The Beginnings of AI
Achievements of AI
Future of AI
Artificial Intelligence (AI) is the branch of science
which deals with intelligence of machines where an
intelligent agent is a system that takes actions which
maximize its chances of success. It is the study of
ideas which enable computers to do the things that
make people seem intelligent. The central principles
of AI include such as reasoning, knowledge,
planning, learning, communication, perception and
the ability to move and manipulate objects. It is the
science and engineering of making intelligent
The Beginnings of AI.
In 1950 Alan Turing published a landmark
paper in which he speculated about the
possibility of creating machines with true
intelligence. He noted that "intelligence" is
difficult to define and devised his famous
Turing Test. If a machine could carry on a
conversation (over a teletype) that was
indistinguishable from a conversation with
a human being, then the machine could
be called "intelligent“. This simplified
version of the problem allowed Turing to
argue convincingly that a "thinking
machine" was at least plausible and the
paper answered all the most common
objections to the proposition. The Turing
Test was the first serious proposal in the
philosophy of artificial intelligence.
Gaming in A.I History.
In 1951, using the Ferranti Mark I machine of the
University of Manchester, Christopher Strachey
wrote a checkers program and Dietrich Prinz
wrote one for chess. Arthur Samuel's checkers
program, developed in the middle 50s and early
60s, eventually achieved sufficient skill to
challenge a world champion. Game AI would
continue to be used as a measure of progress in
AI throughout its history.
In 1956 John McCarthy regarded as
the father of AI, organized a
conference to draw the talent and
expertise of others interested in
machine intelligence for a month of
brainstorming. He invited them to
Vermont for "The Dartmouth summer
research project on artificial
intelligence." From that point on,
because of McCarthy, the field would
be known as Artificial intelligence.
Although not a huge success, the
Dartmouth conference did bring
together the founders in AI, and
served to lay the groundwork for the
future of AI research.
In the seven years after the conference, AI began to pick up momentum.
Although the field was still undefined, ideas formed at the conference were re-
examined, and built upon. Centers for AI research began forming at Carnegie
Mellon and MIT, and new challenges were faced: further research was placed
upon creating systems that could efficiently solve problems, by limiting the
search, such as the Logic Theorist. And second, making systems that could
learn by themselves. In 1957, the first version of a new program The General
Problem Solver(GPS) was tested. The program developed by the same pair
which developed the Logic Theorist. The GPS was an extension of Wiener's
feedback principle, and was capable of solving a greater extent of common
A couple of years after the GPS, IBM contracted a team
to research artificial intelligence. While more programs
were being produced, McCarthy was busy developing a
major breakthrough in AI history. In 1958 McCarthy
announced his new development; the LISP language,
which is still used today and is the language of choice
among most AI developers.
From Lab to Life
Other fields of AI also made there way into the
marketplace during the 1980's. One in particular was
the machine vision field. The work by Minsky and
Marr were now the foundation for the cameras and
computers on assembly lines, performing quality
control. By 1985 over a hundred companies offered
machine vision systems in the US, and sales totaled
AI Put to Test
The military put AI based hardware to the test of war during Desert
Storm. AI-based technologies were used in missile
systems, heads-up-displays, and other advancements. AI has also
made the transition to the home. With the popularity of the AI
computer growing, the interest of the public has also grown.
Applications for the Apple Macintosh and IBM compatible
computer, such as voice and character recognition have become
available. Also AI technology has made steadying camcorders
simple using fuzzy logic. With a greater demand for AI-related
technology, new advancements are becoming available. Inevitably
Artificial Intelligence has, and will continue to affecting our lives.
AI and Hollywood Movies
In today’s generation, Hollywood movies are
mostly about androids, humanoids, and
Machines going out of control
Up-to-date information about historical
landmarks and points of interest on the
Lowest price gas stations close to the
current position of the car.
Warns drivers of road hazards.
Robotics continue to evolve from
manufacturing, medicine and remote
exploration to entertainment, security and
Robots may be one of the most well known
examples of Artificial Intelligence.
Japan has announced that they will send the
first humanoid robots to the moon.
AI In Military
The U.S is spending as much 100 billion
dollars to develop robots that can aid or
replace human soldiers on the front line.
These robots can operate in combat
zones with little supervision.
Flight simulations and virtual
environments help train over 500,000
What’s New in AI.
Honda has created a helmet-like device that can
read human brain waves and transmit them to
humanoid robot. A person can make the robot
perform simple tasks, including moving Its arm.
Prototypes of a car with sensors and small motors
to navigate a traffic-laden city street with no driver
have been created.
While military uses have tended to
dominate commercial development of
autonomous robots in America, business
opportunities for smart robots are also
sizable, according to experts Japan’s
research into intelligent robotics has
been oriented toward helping the
nation’s rapidly aging population perform
AI In Video Games
Video game artificial intelligence is a
programming area that tries to make the
computer act in a similar way to human
A rule based system is used whereby
information and rules are entered into a
database, and when the video game AI is
faced with a situation, it finds appropriate
information and acts accordingly.
AI in Video Games
In 2001 the game Halo featured A.I. that
could use vehicles and team tactics. The AI
could recognize threats such as grenades
and incoming vehicles.
In 2008 the Game Left 4 Dead featured a
new type of AI in gaming called The
Director. Instead of having a difficulty level
which just ramps up to a constant level, the
AI analyze how the players fared in the
game so far, and try to add subsequent
events that would give them a sense of
Some other Applications:
Information management and retrieval
AI and expert systems embedded in products
Helps desks and assistance
Employee performance evaluation
In space workstation maintenance
Military activity controls
some achievements of AI:
DARPA Grand Challenge
- 123miles through desert.
DARPA Urban Challenge
- Autonomous driving in traffic.
Deep Thought is an international
grand master chess player.
Expert systems are used regularly
in finance, medicine, manufacturing
Future of AI :
Looking at the features and its wide application we may definitely stick
to artificial intelligence. Seeing at the development of AI, is it that the
future world is becoming artificial.
Biological intelligence is fixed, because it is an old, mature paradigm,
but the new paradigm of non-biological computation and intelligence
is growing exponentially.
The memory capacity of the human brain is probably of the order of ten
thousand million binary digits. But most of this is probably used in
remembering visual impressions, and other comparatively wasteful
Hence we can say that as natural intelligence is limited and volatile too
world may now depend upon computers for smooth working.
Till now we have discussed in brief about Artificial
Intelligence. We have discussed some of its
principles, its applications, its achievements etc.
The ultimate goal of institutions and scientists working
on AI is to solve majority of the problems or to achieve
the tasks which we humans directly can’t accomplish.
It is for sure that development in this field of robotics
will change the complete scenario of the world.
Now it is responsibility of creamy layer of
engineers to develop this field.
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