History of cell

I B.Sc Biotechnology
The History of Cells and Cell
Theory
By
Dr. Krishna
Assistant Professor In Biotechnology
Tumkur University, Tumkur
CELLS
• Cells are the basic units of
structure and function in
living things.
• Just like bricks are the
building blocks of a house
or school, cells are the
building blocks of life.
• Because you are alive, you
are made up of cells.
One square centimeter of your skin’s surface contains over 100,000 cells
HISTORY OF THE CELL
● Around the year 1590, two Dutch lens makers by the name of
Hans and Zacharias Janssen invented the first compound
microscope when they put two of their lenses together in a tube.
● In 1665, an English scientist, Robert Hooke discovered and
came up with the name “cells” while looking through a
microscope at a piece of cork.
● Supposedly, the cork (which was made of dead oak tree tissues)
reminded him of the small rooms that the monks lived in at the
monasteries.
HISTORY OF THE CELL
● Zacharias Jansen ● Robert Hooke
● Hooke's cells
HISTORY OF THE CELL
● Not long after Hooke (around 1683), a Dutch
amateur scientist by the name of Anton Van
Leeuwenhoek observed some of the first living
cells under a simple (1 lens) microscope.
● He named these small organisms “animalcules”.
● It is now believed that some of the living cells he
saw were actually protozoa.
MICROSCOPE VIEW OF CELLS
Anton Van Leeuwenhoek
– first to see living
cells.
• improved design, and
was
able to view red blood
cells
and bacteria.
 Called them
"animalicules"
THE DEVELOPMENT OF CELL
THEORY
● In 1838 and 1839, a German botanist by the name of
Matthias Schleiden and German zoologist by the
name of Theodore Schwann viewed plants and
animals under a microscope and discovered that plants
and animals are both made of cells.
● In 1855 a Prussian (modern day German) physician by
the name of Rudolph Virchow collaborated his ideas
with the other two scientists and they developed the
Cell Theory.
SCIENTISTS OF CELL THEORY
• Theodore Schwann – zoologist who observed that the tissues
of animals had cells (1839)
SCIENTISTS OF CELL THEORY
• Mattias Schleiden – botanist who observed that the tissues of
plants had cells (1845)
SCIENTISTS OF CELL THEORY
• Rudolf Virchow – reported that every living thing is made up
of cells, and that these cells must come from other cells.
In 1855, a German doctor, Rudolf Verchow (FURkoh)
proposed that new cells are formed only from existing
cells.
“All cells come from cells” wrote Virchow.
The observations and conclusions of Hooke,
Leeuwenhoek, Schleiden, Schwann, Virchow, and others
led to the development of the cell theory.
CELL THEORY
● The ideas of these three men led to the creation of
the cell theory. These are the three main principles
of cell theory.
● 1. All living organisms are made up of cells.
● 2. Cells are the most basic unit of life.
● 3. Cells only come from the division of pre-existing
cells. In other words, spontaneous generation of cells
does not occur.
TERMS
►Cell – the smallest unit that can
carry on the processes of life.
►Unicellular – consists of only one
cell
►Multicellular – consists of more
than one cell
BASIC CELL STRUCTURES
• Cell Membrane – outer
boundary
• Nucleus – control center
• Cytoplasm – stuff between
membrane & nucleus
MICROSCOPE TECHNOLOGY
● The discovery of cells would not have
been possible without the invention of
the microscope.
● Compound light microscopes use
glass lenses just like the early
microscopes Robert Hooke used.
● Modern compound light
microscopes use electricity, a source
of light, and can magnify images up
to 1000x w/out blurring.
MODERN MICROSCOPES
● Modern microscopes like
the transmission electron
microscope (TEM) and
the scanning electron
microscope (SEM) can
magnify specimens up to
500,000x.
● One disadvantage to using
these microscopes is that
the specimens must be
dead.
BASIC TYPES OF CELLS
● Cells come in a variety of
shapes and sizes, but all
cells share some basic
characteristics.
● One thing that all cells
have in common is a
plasma (cell) membrane.
● The cell membrane is a
boundary which allows
things into and out of the
cell.
DIFFERENCES IN CELL TYPES
● All cells fall into one of two categories.
● Eukaryotes – Cells with a membrane-bound nucleus and
membrane-bound organelles.
● Prokaryotes – Cells without a membrane-bound nucleus
and membrane-bound organelles.
● A nucleus is the central organelle of a cell that contains the
genetic material (DNA).
● Organelles are like organs for the cell. They are special
structures that perform vital functions necessary to the cell.
PROKARYOTIC CELLS
● Prokaryotic cell – Unicellular organisms like
bacteria. Notice the DNA is not found in a nucleus
and organelles are absent (except ribosomes).
EUKARYOTIC CELLS
● Eukaryotic cells have a membrane-bound
nucleus and membrane-bound organelles.
Animals, plants, protists (like paramecium and
amoeba), and fungi are all eukaryotic organisms.
CELL
PLANT CELL
BACTERIAL CELL
1 sur 22

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History of cell

  • 1. I B.Sc Biotechnology The History of Cells and Cell Theory By Dr. Krishna Assistant Professor In Biotechnology Tumkur University, Tumkur
  • 2. CELLS • Cells are the basic units of structure and function in living things. • Just like bricks are the building blocks of a house or school, cells are the building blocks of life. • Because you are alive, you are made up of cells. One square centimeter of your skin’s surface contains over 100,000 cells
  • 3. HISTORY OF THE CELL ● Around the year 1590, two Dutch lens makers by the name of Hans and Zacharias Janssen invented the first compound microscope when they put two of their lenses together in a tube. ● In 1665, an English scientist, Robert Hooke discovered and came up with the name “cells” while looking through a microscope at a piece of cork. ● Supposedly, the cork (which was made of dead oak tree tissues) reminded him of the small rooms that the monks lived in at the monasteries.
  • 4. HISTORY OF THE CELL ● Zacharias Jansen ● Robert Hooke ● Hooke's cells
  • 5. HISTORY OF THE CELL ● Not long after Hooke (around 1683), a Dutch amateur scientist by the name of Anton Van Leeuwenhoek observed some of the first living cells under a simple (1 lens) microscope. ● He named these small organisms “animalcules”. ● It is now believed that some of the living cells he saw were actually protozoa.
  • 6. MICROSCOPE VIEW OF CELLS Anton Van Leeuwenhoek – first to see living cells. • improved design, and was able to view red blood cells and bacteria.  Called them "animalicules"
  • 7. THE DEVELOPMENT OF CELL THEORY ● In 1838 and 1839, a German botanist by the name of Matthias Schleiden and German zoologist by the name of Theodore Schwann viewed plants and animals under a microscope and discovered that plants and animals are both made of cells. ● In 1855 a Prussian (modern day German) physician by the name of Rudolph Virchow collaborated his ideas with the other two scientists and they developed the Cell Theory.
  • 8. SCIENTISTS OF CELL THEORY • Theodore Schwann – zoologist who observed that the tissues of animals had cells (1839)
  • 9. SCIENTISTS OF CELL THEORY • Mattias Schleiden – botanist who observed that the tissues of plants had cells (1845)
  • 10. SCIENTISTS OF CELL THEORY • Rudolf Virchow – reported that every living thing is made up of cells, and that these cells must come from other cells. In 1855, a German doctor, Rudolf Verchow (FURkoh) proposed that new cells are formed only from existing cells. “All cells come from cells” wrote Virchow. The observations and conclusions of Hooke, Leeuwenhoek, Schleiden, Schwann, Virchow, and others led to the development of the cell theory.
  • 11. CELL THEORY ● The ideas of these three men led to the creation of the cell theory. These are the three main principles of cell theory. ● 1. All living organisms are made up of cells. ● 2. Cells are the most basic unit of life. ● 3. Cells only come from the division of pre-existing cells. In other words, spontaneous generation of cells does not occur.
  • 12. TERMS ►Cell – the smallest unit that can carry on the processes of life. ►Unicellular – consists of only one cell ►Multicellular – consists of more than one cell
  • 13. BASIC CELL STRUCTURES • Cell Membrane – outer boundary • Nucleus – control center • Cytoplasm – stuff between membrane & nucleus
  • 14. MICROSCOPE TECHNOLOGY ● The discovery of cells would not have been possible without the invention of the microscope. ● Compound light microscopes use glass lenses just like the early microscopes Robert Hooke used. ● Modern compound light microscopes use electricity, a source of light, and can magnify images up to 1000x w/out blurring.
  • 15. MODERN MICROSCOPES ● Modern microscopes like the transmission electron microscope (TEM) and the scanning electron microscope (SEM) can magnify specimens up to 500,000x. ● One disadvantage to using these microscopes is that the specimens must be dead.
  • 16. BASIC TYPES OF CELLS ● Cells come in a variety of shapes and sizes, but all cells share some basic characteristics. ● One thing that all cells have in common is a plasma (cell) membrane. ● The cell membrane is a boundary which allows things into and out of the cell.
  • 17. DIFFERENCES IN CELL TYPES ● All cells fall into one of two categories. ● Eukaryotes – Cells with a membrane-bound nucleus and membrane-bound organelles. ● Prokaryotes – Cells without a membrane-bound nucleus and membrane-bound organelles. ● A nucleus is the central organelle of a cell that contains the genetic material (DNA). ● Organelles are like organs for the cell. They are special structures that perform vital functions necessary to the cell.
  • 18. PROKARYOTIC CELLS ● Prokaryotic cell – Unicellular organisms like bacteria. Notice the DNA is not found in a nucleus and organelles are absent (except ribosomes).
  • 19. EUKARYOTIC CELLS ● Eukaryotic cells have a membrane-bound nucleus and membrane-bound organelles. Animals, plants, protists (like paramecium and amoeba), and fungi are all eukaryotic organisms.
  • 20. CELL