Abdomen proper & lesser pelvis communicate
with each other at the plane of inlet into lesser
pelvIs (upper border of pubic symphysis, pubic
crests, arcuate line of innominate bones, sacral
The abdomen contains many vital organs: the
stomach, the small intestine (jejunum and
ileum), the large intestine (colon), the liver, the
spleen, the gallbladder, the pancreas, the
uterus, the fallopian tubes, the ovaries, the
kidneys, the ureters, the bladder, and many
blood vessels (arteries and veins).
Pancreas: production of hormones that regulated blood sugar level
Stomach: taked in food from the esophagus food pipe mixes it ,break it down ,and
then passes it on to the small intestine in small portions
Intestin: * digest food main function
* carry messages to other part of the body
* regulate body temperature
* fighing germs
Liver: storage of vitamins ,cholesteroi excretes product called bile :this help to carry
away waste products from the liver
Callbladder: stores bire
Spleen: control the livel of WBC,RBC and plateriets small cell S that form blood clats
11. * it removes any old or damaged red blood cells
Uterus: nourish the developing fetus to birth ,it located between the urinary
bladder and rectum
Fallopian tebes: channels for oocyte transport and fertilization
Kidneys:removed walte and extra fluid from your body
Ureters: trasport uhne from renal pelris into the bladder
Pelvis:support abdominal organs ,it is below abdominal cavity
14. Functions of abdomen
house to protect major viscera
changing of intra abdominal pressure.
15. Regions of the abdomen
The abdomen can be divided into nine different
regions based on their anatomical location. These
1:The right and left hypochondriac regions
2: epigastric region, which are located in the
3:The right and left lumbar regions
4: umbilical region are in the middle abdomen
5: The right and left iliac regions are in the lower
6: hypogastric region.
16. Muscles of the abdominal
Your abdominal muscles have many
important functions, from holding organs in
place to supporting your body during
movement. There are five main muscles:
pyramidalis, rectus abdominus, external
obliques, internal obliques, and
18. Abdominal viscera
Most of our abdominal organs, also called abdominal
viscera, are a part of the digestive system. These
include the stomach, the small and large intestine,
the liver, gallbladder and pancreas.
19. Abdominal cavity
The abdominal cavity is located between
the thoracic cavity and pelvic cavity It is lined
by the parietal and. visceral peritoneum.
and the space between these two layers
forms the. peritoneal cavity.
A cavity is lined by Peritoneum-
• Visceral peritoneum
Abdominal viscera can be
• Retroperitoneal structures
The diaphragm is a thin dome-shaped muscle which
separates the thoracic cavity (lungs and heart) from the
abdominal cavity (intestines, stomach, liver, etc.). It is
involved in respiration, drawing downward in the chest on
inhalation, and pushing upward in exhalation
The diaphragm, located below the lungs, is the major
muscle of respiration.
It has three muscular parts (sternal, costal, and lumbar.
24. Abdominal wall
An abdominal wall formed of skin, fascia, and
muscle encases the abdominal cavity and viscera.
The abdominal wall does not only contain and
protect the intra-abdominal organs but can
distend, generate intrabdominal pressure, and
move the vertebral column.
It is bounded superiorly by the xiphoid
process and costal margins, posteriorly by
the vertebral column and inferiorly by
the pelvic bones and inguinal ligament.
30. Relation of abdomen to other organs
1) thorax: The abdomen is separated from thorax
by the diaphragm.- Structures pass between the
two regions through or behind the diaphragm.•
2) pelvis: Peritoneum of the abdomen is in
continuous with that of the pelvis so, both the
abdomen and pelvis cavities are continuous with
each other- Urinary bladder and uterus can be
enlarged and enter the abdominal cavity.
•3) lower limb-
The aperture between the inferior wall of the abdomen
(inguinal ligament) and pelvic bone represents way of
communication between the abdominal cavity and the
- Structures pass through this aperture:-
1. the major artery and vein of the lower limb;
2. the femoral nerve
4. the distal ends of psoas major and iliacus muscles.