville Compressed Earth homes
  22. 22. Masonry (stone, brick, or concrete blocks): a) Stone:  Stone is a highly durable, low maintenance building material with high thermal mass. It is versatile, available in many shapes, sizes, colours and textures, and can be used for floors, walls, arches and roofs. Stone blends well with the natural landscape, and can easily be recycled for other building purposes.  The use of stone in construction has declined because of the factors as cost and durability of the material over the last hundred years, but it is resurfacing in various forms that include facades, partitions, floorings and so on.  Modern materials such as concrete, steel and glass are replaced the stone at many places but still in many rural areas where the stone is available in plenty and can be quarried easily, stone structures are seen in abundance. In modern buildings, stone come handy as façade materials. Many decorative features carved in stones are used as an aesthetic feature in modern constructions.
  23. 23. Adaptations Of Stone In Modern Constructions:  Modern materials such as concrete, steel and glass are replaced the stone at many places but still in many rural areas where the stone is available in plenty and can be quarried easily, stone structures are seen in abundance. In modern buidings, stone come handy as façade materials. Many decorative features carved in stones are used as an aesthetic feature in modern constructions. A Bangalow by Ar.Sunil Patil,Kolhapur
  24. 24. Archium Stone Radio Building,Nepal.
  25. 25.  Thick walls made from locally sourced stone frame courtyards and corridors at this radio broadcasting station in the Nepalese town of Jomsom, designed by Korean studio Archium.  Architect Kim In-cheurl of Seoul- based Archium developed the building for the Mustang Broadcasting Community (MBC), a radio station launched last year to serve residents and visitors in the remote Mustang region of north- west Nepal.  Situated on a ledge close to the banks of the Kali Gandaki River, 3000 metres above sea level, the building was designed to utilise locally available materials and labour.
  26. 26. To protect employees and guests from the strong winds prevalent in the region, the building is enveloped in walls made from a local stone called gneiss that also helps the radio station merge with the surrounding landscape of rock-strewn mountains.
  27. 27. http://assets.inhabitat.com/wp- content/blogs.dir/1/files/2014/04/Archium-Stone-Radio-Building-Nepal-
  28. 28. b) Brick: Brick as a traditional versatile material of construction:  The use of burnt clay bricks is widespread where wood or coal fuel is available. Clay brick is a traditional building material used for centuries in many parts of the world. Stone is the locally available material in some regions.  Bricks are inexpensive, lightweight, durable, easy to install, fireproof, low maintenance and could be easily ornamented.  We can see the wonderful brick buildings Designed by Architects as Frank Lloyd Wright, Le Corbusier and Laurie Baker. The exposed brickwork structures at Ahmedabad are bold examples of how intelligently bricks are used in construction. Brick industry has developed a strategy to minimise the environmental impact of brick construction, increase its energy efficiency and use of renewable energies.
  29. 29. Adaptation of brickwork in modern construction: Here are a few Architects who have created marvels by use of culmination of traditional material with contemporary techniques-  Antoni Gaudí's with his magnificent brick vaults at Park Guell ; Alvar Aalto's experimental brick patterning at his house in Muuratsalo; the powerful brick piers of Kevin Roche and John Dinkeloo's Knights of Columbus Building and the Catalan vaults of Porro, Garatti and Gattardi's National Arts School of Cuba; The ultimate brickwork is done by Louis Kahn at Indian Institute of Management,Ahemedabad.
  30. 30. LAURIE BAKERS ARCHITECTURE- ‘POETRY IN BRICKS’……….
  31. 31. A composite house by Istudio,Mumbai The brick house has been inspired by both the philosophies and the works of Laurie Baker and Nari Gandhi. Each room flows into another, leading into a seamless space held by the central courtyard. Climatology and the solar path, along with jalis and arched openings have played an essential role to introduce light and wind into each interior space. Exposed materials, which give the entire house a very earthy feel and the construction techniques using rat-trap bond, filler slabs, arches have contributed to the low cost of the project.
  32. 32. Adaptations Of Bamboo In Modern constructions-Green School Bali
  33. 33. Contemporary Bamboo Architecture in India  Seeing the global trends, some organizations have engaged in research and development in the field of material science, treatment methods, building components, construction systems and products with bamboo for over few decades. The major organizations and institutes in India working in bamboo sector are:  PIRTI, Indian Plywood Industrial Research and Training Institute, Bangalore- In collaboration with TRADA and BMTPC, they have developed a modified walling system with Bamboo-crete - an up gradation of Wattle and daub system; and also a construction system for two-story bamboo structure.  IWST, Indian Wood Science Institute, Bangalore- IWST has developed treatment method for bamboo and developed a bamboo-wood –plastic composite which can be used in several building applications.  CGBMT with Manasaram Architects, have worked on pre-fabricated bamboocrete wall panels, prefab houses, bamboo construction systems with BRC- bamboo reinforced concrete roof, BFRC- bamboo fiber reinforced concrete, freeform bamboo roofs, tensegrity and synergetic structures with bamboo, compressed blocks with bamboo and paper waste with mud etc.  CIBART with KONBAC has been working in the furniture sector and has set up some units. They are also developing a construction system with small diameter bamboos
  34. 34. Wood In Modern Constructions: Wood, one of the most readily available natural materials other than mud has been used extensively in Kashmir, Kerala and many other regions for centuries, for almost all elements of its built environment of any nature, scale of complexities. The range of the methods of using wood, for a variety of building elements with simple as well as complex joinery details, in any historic settlement of these regions reflect the ingenuity of local craft persons in understanding wood as material.
  35. 35. Wood Courtyard house by Hiren Patel http://www.archiii.com/2013/10/courtyard-house-design- hiren-patel-architects/
  36. 36. National Nirmitee and Rural Building Centers:  The Union Government has set up a network of building centers called ‘Nirmiti Kendras’ in all districts for training and upgrading skills of artisans, demonstrating the use of cost-effective and indigenous building material, and producing construction material from industrial and agricultural wastes.  Cost-effective construction material is being manufactured at the Kendra. Soil stabilised blocks and rammed earth construction is an alternative to bricks and mud walls. Boulder blocks (filter blocks), which are an alternative to the random rubble masonry are manufactured over here.  RCC door and window frames in place of wood are the other material being produced at the center. This is to bring down the demand for wood. In addition, different roofing material such as beams and cuduppah slabs, ‘L' panel units, and ferro-cement rafters are prepared at the Kendra along with ferro-cement water tanks and other components used in rural and urban sanitation programs.
  37. 37. WATTLE & DAUB WALLING HOUSE  This traditional Sikkim house, constructed using Wattle and Daub walling in between the Stabilised tamed earth columns, is economical and long-lasting.  The rammed earth columns are provided with vertical bands which are in turn monolithically cast with horizontal bands at plinth and roof levels to make the structure stable and earthquake resistant. STONE MASONRY HOUSE  Stone masonry houses are usually found in the Himalayan region. This structure is constructed with two types of walling – Random Rubble Masonry in ground floor and Cement Concrete blocks in first floor.  The roofing is with precast RCC panels over precast joists for the ground floor and Micro concrete tiles for the first floor.
  38. 38. TRADITIONAL MUD HOUSE  Mud is extensively used for construction in rural areas as it is readily available and is widely accepted.  In this house, walls above sill level are made with mud using COB Technique. Fibre glass tiles, interspersed with Mangalore tiles, provide adequate lighting inside the house. Shabad stone flooring used here is economical compared to normal cement flooring. LATERITE HOUSE  Laterite is a brick-like stone with red or brown superficial deposit of clay or earth, which gathers on the surface of rocks. The walls made with laterite stones are strong, yet cost saving if locally available.  The micro concrete tiles used for the roof are light in weight, durable and economical.  Bethamacharla stone flooring used here is an alternative to the normal artificial stone flooring and provides an elegant look.
  39. 39. •RAT TRAP BOND HOUSE  This building, designed on the pattern of Anganwadi Centre, has arch foundation, rat trap bond wall and filler slab roof.  The roof of the central portion of the building, shaped like a dome, is made with brick without using steel or concrete.  Rat trap bond walls and brick arches at openings economise the cost of construction. BRICK DOME HOUSE
  40. 40. •BAMBOO CRETE HOUSE  Treated Bamboo is used for construction of this house. Bamboo mat walling between bamboo columns is plastered with cement on both sides  The structure is light and is economical where bamboo is abundantly avalable. FERRO CEMENT CHANNEL & FILLER SLAB DWELLING UNITS  One is made with walls of hollow cement concrete blocks with roofing of Ferro cement channels that are precast at the site itself.  In the other house, filler slab is used for roofing while fly ash bricks are used for columns as well as for the half brick walls.
  41. 41. Stabilised earth blocks house  In this model, constructed on the pattern of Kutch Bhungas of Gujrat, compressed cement stabilized earth blocks are used for the walls.  Earthquake resistant features like vertical and horizontal bands are provided to each Bhunga. Adobe mud block house  In this model, walls are made with Adobe (sundried) mud blocks placed between the fly ash brick columns.  The blocks can be made with locally available earth without any mechanical compressor. Tile face mud blocks are used for external walls the arch roofing is made with conical tiles and is covered with cement mortar on the external surface.
  42. 42. Thank You Ar.Suvarna Lele

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