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Introduction to Gamification

The gaming industry is huge, and it can keep its audience consumed for hours, days and even weeks. Presentation shows how it all started, some best and worst practices and main principles of gamification.

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Introduction to Gamification

  1. 1. Introduction to Gamification by Snizhana Bezhnar
  2. 2. ― What is Gamification? ― Psychology and motivation of Gamification ― History ― Best Practices ― Gamification Theory ― Game Mechanics and Components ― A fly in the ointment ― Conclusion Agenda
  3. 3. Gamification is the use of game thinking and game mechanics in non-game contexts to engage users in solving problems MOTIVATE them to certain behavior. Nick Pelling coined the term “gamification” in 2002, meaning “applying game-like accelerated user interface design to make electronic transactions both enjoyable and fast.”
  4. 4. How do you motivate people to certain behavior?
  5. 5. Motivation before 1865
  6. 6. Motivation in the 20th century
  7. 7. Pavlov Classical conditioning Motivation theories Skinner Operant conditioning Maslov Maslow hierarchy of needs Richard Ryan & Edward Deci Self-determination theory (SDT)
  8. 8. Dopamine is the primary neurotransmitter involved in the brain’s Limbic “reward” system Dopamine, Motivation, and Your Brain
  9. 9. Reward
  10. 10. Reward Status
  11. 11. Reward Status Power
  12. 12. Reward Status Power Achievement
  13. 13. Reward Status Power Achievement Interest
  14. 14. Reward Status Power Achievement Interest Purpose
  15. 15. Reward Status Power Achievement Interest Purpose Fear
  16. 16. Reward Status Power Achievement Interest Purpose Fear ...
  17. 17. Reward Status Power Achievement Interest Purpose Fear ... GAME
  18. 18. Gamification is about figuring out what makes games so engaging, then applying those principles to work, education, etc.
  19. 19. The history of gamification S&H Green Stamps And so it began. Marketers sold stamps to retailers who used them to reward loyal customers
  20. 20. The history of gamification Charles Coonradt Founds a consulting firm called “The game of work”, and brings feedback loops found in sports into the workplace
  21. 21. The history of gamification MUD1 Is created by Roy Trubshaw at Essex university. It was the first multi-user virtual world game
  22. 22. The history of gamification Thomas Malone Publishes “What Makes Things Fun to Learn: a Study of Intrinsically Motivating Computer Games”
  23. 23. The history of gamification American Airlines Introduces AAdvantage, the first frequent flyer program
  24. 24. The history of gamification Holiday Inn Launches the first hotel loyalty program
  25. 25. The history of gamification Richard Bartle Publishes “Who Plays MUAs”, which divides video game players into four unique types
  26. 26. The history of gamification Nick Pelling Coins the term “gamification”
  27. 27. The history of gamification Quest to learn Accepts a class of 6th graders into a game- based learning environment
  28. 28. The history of gamification DevHub Adds a Points system to its website, and increases user engagement by 70% Gamification Co. Holds the first Gamification Summit in San Francisco, CA
  29. 29. The history of gamification 45 000 people Enroll Coursera online Gamification course Mozilla open Badges Initiative is launched. The open source badges can be used to mark accomplishments online
  30. 30. The history of gamification M2 Research Predicts that gamification will be a 2.8 billion dollar industry by 2016
  31. 31. Does it really work so good?
  32. 32. Puzzle Game Foldit (Washington’s Center for Game Science) made breakthrough in AIDS Research that Scientists couldn’t solve for 15 years 15 Years vs 10 Days?
  33. 33. RPG Diary Game Pain Squad helps Patients Combat Cancer by providing both Purpose and Data Combat Cancer
  34. 34. Ananth Pai has incorporated games to teach his students about reading and mathematics. The result is that within 4.5 months Mr. Pai's class went from being a below average 3rd grade class to a mid level 4th grade class Mr Pai’s Class
  35. 35. Kevin Richardson, game designer at MTV’s San Francisco office, re- imagined the speed cameras experience using game thinking. When tested at a checkpoint in Stockholm, average driver speed was reduced by 20%. Speed camera lottery
  36. 36. 70% of NextJump employees exercise regularly — enough to save the company millions in work attendance and insurance costs over the medium term — all the while making the workplace healthier and happier Get Fit: NextJump
  37. 37. Game theory - MDA framework Mechanics Functioning components The particular components of the game at the level of data representation and algorithms Dynamics Interactions A game dynamics can be defined as a pattern of loops that turns them into a large sequence of play Aesthetics Fun parts Is all about making games “fun”, desirable emotional responses evoked in the player
  38. 38. Game theory - the Elemental Tetrad (Schell 2008) Mechanics the procedures and rules of your game (“space”, “objects”, “actions”, “rules”, “skill”and “chance”) Aesthetics describes “how your game looks, sounds, smells, tastes, and feels” Story Narrative aspect of the game Technology refers to the tools and systems used to implement or deliver the gameplay (e.g. cardboard game board, mobile phone screen, game console).
  39. 39. Gamification elements Gamification elements pyramid by Professor Kevin Webach’s
  40. 40. Gamification elements Components Specific installations (nouns) Achievements Avatars Badges Collections Combat Content unlocking Gifting Leaderboards Levels Points Quests Goods Mechanics Processes, that drive action forward (verbs) Challenges Chance Competition Feedback Resource Acquisition Rewards Transactions Turns Win states Aesthetics Big-picture aspects (Grammar) Constraints Narrative Progression Relationships
  41. 41. How Gamification Taps Into Your Motivation Motivators Possible Supporters Autonomy Customisation, Сhoice, Freedom Mastery Levels, Challenges Purpose Giving / Altruism, Narrative, Greater Meaning Status Leaderboards, Achievements, Social Connections Suggest similar users, Cooperative “play” Rewards Points, Badges, Achievements, Real stuff, Lotteries Peer Pressure Peer review / feedback / grading systems, Boasting / Bragging system, Competitive “play” Avoidance Lose Points, Lose Status, Game Over Scarcity Exclusive / Unique Reward, Reward Schedules
  42. 42. Main gamification components Game components are utilized to reward activity among customers, employees, or other users. The five most commonly used components are: Points, Badges, Levels, Leaderboards, and Challenges. Other components: Achievements, Appointments, Behavioral Momentum, Blissful Productivity, Bonuses, Cascading Information Theory, Combos, Community Collaboration, Countdown, Discovery, Epic Meaning, Free Lunch, Infinite Gameplay, Levels, Loss Aversion, Lottery, Ownership, Points, Progression, Quests, Reward Schedules, Status, Urgent Optimism, Virality...
  43. 43. Points Increases the running numerical value of users work. Points are a basic, simple way to obtain feedback on the things we do, and they motivate us because they provide immediate feedback.
  44. 44. Badges Badges can perform a number of functions for gamified design, but mostly they are used to demonstrate consumer status and progress.
  45. 45. Levels Ramp up and unlock content. Levels allow to quickly identify various involvement levels, as well as to create different challengers for users. Users in the higher levels can be shown more features , and given much more complex challenges.
  46. 46. Leaderboards, Ratings Public recognition, status We all like to win: we all like to be among the most relevant, influential, “cool” people, or else among the strongest, the most intelligent, etc.
  47. 47. Challenges A challenge is a call to engage in a difficult, but achievable task. Uncertain outcomes are challenging because of the variability depending on the user’s actions, multiple goals, hidden information and randomness
  48. 48. User types (by Richard Bartle) Killer Defined by: A focus on winning, rank different peer-to-peer competition Engaged by: Leaderboards, Ranks Explorer Defined by: A focus on exploring and a drive to discover the unknown Engaged by: Obfuscated achievements Achiever Defined by: A focus on status, achieving preset goals quickly and/or completely Engaged by: Achievements Socializer Defined by: A focus on socializing and a drive to develop a network of friends Engaged by: Newsfeeds, Friends list, Chat
  49. 49. Flow theory Ten factors of flow: • Clear goals • A high degree of concentration • A loss of the feeling of self-consciousness • Distorted sense of time, one’s subjective experience of time is altered • Direct and immediate feedback • Balance between ability level and challenge • A sense of personal control over the situation or activity • The activity is intrinsically rewarding • A lack of awareness of bodily needs • Absorption into the activity
  50. 50. A fly in the ointment The side effects
  51. 51. Cobra effect Getting rid of cobras in Delhi
  52. 52. Unintended behavior BMW: fuel-efficient driving
  53. 53. Questions to ask yourself before gamifying your product/service • What is your main reason for gamifying your product/service? • Is your product ready for Gamification? • What are your goals? • What are your users goals? What motivates them? • What are the main benefits you expect to achieve?
  54. 54. Questions to ask yourself during gamifying your product/service • Do you have Achievements a player would be proud of or share? • Do you have the right analytics tools and goals set? • Do you know where players drop out, where do they lose interest? • What are the challenges? Do they require skill or luck? • Have you thoroughly thought about your game design from a cheater's perspective to see possible exploits they would see?
  55. 55. Questions to ask yourself during gamifying your product/service • Do you give players meaningful choices? Would you benefit from making them more or less frequent? • How can you give your players more ways to contact or interact with one another? • Have you spent enough time on your User Interface and insuring players really enjoy the graphical elements of the Gamification? • Do players value their virtual currency or goods? • …
  56. 56. Questions