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ميلتون فريدمان (1912 – 2006م)

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منحت جائزة نوبل فى الاقتصاد للأمريكي الجنسية مجري الأصل ميلتون فريدمان Milton Friedmanعام 1976م. عن عمله "في مجال الاستهلاك وتاريخ النقد".

Publié dans : Économie & finance
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ميلتون فريدمان (1912 – 2006م)

  1. 1. 1 ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻣﺨﺘﺎرات‬‫اﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎد‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻧﻮﺑﻞ‬ ‫ﻧﻮﺑﻞ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻣﺨﺘﺎرات‬ ‫اﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎد‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬)١( Milton Friedman ‫ﻓﺮﻳﺪﻣﺎن‬ ‫ﻣﯿﻠﺘﻮن‬)١٩١٢–٢٠٠٦‫م‬( ‫أ‬.‫د‬/‫ﻣﺼﻄﻔﻰ‬ ‫ﻣﺪﺣﺖ‬ ‫ﻣﺤﻤﺪ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻨﻮﻓﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﺠﺎﻣﻌﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺰراﻋﻲ‬ ‫اﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎد‬ ‫أﺳﺘﺎذ‬
  2. 2. ‫أ‬.‫د‬/‫ﻣﺼﻄﻔﻰ‬ ‫ﻣﺪﺣﺖ‬ ‫ﻣﺤﻤﺪ‬ 2 ‫ﻓﺮﻳﺪﻣﺎن‬ ‫ﻣﯿﻠﺘﻮن‬)١٩١٢–٢٠٠٦‫م‬( Milton Friedman ‫اﻻﻗﺗﺻﺎد‬ ‫ﻓﻰ‬ ‫ﻧوﺑل‬ ‫ة‬‫ﺟﺎﺋز‬ ‫ﻣﻧﺣت‬‫اﻟﺟﻧﺳﯾﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻸﻣرﯾﻛﻲ‬‫ي‬‫ﻣﺟر‬‫اﻷﺻل‬‫ﻣﯾﻠﺗون‬ ‫ﻓرﯾدﻣﺎن‬Milton Friedman‫ﻋﺎم‬١٩٧٦‫م‬.‫ﻋﻣﻠﻪ‬ ‫ﻋن‬"‫ﻓﻲ‬‫اﻻﺳﺗ‬ ‫ﻣﺟﺎل‬‫ﻬﻼك‬ ‫اﻟﻧﻘد‬ ‫وﺗﺎرﯾﺦ‬." ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﻣﺟر‬ ‫ﻣن‬ ‫ة‬‫ر‬‫ﻣﻬﺎﺟ‬ ‫ﯾﻬودﯾﺔ‬ ‫ة‬‫ر‬‫أﺳ‬ ‫ﻣن‬ ‫ﻣﯾﻠﺗون‬ ‫د‬ِ‫ﻟ‬ُ‫و‬٣١‫ﯾوﻟﯾو‬١٩١٢‫ﺑﺣﻰ‬ ، ‫ﺑروﻛﻠﯾ‬‫اﻟﺟﺎﻓﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺑﺿﺎﺋﻊ‬ ‫ة‬‫ر‬‫ﺗﺟﺎ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﯾﻌﻣل‬ ‫اﻟدﻩ‬‫و‬ ‫وﻛﺎن‬ ،‫ﻧﯾوﯾورك‬ ‫ﻣدﯾﻧﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ن‬. ،‫ﻻدﺗﻪ‬‫و‬ ‫ﻣن‬ ‫ة‬‫ز‬‫وﺟﯾ‬ ‫ة‬‫ر‬‫ﻓﺗ‬ ‫ﺑﻌد‬ ‫ﺟﯾرﺳﻲ‬ ‫ﻧﯾو‬ ‫ﻣدﯾﻧﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫اﻫوي‬‫ر‬ ‫إﻟﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﻌﺎﺋﻠﺔ‬ ‫اﻧﺗﻘﻠت‬ ‫ﻋﺎم‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﺛﺎﻧوﯾﺔ‬ ‫اﻫوي‬‫ر‬ ‫ﻣدرﺳﺔ‬ ‫ﻣن‬ ‫ج‬‫ﺗﺧر‬١٩٢٨‫ﻋﺷر‬ ‫اﻟﺳﺎدﺳﺔ‬ ‫ﯾﺑﻠﻎ‬ ‫وﻟم‬.
  3. 3. 3 ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻣﺨﺘﺎرات‬‫اﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎد‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻧﻮﺑﻞ‬ ‫اﺳﺗ‬‫ر‬‫د‬ ‫أﺛﻧﺎء‬ ‫وﻗﻊ‬ ‫أﻧﻪ‬ ‫إﻻ‬ ،‫ﯾﺎﺿﯾﺎت‬‫ر‬‫اﻟ‬ ‫اﺳﺔ‬‫ر‬‫ﻟد‬ ‫روﺗﺟرز‬ ‫ﺑﺟﺎﻣﻌﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺗﺣق‬‫و‬‫ﺗﺣت‬ ‫ﻪ‬ ‫ﻫﻣﺎ‬ ،‫اﻻﻗﺗﺻﺎد‬ ‫أﺳﺎﺗذة‬ ‫ﻣن‬ ‫اﺛﻧﯾن‬ ‫ﺗﺄﺛﯾر‬‫ف‬ ‫آرﺛر‬.‫ﺟوﻧز‬ ‫وﻫوﻣر‬ ‫ﺑﯾرﻧز‬‫اﻟذﯾن‬ ، ‫اﻟﻌظﯾم‬ ‫اﻟﻛﺳﺎد‬ ‫إﻧﻬﺎء‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﯾﺳﺎﻋد‬ ‫أن‬ ‫ﯾﻣﻛن‬ ‫اﻟﺣدﯾث‬ ‫اﻻﻗﺗﺻﺎد‬ ‫ﺑﺄن‬ ‫أﻗﻧﻌﺎﻩ‬.‫اﻧﺗﻘل‬ ‫ﺑﻌد‬‫ﻋﺎم‬ ‫اﻟﻣﺎﺟﺳﺗﯾر‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻟﯾﺣﺻل‬ ‫ﺷﯾﻛﺎﻏو‬ ‫ﺟﺎﻣﻌﺔ‬ ‫إﻟﻰ‬ ‫ذﻟك‬١٩٣٣‫وﻗﻊ‬ ‫ﺣﯾث‬ ‫م‬ ‫ﻣن‬ ‫ﻛل‬ ‫ﻣن‬ ‫ﺧﺎﺻﺔ‬ ‫اﻻﻗﺗﺻﺎد‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺷﯾﻛﺎﻏو‬ ‫ﻣدرﺳﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﺄﺛﯾر‬ ‫ﺗﺣت‬،‫ﻓﯾﻧر‬ ‫ﺟﺎﻛوب‬ ‫ﺳﯾﻣوﻧز‬ ‫ي‬‫وﻫﻧر‬ ،‫ﻓﺎرس‬ ‫اﻧك‬‫ر‬‫ﻓ‬.‫زوﺟﺗﻪ‬ ‫ﻫﻧﺎك‬ ‫اﻟﺗﻘﻰ‬ ‫ﻛﻣﺎ‬‫ﻣﺎدﯾر‬ ‫روز‬.‫ﻋﺎم‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ١٩٣٥‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺗﻌﻣل‬ ‫آﻧذاك‬ ‫ﻛﺎﻧت‬ ‫اﻟﺗﻲ‬ ،‫اﻟوطﻧﯾﺔ‬ ‫ارد‬‫و‬‫اﻟﻣ‬ ‫ﻟﺟﻧﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﻌﻣل‬ ‫ﺑدأ‬ ، ‫اﺳﻊ‬‫و‬ ‫ﻣﺳﺢ‬‫ﻟ‬‫اﻟﻣﺳﺗﻬﻠك‬ ‫اﻧﯾﺔ‬‫ز‬‫ﻣﯾ‬،‫و‬‫ﺟت‬‫ﺧر‬‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫أﺻﺑﺣت‬ ‫ع‬‫اﻟﻣﺷرو‬ ‫ﻫذا‬ ‫ﻣن‬ ‫أﻓﻛﺎر‬ ‫اﻻﺳﺗﻬﻼك‬ ‫داﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﯾﺔ‬‫ر‬‫ﻧظ‬ ‫ﻣن‬ ‫ءا‬‫ﺟز‬ ‫ﻻﺣق‬ ‫وﻗت‬.‫اﻧﺗﻘل‬ ‫ﺛم‬‫ﻟﻠﻣﻛﺗب‬ ‫ﯾدﻣﺎن‬‫ر‬‫ﻓ‬ ‫ﯾف‬‫ر‬‫ﺧ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫اﻻﻗﺗﺻﺎدﯾﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺑﺣوث‬ ‫اﻟوطﻧﻲ‬١٩٣٧‫ﻟﻣﺳﺎﻋدة‬‫ﻛوزﻧﺗس‬ ‫ﺳﯾﻣون‬‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻋﻣﻠﻪ‬‫اﻟﻣﻬﻧﻲ‬ ‫اﻟدﺧل‬ ‫ﺗﺣﻠﯾل‬‫ﻟﻸطﺑﺎء‬ ‫ﺧﺎﺻﺔ‬ ‫وﺑﺻﻔﺔ‬.‫إﻟﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﻌﻣل‬ ‫ﻫذا‬ ‫أدى‬‫و‬ ‫ظﻬ‬‫و‬‫ﻣﺷﺗرك‬ ‫ف‬َ‫ﻟ‬‫ﻣؤ‬ ‫ر‬‫ﻟﻬﻣﺎ‬‫ﻋن‬‫اﻟﻣﺳﺗﻘﻠﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻣﻬﻧﯾﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻣﻣﺎرﺳﺔ‬ ‫ﻣن‬ ‫اﻟدﺧل‬‫اﻟﺗﻲ‬‫و‬ ، ‫أدﺧﻠت‬‫اﻟﻣؤﻗت‬‫و‬ ‫اﻟداﺋم‬ ‫اﻟدﺧل‬ ‫ﻣﻔﺎﻫﯾم‬‫اﻟﻔرﺿ‬ ‫وﻫو‬ ،‫ﯾدﻣﺎن‬‫ر‬‫ﻓ‬ ‫ﻋﻣل‬ ‫اﻟﺗﻲ‬ ‫اﻟداﺋﻣﺔ‬ ‫ﯾﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﺗﻔﺻﯾل‬ ‫ﻣن‬ ‫ﯾد‬‫ز‬‫ﺑﻣ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﯾﻬﺎ‬١٩٥٠،‫اﻟﻣﻬﻧﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﺗرﺧﯾص‬ ‫أن‬ ‫اﻟﻛﺗﺎب‬ ‫اﻓﺗرض‬‫و‬ ‫ﻫﺎ‬‫أﺳﻌﺎر‬ ‫ﯾﺎدة‬‫ز‬ ‫ﺛم‬ ‫وﻣن‬ ‫اﻟﺧدﻣﺎت‬ ‫ﺗﻘدﯾم‬ ‫ﻣن‬ ‫ﻣﺻطﻧﻊ‬ ‫ﺑﺷﻛل‬ ‫ﯾﺣد‬.‫ﻋﺎم‬ ‫وﻓﻲ‬ ١٩٤٥‫اﻻﻗﺗﺻﺎدﯾﺔ‬ ‫ﯾﻪ‬‫ر‬‫اﻟﻧظ‬ ‫ﯾس‬‫ر‬‫ﻟﺗد‬ ‫ﺷﯾﻛﺎﻏو‬ ‫ﺟﺎﻣﻌﺔ‬ ‫ﻣن‬ ‫ﻋرﺿﺎ‬ ‫ﻗﺑل‬،‫وﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻧﻔﺳﻪ‬ ‫اﻟوﻗت‬‫ﻗد‬ ‫ﻛﺎن‬‫أ‬‫اﻟ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺑﺣوث‬ ‫ا‬‫ر‬‫ﻣدﯾ‬ ‫ﺻﺑﺢ‬‫وﺗﺣﻣل‬ ‫اﻟوطﻧﻲ‬ ‫ﻣﻛﺗب‬ ‫اﺳﺔ‬‫ر‬‫د‬ ‫ﻋن‬ ‫اﻟﻣﺳؤوﻟﯾﺔ‬‫اﻟ‬ ‫دور‬‫ﻧﻘود‬‫ﯾﺔ‬‫ر‬‫اﻟﺗﺟﺎ‬ ‫ة‬‫ر‬‫اﻟدو‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬.‫ﯾف‬‫ر‬‫ﺧ‬ ‫وﻓﻲ‬١٩٥٠ ‫ﻋﺎﻣ‬ ‫ﯾس‬‫ر‬‫ﺑﺎ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻗﺿﻲ‬ً‫ﺎ‬‫ﺗدﯾر‬ ‫اﻟﺗﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﺣﻛوﻣﯾﻪ‬ ‫اﻟوﻛﺎﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻊ‬‫ﻣﺎرﺷﺎل‬ ‫ﺧطﺔ‬‫ﻹﻋﺎدة‬ ‫ﺑﺎ‬‫ر‬‫أو‬ ‫إﻋﻣﺎر‬‫اﻟﺛﺎﻧﯾﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻌﺎﻟﻣﯾﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺣرب‬ ‫ﺑﻌد‬.‫ﻋﺎم‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬١٩٤٠‫ﯾدﻣﺎن‬‫ر‬‫ﻓ‬ ‫ﺗﻌﯾﯾن‬ ‫ﺗم‬ ، ‫ﻣﺎدﯾ‬ ‫وﯾﺳﻛوﻧﺳن‬ ‫ﺟﺎﻣﻌﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻣﺳﺎﻋد‬ ‫أﺳﺗﺎذ‬‫اﻟﻣﻧﺎخ‬ ‫ﻣﻊ‬ ‫ﯾﺗﻛﯾف‬ ‫ﻟم‬ ‫وﻟﻛﻧﻪ‬ ،‫ﺳون‬ ‫اﻟﺣﻛوﻣﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺧدﻣﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻌودة‬ ‫وﻗرر‬ ‫ﻫﻧﺎك‬ ‫اﻟﺳﺎﺋد‬.‫ﯾدﻣﺎن‬‫ر‬‫ﻓ‬ ‫ﻗﺿﻰ‬١٩٤١-١٩٤٣ ‫ﻓﻲ‬‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﻌﻣل‬‫اﻟﺣرب‬ ‫زﻣن‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﯾﺑﯾﺔ‬‫ر‬‫اﻟﺿ‬ ‫اﻟﺳﯾﺎﺳﺔ‬،‫اﻻﺗﺣﺎدﯾﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺣﻛوﻣﺔ‬‫ﻛﻣﺎ‬
  4. 4. ‫أ‬.‫د‬/‫ﻣﺼﻄﻔﻰ‬ ‫ﻣﺪﺣﺖ‬ ‫ﻣﺤﻤﺪ‬ 4 ‫ﻋﻣل‬‫اﻧﺔ‬‫ز‬‫اﻟﺧ‬ ‫ة‬‫ر‬‫ا‬‫ز‬‫وو‬ ‫اﻟﻣﺗﺣدة‬ ‫ﻻﯾﺎت‬‫اﻟو‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﻣﺳؤوﻟﯾن‬ ‫ﻟﻛﺑﺎر‬ ‫ا‬‫ر‬‫ﻣﺳﺗﺷﺎ‬.‫ﻫذا‬ ‫وﻓﻲ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫اﻟﺳﯾﺎﺳﺔ‬ ‫ﻋن‬ ‫داﻓﻊ‬ ‫اﻟوﻗت‬‫ﻧظﺎم‬ ‫اﺑﺗﻛر‬‫و‬ ،‫اﺋب‬‫ر‬‫اﻟﺿ‬ ‫اﺋب‬‫ر‬‫اﻟﺿ‬ ‫ﯾﺎدة‬‫ز‬‫ﺑ‬ ‫ﯾﺔ‬‫ز‬‫ﻟﻛﯾﻧ‬ ‫ﻫذﻩ‬ ‫ﻟﺗﺑﻧﯾﻪ‬ ‫أﺳﻔﻪ‬ ‫ﻋن‬ ‫أﻋرب‬ ‫ﻻﺣق‬ ‫وﻗت‬ ‫وﻓﻲ‬ ،‫ﯾﺑﺔ‬‫ر‬‫اﻟﺿ‬ ‫ﺗﺑﺎت‬‫ر‬‫اﻟﻣ‬ ‫ﻛﺷوف‬ ‫اﻟﺳﯾﺎﺳﺔ‬.‫ﻋﺎم‬ ‫وﻓﻲ‬١٩٤٣‫ﺟﺎﻣﻌﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﺣرب‬ ‫ﺑﺣوث‬ ‫ﻟﺷﻌﺑﺔ‬ ‫ﯾدﻣﺎن‬‫ر‬‫ﻓ‬ ‫اﻧﺿم‬ ، ‫ﻛوﻟوﻣﺑﯾﺎ‬)‫ﻫوﺗﻠﯾﻧﻎ‬ ‫وﻫﺎروﻟد‬ ‫اﻟﯾس‬‫و‬ ‫أﻟﯾن‬ ‫وﯾﻠﺳون‬ ‫ﺋﺎﺳﺔ‬‫ر‬‫ﺑ‬(،‫وﻋﻣل‬‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬‫ﻣﺷﺎﻛل‬ ‫اﻟﺗﻛﺗﯾﻛ‬‫و‬ ‫اﻷﺳﻠﺣﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﺻﻣﯾم‬‫ﯾﺔ‬‫ر‬‫اﻟﻌﺳﻛ‬ ‫ﺎت‬،‫ﻋﺎم‬ ‫وﻓﻲ‬١٩٤٦‫م‬‫د‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺣﺻل‬‫رﺟﺔ‬ ‫ﻣن‬ ‫اﻩ‬‫ر‬‫اﻟدﻛﺗو‬‫ﻛوﻟوﻣﺑﯾﺎ‬ ‫ﺟﺎﻣﻌﺔ‬.‫ﻋﺎم‬ ‫ع‬‫ﺷر‬ ‫ﻗد‬ ‫ﯾدﻣﺎن‬‫ر‬‫ﻓ‬ ‫وﻛﺎن‬١٩٤٠‫ﺑﺎﻟﺗﻌﺎون‬ ‫م‬ ‫اﺳﺔ‬‫ر‬‫د‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺗز‬‫ر‬‫ا‬‫و‬‫ﺷ‬ ‫ﺎ‬َ‫أﻧ‬ ‫ﻣﻊ‬‫ﻋن‬‫اﻟﻣﺗﺣدة‬ ‫ﻻﯾﺎت‬‫اﻟو‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﻧﻘد‬ ‫ﯾﺦ‬‫ر‬‫ﺗﺎ‬‫ة‬‫ر‬‫اﻟﻔﺗ‬ ‫ﺧﻼل‬ ١٨٦٧-١٩٦٠‫م‬‫ﻋﺎم‬ ‫ﻛﺗﺎب‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ذﻟك‬ ‫ﺑﻌد‬ ‫ﻫﺎ‬‫ﻧﺷر‬ ‫ﺗم‬١٩٦٣،‫اﻟﺳﻧﺔ‬ ‫وﺧﻼل‬ ‫اﻻﻛﺎدﯾﻣﯾﻪ‬١٩٥٣/١٩٥٤‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ا‬‫ر‬‫اﺋ‬‫ز‬ ‫أﺳﺗﺎذا‬ ‫ﻋﻣل‬‫ﺑﺟﺎﻣﻌﺔ‬ ‫ﺟوﻧﻔﯾﻠﻲ‬ ‫ﻛﺎﯾوس‬ ‫ﻛﻠﯾﺔ‬ ‫ﻛﺎﻣﺑردج‬. ‫ي‬‫اﻟﺟﻣﻬور‬ ‫ﺋﺎﺳﺔ‬‫ر‬‫اﻟ‬ ‫ﻟﻣرﺷﺢ‬ ‫اﻻﻗﺗﺻﺎدي‬ ‫اﻟﻣﺳﺗﺷﺎر‬ ‫ﯾدﻣﺎن‬‫ر‬‫ﻓ‬ ‫ﻛﺎن‬‫ﻏوﻟدووﺗر‬ ‫ي‬‫ﺑﺎر‬ ‫ﻋﺎم‬١٩٦٤‫أﻣﺎم‬ ‫ﺧﺳر‬ ‫اﻟذي‬ ،‫ﺟوﻧﺳون‬ ‫ﻟﯾﻧدون‬‫اطﻲ‬‫ر‬‫اﻟدﯾﻣﻘ‬ ‫اﻟﺣزب‬ ‫ﻣن‬ ،،‫و‬‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻋﺎم‬١٩٦٨‫اﻻﻗﺗﺻﺎدﯾﯾن‬ ‫ﯾن‬‫ر‬‫اﻟﻣﺳﺗﺷﺎ‬ ‫ﻟﺟﻧﺔ‬ ‫ﻣن‬ ‫اﺣدا‬‫و‬ ‫اﺻﺑﺢ‬‫ﺋﯾس‬‫ر‬‫ﻟﻠ‬‫رﯾﺗﺷﺎ‬‫رد‬ ‫ﻧﯾﻛﺳون‬.‫ﻋﺎم‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬١٩٧٧‫ﺷﯾﻛﺎﻏو‬ ‫ﺟﺎﻣﻌﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﯾس‬‫ر‬‫اﻟﺗد‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﻌﻣل‬ ‫ﻋن‬ ‫ﺗﻘﺎﻋد‬
  5. 5. 5 ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻣﺨﺘﺎرات‬‫اﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎد‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻧﻮﺑﻞ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫اﻻﺑﻘﺎء‬ ‫ﻣﻊ‬‫ة‬‫ر‬‫إدا‬ ‫ﻣﻊ‬ ‫اﺗﺻﺎﻟﻪ‬‫اﻟﺑﺣوث‬‫ﺑﻬﺎ‬،‫و‬‫ﻋﻣل‬‫ﻛ‬‫ﻣﻌﻬد‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﺣث‬ ‫زﻣﯾل‬ ‫ﻫوﻓر‬ ‫وﺗﯾون‬‫ﺑ‬‫ﺳﺗﺎﻧﻔورد‬ ‫ﺟﺎﻣﻌﺔ‬،‫ﻣن‬ ‫وﺑدﻋوﻩ‬‫ﻛﺎﻣﺑل‬ ‫ﻏﻠﯾن‬‫أﺻﺑﺢ‬‫ﻣدﯾر‬‫ا‬‫ﻟ‬‫ﻣﻛﺗب‬ ‫ﻫوﻓر‬ ‫ﻣؤﺳﺳﺔ‬‫ﺑ‬‫ﺳﺗﺎﻧﻔورد‬ ‫ﺟﺎﻣﻌﺔ‬‫اﻧﺳﯾﺳﻛو‬‫ر‬‫ﻓ‬ ‫ﺳﺎن‬ ‫إﻟﻰ‬ ‫اﻧﺗﻘل‬‫و‬.‫ﻛﻣﺎ‬‫ﻋ‬‫ا‬‫ر‬‫ﻣﺳﺗﺷﺎ‬ ‫ﻣل‬ ‫رﺳﻣﻲ‬ ‫ﻏﯾر‬‫رﯾﺟﺎن‬ ‫ﻟروﻧﺎﻟد‬‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﯾﺔ‬‫ر‬‫اﻟﺟﻣﻬو‬ ‫ﺋﺎﺳﺔ‬‫ر‬‫ﻟ‬ ‫ﺗرﺷﯾﺣﻪ‬ ‫ﺧﻼل‬١٩٨٠ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ا‬‫و‬‫ﻋﺿ‬ ‫وﺑوﺻﻔﻪ‬‫ﻓﻰ‬ ‫ﺋﯾس‬‫ر‬‫ﻟﻠ‬ ‫اﻻﻗﺗﺻﺎدﯾﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺳﯾﺎﺳﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﺟﻧﺔ‬‫ي‬‫اﻻﺳﺗﺷﺎر‬ ‫اﻟﻣﺟﻠس‬ ‫ﺋﺎﺳﺗﻪ‬‫ر‬ ‫ة‬‫ر‬‫ﻓﺗ‬ ‫ﺧﻼل‬،‫وﻓﻰ‬١٩٨٨‫اﻟر‬ ‫ﻣﻧﺣﻪ‬‫ﯾﺔ‬‫ر‬‫ﻟﻠﺣ‬ ‫ﺋﺎﺳﻲ‬‫ر‬‫اﻟ‬ ‫اﻟوﺳﺎم‬ ‫ﯾﺟﺎن‬‫ر‬ ‫ﺋﯾس‬، ُ‫ﻣ‬ ‫اﻟﺳﻧﺔ‬ ‫ﻧﻔس‬ ‫وﻓﻲ‬ِ‫ﻧ‬‫اﻟوطﻧﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﻌﻠم‬ ‫وﺳﺎم‬ ‫ﺢ‬.‫ﯾدﻣﺎ‬‫ر‬‫ﻓ‬ ‫ﺗوﻓﻰ‬‫ﻓﻰ‬ ‫ن‬١٦‫ﻧ‬‫و‬‫ﻓﻣﺑر‬‫ﻋﺎم‬ ٢٠٠٦‫اﻟﺗﺳﻌون‬‫و‬ ‫اﺑﻌﺔ‬‫ر‬‫اﻟ‬ ‫ﯾﻧﺎﻫز‬ ‫ﻋﻣر‬ ‫ﻋن‬. ‫ﻋﺎم‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬١٩٧٩‫ات‬‫ر‬‫اﻟﻣﺣﺎﺿ‬ ‫ﻣن‬ ‫ﺳﻠﺳﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﻗدم‬‫اﻟﻌﺎﻟم‬ ‫وﺣول‬ ‫اﻟﻣﺗﺣدة‬ ‫ﻻﯾﺎت‬‫اﻟو‬ ‫ﻓﻰ‬، ‫اﻟﻣﺗﺣدة‬ ‫اﻟﻣﻣﻠﻛﺔ‬‫و‬ ‫أﻟﻣﺎﻧﯾﺎ‬‫و‬ ‫اﻟﯾوﻧﺎن‬‫و‬ ‫اﻟﻬﻧد‬‫و‬ ‫اﻟﯾﺎﺑﺎن‬‫و‬ ‫ﻛوﻧﻎ‬ ‫ﻫوﻧﻎ‬ ‫ذﻟك‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺑﻣﺎ‬ ‫اﺟﻧﺑﯾﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻐﺎت‬ ‫ﻋﺷر‬ ‫ﺑﻌﺔ‬‫ر‬‫أ‬ ‫ﻣن‬ ‫أﻛﺛر‬ ‫اﻟﻰ‬ ‫ات‬‫ر‬‫اﻟﻣﺣﺎﺿ‬ ‫ﻫذة‬ ‫وﺗرﺟﻣت‬.‫ﺳﺎ‬‫ﻓر‬‫إﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﻋﺎم‬ ‫ﻣﻧذ‬ ‫دول‬ ‫ﻋدة‬١٩٧٧‫ﻫﺎ‬‫اﺑرز‬ ‫وﻟﻌل‬‫اﻟﺻﯾن‬ ‫اﻟﻰ‬ ‫رﺣﻼت‬ ‫ﺛﻼث‬ ‫ﻓﻰ‬ ‫ﻩ‬‫ر‬‫ﺳﻔ‬
  6. 6. ‫أ‬.‫د‬/‫ﻣﺼﻄﻔﻰ‬ ‫ﻣﺪﺣﺖ‬ ‫ﻣﺤﻤﺪ‬ 6 ‫و‬‫ﻋﺎم‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬١٩٨٠‫اﻟﻣﺣﺎﺿر‬ ‫ﻣن‬ ‫ﺳﻠﺳﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﻗدم‬‫اﻟﺻﯾﻧﯾﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺣﻛوﻣﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﺎﯾﻪ‬‫ر‬ ‫ﺗﺣت‬ ‫ات‬، ‫و‬‫ﻋﺎم‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬١٩٨٨‫اﻻﻗﺗﺻﺎدﯾﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺗﻧﻣﯾﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﺻﯾﻧﯾﺔ‬ ‫ﺷﻧﻐﻬﺎي‬ ‫ﻣؤﺗﻣر‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺷﺎرك‬ ‫ة‬‫ر‬‫ﻓﺗ‬ ‫ﺷﻣﻠت‬ ‫ات‬‫ر‬‫ﯾﺎ‬‫ز‬ ‫ﺛﻼث‬ ‫ﺧﻼل‬‫ا‬‫و‬ ‫اﻟﺗﻧﻣﯾﺔ‬‫و‬ ‫اﻻﻗﺗﺻﺎدي‬ ‫اﻟﻧﻣو‬ ‫ة‬‫ر‬‫ﺛو‬‫ﻣن‬ ‫ﻟﺗﺣول‬ ‫اﻟﺳوق‬ ‫اﻗﺗﺻﺎد‬ ‫اﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﯾﺎ‬‫ز‬‫ﻣرﻛ‬ ‫اﻟﻣﺧطط‬ ‫اﻻﻗﺗﺻﺎد‬. ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﯾدﻣﺎن‬‫ر‬‫ﻓ‬ ‫ﻋﻣل‬‫ﺳﯾﺎﺳﯾﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻠﺳﻔﺔ‬ ‫ﺻﯾﺎﻏﺔ‬ ‫إﻋﺎدة‬‫ا‬‫و‬‫ﺗدﻋ‬‫إﻟﻰ‬‫اﻟﺗﻘﻠﯾل‬‫اﻟ‬‫و‬‫ﻣن‬ ‫ﺣد‬ ‫اﻟﺣﻛوﻣﺔ‬ ‫دور‬‫اﻟﺧﺎص‬ ‫اﻟﻘطﺎع‬ ‫ﻟﺻﺎﻟﺢ‬.‫و‬‫ﺻﻔﺗﻪ‬‫ﻣﺟﻠﺔ‬‫اﻹﯾﻛوﻧوﻣﯾﺳت‬‫ﺑﺄﻧﻪ‬ "‫اﻟﺛﺎﻧﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﻧﺻف‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ا‬‫ر‬‫ﺗﺄﺛﯾ‬ ‫اﻷﻛﺛر‬ ‫اﻻﻗﺗﺻﺎدي‬‫ﯾن‬‫ر‬‫اﻟﻌﺷ‬ ‫اﻟﻘرن‬ ‫ﻣن‬".‫اﻷﺻل‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻛﺎن‬‫ﯾدﻣﺎن‬‫ر‬‫ﻓ‬‫ﻟﻠ‬ ‫ﯾﺎ‬‫ز‬‫ﻛﯾﻧ‬ ‫ﻣؤﯾدا‬‫ﺳﯾﺎﺳﺔ‬‫اﻟﺟدﯾدة‬‫إﻟﻰ‬ ‫اﻟداﻋﯾﺔ‬‫ﯾﺎدة‬‫ز‬،‫اﺋب‬‫ر‬‫اﻟﺿ‬‫وذﻟك‬ ‫ﻋﺎم‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬١٩٥٠‫أﻧﻪ‬ ‫إﻻ‬ ،‫م‬‫أﻋﺎد‬‫ﺗﻔﺳﯾر‬‫ي‬‫اﻟﻛﯾﻧز‬ ‫اﻻﺳﺗﻬﻼك‬ ‫ظﯾﻔﺔ‬‫ﻣﻊ‬‫ﺗﺣدى‬ ‫ﻟ‬‫اﻷﺳﺎﺳﻲ‬ ‫ي‬‫اﻟﻛﯾﻧز‬ ‫ﻠﻧﻣوذج‬.‫اﻟﻛﻠﻲ‬ ‫ﻟﻼﻗﺗﺻﺎد‬ ‫ﺑدﯾﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﺳﯾﺎﺳﺔ‬ ‫ﻋزز‬ ،‫اﻟﺳﺗﯾﻧﯾﺎت‬ ‫وﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﯾﻬﺎ‬ ‫ُطﻠق‬‫أ‬"‫اﻟﺳﯾﺎﺳﺔ‬‫اﻟﻧﻘودﯾﺔ‬."‫ﻫﻧﺎك‬ ‫ﯾوﺟد‬ ‫اﻧﻪ‬ ‫وﻗﺎل‬"‫ﻟﻠﺑطﺎﻟﺔ‬ ‫طﺑﯾﻌﻲ‬ ‫ﻣﻌدل‬"، ‫و‬ ،‫ﻓﯾﻠﯾﺑس‬ ‫ﻣﻧﺣﻧﻰ‬ ‫ﻓض‬‫ر‬‫و‬‫ﻗﺎل‬‫ﺳوف‬ ‫اﻟﺣﯾن‬ ‫ذﻟك‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﯾﺔ‬‫ز‬‫اﻟﻛﯾﻧ‬ ‫اﻟﺳﯾﺎﺳﺎت‬ ‫أن‬
  7. 7. 7 ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻣﺨﺘﺎرات‬‫اﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎد‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻧﻮﺑﻞ‬ ‫ﺗﺗ‬‫ﺳﺑب‬‫ﻓﻲ‬"‫اﻟرﻛود‬) "‫اﻟﻧﻣو‬ ‫اﻧﺧﻔﺎض‬‫و‬ ‫اﻟﺗﺿﺧم‬ ‫ﺗﻔﺎع‬‫ر‬‫ا‬.(‫أﻣﺎ‬‫ﺑﺄن‬ ‫ﯾدﻣﺎن‬‫ر‬‫ﻓ‬ ‫ادﻋﺎء‬ ‫اﻟﻧﻘ‬ ‫اﻟﺳﯾﺎﺳﺔ‬‫و‬‫اﻟﻣﻣﻛن‬ ‫ﻣن‬ ‫ﻛﺎن‬ ‫دﯾﺔ‬‫ﻟﻬﺎ‬‫اﻟﻛﺑﯾر‬ ‫اﻟﻛﺳﺎد‬ ‫ﺗﻣﻧﻊ‬ ‫أن‬‫ﻛﺎن‬ ‫ﻓﻘد‬‫ﻣﺣﺎوﻟﺔ‬ ‫إن‬ ‫ﻗﺎل‬ ‫اﻟذي‬ ،‫ﻛﯾﻧز‬ ‫ﺗﺣﻠﯾل‬ ‫ﻟدﺣض‬‫اﻟﻧﻘ‬ ‫اﻟﺳﯾﺎﺳﺔ‬‫و‬‫ظروف‬ ‫ظل‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻓﻌﺎﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﻏﯾر‬ ‫دﯾﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺗﺷﺎؤم‬‫اﻟﺣﻛوﻣﺔ‬ ‫ﻗﺑل‬ ‫ﻣن‬ ‫ﻛﺑﯾر‬ ‫إﻧﻔﺎق‬ ‫أن‬‫و‬ ،‫ﻫو‬‫اﻟﺑطﺎﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻣﻛﺎﻓﺣﺔ‬ ‫ﯾﺔ‬‫ر‬‫ﺿرو‬. ‫ﻣﻌﺎرﺿ‬ ‫ﻣن‬ ‫ﻏم‬‫اﻟر‬ ‫وﻋﻠﻰ‬‫ﺗﻪ‬‫ﻟ‬‫اﻻﺣﺗﯾﺎطﻲ‬ ‫ﻣﺟﻠس‬ ‫وﺟود‬‫اﻟﻧﻘدي‬،‫اﻻﺗﺣﺎدي‬‫ﻓﺈﻧﻪ‬‫ﻗﺎل‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﻔﻌل‬ ‫ﻣوﺟود‬ ‫أﻧﻪ‬ ‫طﺎﻟﻣﺎ‬‫ﻓﺈن‬‫اﻟﺳﯾﺎﺳﺔ‬ ‫ﻫو‬ ‫اﻟﻧﻘدي‬ ‫اﻟﻌرض‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﻣطرد‬ ‫اﻟﺗوﺳﻊ‬ ‫اﻟ‬ ‫اﻟﺣﻛﯾﻣﺔ‬‫وﺣﯾدة‬‫ﺑﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﯾﺄﺧذ‬ ‫أن‬ ‫ﻋﻠﯾﻪ‬ ‫اﻟﺗﻲ‬‫اﻟﺗﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﺟﻬود‬ ‫ﻣن‬ ‫وﺣذر‬ ،‫ﯾ‬‫ﺑذﻟﻬﺎ‬‫أى‬‫ﺑﻧك‬ ‫ذﻟك‬ ‫ﺑﺧﻼف‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻘﯾﺎم‬ ‫ي‬‫ﻣرﻛز‬.‫ﯾدﻣﺎن‬‫ر‬‫ﻓ‬ ‫ﺗﺄﺛر‬‫اﻟﻣﻘرب‬ ‫ﺻدﯾﻘﻪ‬ ‫ﻗﺑل‬ ‫ﻣن‬‫ﺟورج‬ ‫ﺳﺗﯾ‬‫ﺟ‬‫ﻠر‬،‫ﻟﻪ‬ ‫إﻧﺟﺎز‬ ‫أﻋظم‬ ‫ﻛﺎن‬ ‫ﯾﻛﻲ‬‫ر‬‫اﻷﻣ‬ ‫اﻟﺗﺟﻧﯾد‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﻘﺿﺎء‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻩ‬‫ر‬‫دو‬ ‫أن‬ ‫وﻗﺎل‬ ‫ﻛﻣﺎ‬‫دﻋﻣﻪ‬‫ﻓﻲ‬‫ﺗﺄﺳﯾس‬‫اﻟﺗﻌﻠﯾﻣﻲ‬ ‫ﻟﻼﺧﺗﯾﺎر‬ ‫ﯾدﻣﺎن‬‫ر‬‫ﻓ‬ ‫ﻣؤﺳﺳﺔ‬.‫اﻋﺗﺑر‬‫ﯾد‬‫ر‬‫ﻓ‬‫ﻣﺎن‬‫أن‬ ‫ﻫﻰ‬ ‫ﺳﯾﺎﺳﺗﻪ‬‫ﺳﯾﺎﺳﺔ‬‫اﻟﺳو‬ ‫اﯾﺎ‬‫ز‬‫ﻣ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺷددت‬ ،‫ﻛﻼﺳﯾﻛﯾﺔ‬ ‫ﯾﺔ‬‫ر‬‫وﺗﺣر‬ ‫اﻟﯾﺔ‬‫ر‬‫ﻟﯾﺑ‬‫ق‬ ‫اﻟﺣﻛوﻣﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﺗدﺧل‬ ‫وﻣﺳﺎوئ‬.‫و‬‫ﻛﺗﺎﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬‫ﯾﺔ‬‫ر‬‫اﻟﺣ‬‫و‬ ‫أﺳﻣﺎﻟﯾﺔ‬‫ر‬‫اﻟ‬‫ﻋﺎم‬١٩٦٢‫دﻋﺎ‬ ، ‫ﯾدﻣﺎن‬‫ر‬‫ﻓ‬‫إﻟﻰ‬‫ﻟﻐﺎء‬ٕ‫ا‬‫و‬ ،‫ﯾﺔ‬‫ر‬‫ﺑﺣ‬ ‫ة‬‫ر‬‫اﻟﻣﺗﻐﯾ‬ ‫اﻟﺻرف‬ ‫أﺳﻌﺎر‬‫و‬ ،‫ع‬‫اﻟﻣﺗطو‬ ‫اﻟﺟﯾش‬ ‫ﺳﯾﺎﺳﺎت‬
  8. 8. ‫أ‬.‫د‬/‫ﻣﺼﻄﻔﻰ‬ ‫ﻣﺪﺣﺖ‬ ‫ﻣﺤﻤﺪ‬ 8 ‫اﻟﺳﻠﺑﯾﺔ‬ ‫اﻟدﺧل‬ ‫ﯾﺑﺔ‬‫ر‬‫وﺿ‬ ،‫ﻟﻸطﺑﺎء‬ ‫اﻟﺗرﺧﯾص‬.‫ﺣظﯾ‬ ‫وﻗد‬‫ت‬‫ا‬‫ﯾدﻣﺎن‬‫ر‬‫ﻓ‬ ‫ات‬‫ر‬‫ﺑﺗﻛﺎ‬ ‫اﻟﺳﯾﺎﺳ‬ ‫وﺻﻔﺎﺗﻪ‬ ‫وﻟﻛن‬ ،‫اﻻﻗﺗﺻﺎدﯾﯾن‬ ‫ﻗﺑل‬ ‫ﻣن‬ ‫اﺳﻊ‬‫و‬ ‫ﺑﻘﺑول‬ ‫اﻟﻣﻧﻬﺟﯾﺔ‬‫ﻛﺎﻧت‬ ‫ﯾﺔ‬ ‫ﻛﺑﯾر‬ ‫ﺣد‬ ‫إﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺟدل‬ ‫ة‬‫ر‬‫ﻣﺛﯾ‬،‫ﻓﺿ‬‫ر‬‫و‬‫ﻬﺎ‬‫اﻻﻗﺗﺻﺎدﯾﯾ‬ ‫ﻣﻌظم‬‫ﻣن‬ ‫اﻟﺳﺗﯾﻧﯾﺎت‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ن‬ ‫اﻟﻣﺎﺿﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﻘرن‬‫أﻧﻬﺎ‬ ‫إﻻ‬ ،‫اﺳﻊ‬‫و‬ ‫ﺑﻘﺑول‬ ‫ﺣظﯾت‬‫ﯾن‬‫ر‬‫اﻟﻌﺷ‬‫و‬ ‫اﻟﺣﺎدي‬ ‫اﻟﻘرن‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬. ‫ﻋﺎش‬ ‫وﻫﻛذا‬‫ﯾدﻣﺎن‬‫ر‬‫ﻓ‬‫اﻟﺗﻲ‬ ‫ﻩ‬‫ر‬‫أﻓﻛﺎ‬ ‫ﺑﻌض‬ ‫ﻟرؤﯾﺔ‬‫اﻋﺗﻧ‬‫ﻘﻬﺎ‬‫ﺧﻼل‬ ‫وﺧﺎﺻﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺛﻣﺎﻧﯾﻧﯾﺎت‬.‫و‬‫ﻣﻧﻬﺎ‬‫اﺋﻪ‬‫ر‬‫آ‬‫ﻓﻲ‬‫اﻟﻧﻘ‬ ‫اﻟﺳﯾﺎﺳﺔ‬‫و‬‫ﻟﻐﺎء‬ٕ‫ا‬‫و‬ ‫اﻟﺧﺻﺧﺻﺔ‬‫و‬ ‫اﺋب‬‫ر‬‫اﻟﺿ‬‫و‬ ‫دﯾﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺣﻛوﻣﺎت‬ ‫ﺳﯾﺎﺳﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫اﺑط‬‫و‬‫اﻟﺿ‬‫ة‬‫ر‬‫ﻣﻧﺗﺷ‬‫وﺧﺎﺻﺔ‬ ،‫اﻟﻌﺎﻟم‬ ‫أﻧﺣﺎء‬ ‫ﺟﻣﯾﻊ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬‫أﺛﻧﺎء‬ ‫ات‬‫ر‬‫إدا‬‫ﻣﺎر‬‫ﺟ‬‫ﺗﺎﺗﺷر‬ ‫رﯾت‬،‫ﯾطﺎﻧﯾﺎ‬‫ر‬‫ﺑ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬‫رﯾ‬ ‫وروﻧﺎﻟد‬‫ﺟ‬‫ﺎن‬،‫اﻟﻣﺗﺣدة‬ ‫ﻻﯾﺎت‬‫اﻟو‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻣوﻟروﻧﻲ‬ ‫وﺑرﯾﺎن‬،‫ﻛﻧدا‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬‫دو‬ ‫وروﺟر‬‫ﺟ‬‫ﻼ‬‫س‬،‫ﯾﻠﻧدا‬‫ز‬‫ﻧﯾو‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬‫أودﺳون‬ ‫ودﯾﻔﯾد‬‫ﻓﻲ‬ ، ‫أﯾﺳﻠﻧدا‬‫أو‬‫ﺟ‬‫ﺑﯾﻧوﺷﯾﻪ‬ ‫وﺳﺗو‬‫ﺗﺷﯾﻠﻲ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬.
  9. 9. 9 ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻣﺨﺘﺎرات‬‫اﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎد‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻧﻮﺑﻞ‬ ‫ﻋﺎم‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬١٩٧٥‫ﺣﻛوﻣﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ي‬‫اﻟﻌﺳﻛر‬ ‫اﻻﻧﻘﻼب‬ ‫إﺳﻘﺎط‬ ‫ﻣن‬ ‫ﻋﺎﻣﯾن‬ ‫ﺑﻌد‬ ، ‫اﻟﻠ‬ ‫ﺳﻠﻔﺎدور‬‫اﻻﻗﺗﺻﺎد‬ ‫ﺷﻬد‬ ،‫ﯾﻧدي‬‫اﻟ‬‫ﻣن‬ ‫دﻋوة‬ ‫ﯾدﻣﺎن‬‫ر‬‫ﻓ‬ ‫وﻗﺑل‬ ،‫ة‬‫ر‬‫ﻛﺑﯾ‬ ‫أزﻣﺔ‬ ‫ﺷﯾﻠﻲ‬ ‫اﻻﻗﺗﺻﺎدﯾﺔ‬ ‫ﯾﺔ‬‫ر‬‫اﻟﺣ‬ ‫ﻣﺑﺎدئ‬ ‫ﻋن‬ ‫ة‬‫ر‬‫ﻣﺣﺎﺿ‬ ‫وﺗﻘدﯾم‬ ‫ﺷﯾﻠﻲ‬ ‫ة‬‫ر‬‫ﯾﺎ‬‫ز‬‫ﻟ‬ ‫ﺧﺎﺻﺔ‬ ‫ﻣؤﺳﺳﺔ‬. ‫ﺋﯾس‬‫ر‬‫اﻟ‬ ‫ﻣﻊ‬ ‫اﻟﺗﻘﻰ‬ ‫وﻫﻧﺎك‬‫ﺑﯾﻧوﺷﯾﻪ‬ ‫أوﺟﺳﺗو‬ ‫اﻟدﯾﻛﺗﺎﺗور‬‫ﻟﻣدة‬٤٥‫دﻗﯾﻘﺔ‬.‫أﻧﻪ‬ ‫وﯾﻘول‬ ‫ﺑﻪ‬ ‫إﻟﻛﺗروﻧﻲ‬ ‫ﯾد‬‫ر‬‫ﺑ‬ ‫أرﺳل‬ ‫وﻟﻛن‬ ،‫اﻟﺗﺷﯾﻠﯾﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺣﻛوﻣﺔ‬ ‫ﻛﻣﺳﺗﺷﺎر‬ ‫ﯾﺧدم‬ ‫ﻟم‬‫ﺧطﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺗﺿﺧم‬ ‫ﻻﻧﻬﺎء‬.،‫ﺧطﺗﻪ‬ ‫ﺗﻧﻔﯾذ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻣﺳﺎﻋدة‬ ‫ﻣﺳﺎﻋدﯾﻪ‬ ‫ﻣن‬ ‫ﯾق‬‫ر‬‫ﻓ‬ ‫أﻻﺳل‬ ‫أﻧﻪ‬ ‫ﻛﻣﺎ‬
  10. 10. ‫أ‬.‫د‬/‫ﻣﺼﻄﻔﻰ‬ ‫ﻣﺪﺣﺖ‬ ‫ﻣﺤﻤﺪ‬ 10 ،‫ﺷﯾﻛﺎﻏو‬ ‫ﺟﺎﻣﻌﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﺗﺷﯾﻠﯾﯾن‬ ‫اﻟطﻼب‬ ‫ﻣن‬ ‫ﻛﺑﯾر‬ ‫ﻋدد‬ ‫اﺳﺗﻘﺑل‬ ‫ﻛﻣﺎ‬‫ذﻟك‬ ‫وﺑرر‬ ‫ﺑﯾﻧوﺷﯾﻪ‬ ‫ﺣﻛم‬ ‫ﯾﻘوض‬ ‫أن‬ ‫ﺷﺄﻧﻪ‬ ‫ﻣن‬ ‫ﻫذا‬ ‫أن‬ ‫ﯾﻌﺗﻘد‬ ‫ﺑﺄﻧﻪ‬.‫وﺑﺎﻟطﺑﻊ‬‫ﯾدﻣﺎن‬‫ر‬‫ﻓ‬ ‫ﯾﻧﺗﻘد‬ ‫ﻟم‬ ‫اﻻﻏﺗﯾﺎ‬ ‫ﻻ‬‫و‬ ،‫اﻟوﻗت‬ ‫ذﻟك‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺑﯾﻧوﺷﯾﻪ‬ ‫ﯾﺔ‬‫ر‬‫دﯾﻛﺗﺎﺗو‬‫ﻣﻌروﻓﺔ‬ ‫ﻛﺎﻧت‬ ‫اﻟﺗﻲ‬ ‫ﻻت‬‫وﻣﺣل‬ ‫اﻟﻌﺎﻟم‬ ‫أﻧﺣﺎء‬ ‫ﺟﻣﯾﻊ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫إداﻧﺔ‬‫اﻟوﻗت‬ ‫ذﻟك‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬. ‫ﺑﻌد‬‫اﻟ‬ ‫اﻟﻛﺳﺎد‬‫ﻛﺑﯾر‬‫اﻧﺗﺷر‬‫إ‬‫ة‬‫ر‬‫ﻣﺳﺗﻘ‬ ‫ﻏﯾر‬ ‫اﻟﺳوق‬ ‫اﻗﺗﺻﺎدﯾﺎت‬ ‫ﺑﺄن‬ ‫ﺧﺎطﺊ‬ ‫ﻋﺗﻘﺎد‬ ‫ﺑطﺑﯾﻌﺗﻬﺎ‬،‫و‬‫أﻧﻪ‬‫ﯾﺟب‬‫ﺗﻬﺎ‬‫ر‬‫إدا‬‫ﻟﺗﺟﻧب‬ ‫اﻟﺣﻛوﻣﺔ‬ ‫ﻗﺑل‬ ‫ﻣن‬‫ﺣدوث‬‫ة‬‫ر‬‫ﻛﺑﯾ‬ ‫ﺗﻘﻠﺑﺎت‬‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫اﻻﻗﺗﺻﺎد‬‫ﻟﻠ‬ ً‫ا‬‫إﺳﺗﻧﺎد‬ ‫اﻟﻘوﻣﻲ‬‫ات‬‫ر‬‫دو‬‫اﻻﻗﺗﺻﺎدﯾﺔ‬.‫ﯾوﻣﻧﺎ‬ ‫ﺣﺗﻰ‬ ‫أي‬‫ر‬‫اﻟ‬ ‫ﻫذا‬ ‫اﺳﺗﻣر‬ ‫ﻫذا‬،‫ﯾدﻣﺎن‬‫ر‬‫ﻓ‬ ‫وﯾﻘول‬‫اﻻﺣﺗﯾﺎطﻲ‬ ‫ﻟﻣﺟﻠس‬ ‫اﻟﻧﻘدﯾﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺳﯾﺎﺳﺎت‬ ‫أن‬‫اﻟﻧﻘدي‬‫اﻻﺗﺣﺎدي‬ ‫اﻟ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻛﺳﺎد‬ ‫ﺋﯾﺳﻲ‬‫ر‬‫اﻟ‬ ‫اﻟﺳﺑب‬ ‫ﻛﺎﻧت‬‫ﻛﺑﯾر‬.‫ﻋﺎم‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬٢٠٠٢‫ﻗﺎل‬‫ﻣﺣﺎﻓظ‬ ‫ﻧﺎﻧﻛﻲ‬‫ر‬‫ﺑ‬ ‫ﺑن‬ ‫ﯾدﻣﺎن‬‫ر‬‫ﻓ‬ ‫ﻣﯾﻼد‬ ‫ﻟﻌﯾد‬ ‫ﯾﻣﺎ‬‫ر‬‫ﺗﻛ‬ ‫أﻟﻘﺎﻩ‬ ‫ﺧطﺎب‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﻲ‬‫ر‬‫اﻟﻔﯾد‬ ‫اﻻﺣﺗﯾﺎطﻲ‬‫ال‬٩٠‫أن‬ ‫أود‬ ‫ﻟﻣﯾﻠﺗون‬ ‫أﻗول‬‫ﻓﯾﻣﺎ‬‫ﺣق‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫أﻧت‬ ‫اﻟﻛﺑﯾر‬ ‫اﻟﻛﺳﺎد‬ ‫ﯾﺗﻌﻠق‬،‫ﻟﻘد‬‫ذﻟك‬ ‫ﻓﻌﻠﻧﺎ‬،‫و‬‫ﻧﺣن‬ ‫ﺟد‬‫آﺳﻔون‬.‫اﻟﻌﺎدي‬ ‫ئ‬‫ﻟﻠﻘﺎر‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﻧﺳﺑﺔ‬‫ﺑﻣﺎ‬‫ر‬‫ﯾ‬‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﻠوم‬ ‫إﻟﻘﺎء‬ ‫اﻷﺳﻬل‬ ‫ﻣن‬ ‫أﻧﻪ‬ ‫ﺟد‬ "‫أﺳﻣﺎﻟﯾﯾن‬‫ر‬‫اﻟ‬"‫اﻻﺗﺣﺎدي‬ ‫اﻻﺣﺗﯾﺎطﻲ‬ ‫ﻣﺟﻠس‬ ‫ﻣن‬ ‫ﺑدﻻ‬ً‫ﺎ‬‫ﻣﻘدﺳ‬ ‫ﻩ‬‫ر‬‫ﯾﻌﺗﺑ‬ ‫اﻟذي‬.‫وﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﯾدﻣﺎن‬‫ر‬‫ﻓ‬ ‫ﺣﺟﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﻧظر‬ ‫إﻋﺎدة‬ ‫اﻟﻣﻔﯾد‬ ‫ﻣن‬ ‫ﯾﻛون‬ ‫ﻗد‬ ،‫ﺣﺎل‬ ‫ﻛل‬‫ﻓﺳﯾﺎﺳﺎت‬ ، ‫ﻣن‬ ‫أﺳﻣﺎﻟﯾﺔ‬‫ر‬‫اﻟ‬ ‫أﻧﻘذت‬ ‫ﺑل‬ ،‫ﻓﻘط‬ ‫ﯾﻛﻲ‬‫ر‬‫اﻷﻣ‬ ‫ﻟﻼﻗﺗﺻﺎد‬ ‫اﻻﻧﺗﻌﺎش‬ ‫ﺗﺟﻠب‬ ‫ﻟم‬ ‫ﻓﻠت‬‫ز‬‫رو‬ ‫اﻛﯾﺔ‬‫ر‬‫اﻻﺷﺗ‬ ‫ﻟﺗﻘﺑل‬ ‫اﻟﺟﻣﺎﻫﯾر‬ ‫اﺳﺗﻌداد‬ ‫ﻣن‬ ‫ﺑدﻻ‬ ،‫ﻧﻔﺳﻬﺎ‬‫اﻷزﻣﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻊ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺗﻌﺎﻣل‬ ‫ﻛﺄﺳﻠوب‬ ‫ﻋﺎم‬١٩٣٠‫م‬.‫ﻛم‬ ‫ﯾدرﻛون‬ ‫ﻻ‬ ‫اﻟﻧﺎس‬ ‫ﻣﻌظم‬‫اﻟ‬‫ﺗﻔﺳﯾر‬‫ات‬‫اﻟﺗﻲ‬‫ﺷﻛﻠ‬‫ﻬﺎ‬‫ﻧﻣوذج‬ ،‫ي‬‫اﻟﻛﯾﻧز‬ ‫اﻻﻗﺗﺻﺎد‬‫ا‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬‫اﻟﻔﺎﺋدة‬‫و‬ ‫ﻟﺗوظﯾف‬‫اﻧﺗﺷر‬ ‫اﻟذي‬‫اﻟﻘرن‬ ‫ﺑﻌﯾﻧﯾﺎت‬‫ر‬‫أ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﯾن‬‫ر‬‫اﻟﻌﺷ‬،‫ﻓ‬‫اﻟ‬ ‫اﻻﻗﺗﺻﺎدﯾﯾن‬ ‫ﻣﻌظم‬‫ﻣ‬‫ﻌ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﺻر‬‫ﯾﺗﻔﻘون‬ ‫ﯾن‬‫اﻟﺳوق‬ ‫اﻗﺗﺻﺎد‬ ‫أن‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﯾﺗﻣﺛل‬"‫اﻟذاﺗﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﺗﺷﻐﯾل‬"‫أن‬ ‫ﯾﻣﻛن‬ ‫ﻻ‬ ‫أﻧﻪ‬‫و‬ ،‫ﯾ‬‫طوﯾﻠﺔ‬ ‫ة‬‫ر‬‫ﻟﻔﺗ‬ ‫رﻛود‬ ‫ﺣﺎﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺗﻌﺛر‬ ‫ﺟدا‬.،‫ذﻟك‬ ‫وﻣﻊ‬‫ﻫذا‬ ‫ﻓﺈن‬‫ﺟﺎء‬‫ﻗﺑﯾﺢ‬ ‫اﻗﻊ‬‫و‬ ‫ﻣﻊ‬ ‫ﺧﻼف‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﯾﺗﻣﺛل‬‫ﺑطﺎﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﻧﺳﺑﺔ‬ ‫ة‬‫ر‬‫ﻣﺳﺗﻣ‬‫ﻣن‬ ‫أﻛﺛر‬ ‫وﺑﻧﺳﺑﺔ‬٢٠‫اﻟﻣ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬، ‫ﺋﺔ‬‫وﺑﻠﻐت‬٢٥‫ﻋﺎم‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﻣﺋﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬١٩٣٣
  11. 11. 11 ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻣﺨﺘﺎرات‬‫اﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎد‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻧﻮﺑﻞ‬ ‫ﻧﻬﺎﯾﺔ‬ ‫وﺟود‬ ‫ﻋدم‬ ‫ﻣﻊ‬‫ﻟﻬﺎ‬.‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺗﻌﻣل‬ ‫اﻗﺗﺻﺎدﯾﺔ‬ ‫ﻗوى‬ ‫ﻫﻧﺎك‬ ‫ﺗﻛن‬ ‫ﻟم‬ ،‫ﻟﻛﯾﻧز‬ ‫وﻓﻘﺎ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ﻫذا‬ ‫ﻣن‬ ‫ج‬‫ﻟﻠﺧرو‬ ‫اﻻﻗﺗﺻﺎد‬ ‫اﻧﺗﺷﺎل‬‫ﻟﻛﺳﺎد‬‫ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﯾﺎ‬،‫ى‬‫أﺧر‬ ‫ة‬‫ر‬‫وﺑﻌﺑﺎ‬‫آﻟﯾﺔ‬ ‫ﻫﻧﺎك‬ ‫ﻟﯾﺳت‬ ‫ذاﺗﯾﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﺻﺣﯾﺢ‬)‫أو‬ ‫ﺋﯾﺔ‬‫ر‬‫ﻣ‬ ‫ﻏﯾر‬‫ﯾد‬‫ﺧﻔﯾﺔ‬(‫ة‬‫ر‬‫اﻟﺣ‬ ‫اﻟﺳوق‬ ‫اﻗﺗﺻﺎد‬ ‫ظل‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬.‫ﻣن‬ ‫ﺑدﻻ‬ ‫ﻓﺈن‬ ،‫ذﻟك‬‫اﺳﻌﺔ‬‫و‬ ‫ﺗﻘﻠﺑﺎت‬ ‫إﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﯾؤدي‬ ‫اﻟﺗوﻗﻌﺎت‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﻣﻧطﻘﯾﺔ‬ ‫ﻏﯾر‬ ‫ات‬‫ر‬‫اﻟﺗﻐﯾﯾ‬ ‫ة‬‫ر‬‫وﻣدﻣ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻧﺗظﺎم‬‫ﻟ‬‫اﻟ‬ ‫ﻼﻗﺗﺻﺎد‬‫ﻘوﻣﻲ‬.‫ى‬‫ﻧر‬ ‫ﻟذﻟك‬‫أن‬‫اﻟ‬‫دور‬‫ات‬‫اﻻﻗﺗﺻﺎدﯾﺔ‬‫ﻧﺗﯾﺟﺔ‬ ‫طﺑﯾﻌﯾﺔ‬‫و‬‫ﻣﺗوﻗﻌ‬‫وﻫﻰ‬ ،‫ﺔ‬‫ﻋﻣﻠﯾﺔ‬‫اﻟﺳوق‬ ‫ﻻﻗﺗﺻﺎد‬ ‫ﻣﻘﯾدة‬ ‫ﻏﯾر‬.‫إذن‬‫ﻫو‬ ‫ﻣﺎ‬ ‫اﻟ‬‫اﻟرﻛود‬ ‫ﻟﺗﺟﻧب‬ ‫ﻣطﻠوب‬‫ﻓ‬‫ﺎﻟﻧﻔﻘﺎت‬‫اﻟﻛﻠﯾﺔ‬‫ﺗﻛﻔﻲ‬ ‫ﻻ‬‫اﻟﻛﺎﻣﻠﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻌﻣﺎﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﺗﺣﻘﯾق‬،‫ﻟﻛن‬ ‫أن‬ ‫ﯾﻣﻛن‬ ‫اﻟﺣﻛوﻣﺔ‬‫ﺗ‬‫ﯾﺑﯾﺔ‬‫ر‬‫ﺿ‬ ‫ﺳﯾﺎﺳﺔ‬ ‫ﺧﻼل‬ ‫ﻣن‬ ‫ذﻟك‬ ‫ﻔﻌل‬)‫اﻹﻧﻔﺎق‬‫و‬ ‫اﺋب‬‫ر‬‫اﻟﺿ‬ ‫اﻟﺣﻛوﻣﻲ‬(‫ﺳﯾﺎﺳﺔ‬ ‫أو‬‫ﻧﻘ‬‫و‬‫دﯾﺔ‬)‫اﻟﻧﻘود‬ ‫ﻋرض‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ة‬‫ر‬‫اﻟﺳﯾط‬.(‫ﻟﻛﯾﻧز‬ ً‫ﺎ‬‫ووﻓﻘ‬‫ﻓ‬‫ﺄن‬ ‫اﻹﻧﻔﺎق‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﻌﺟز‬‫ﯾ‬‫ﺳﻣﺢ‬‫ﺑ‬‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺗﻌوﯾﺿﯾﺔ‬ ‫ﯾﺎدة‬‫ز‬ ‫دون‬ ‫اﻟﺣﻛوﻣﻲ‬ ‫اﻹﻧﻔﺎق‬ ‫ﯾﺎدة‬‫ز‬ ‫اﻟﺷرﻛﺎت‬‫و‬ ‫اد‬‫ر‬‫اﻷﻓ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﯾﺑﻲ‬‫ر‬‫اﻟﺿ‬ ‫اﻟﻌبء‬.‫اﻹﻧﻔﺎق‬ ‫ﯾﺎدة‬‫ز‬‫اﻟ‬‫ﺣﻛوﻣ‬‫ﻲ‬‫ﯾﻣﻛن‬‫ﺗﻘوم‬ ‫أن‬ ‫ﺑ‬‫ﻧﻬﺎﯾﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﻣﺗﺷﺎﺋﻣﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺗوﻗﻌﺎت‬ ‫وﻋﻛس‬ ‫اﻟدﺧل‬‫و‬ ‫اﻟﻌﻣل‬ ‫ﻓرص‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺎﻟﺣﻔﺎظ‬ ‫اﻟﻣطﺎف‬.‫اﻟطﻠب‬ ‫ة‬‫ر‬‫ﻓﺈدا‬‫ﻫﻰ‬‫وﺻﻔﻪ‬ً‫ﺎ‬‫وﺿوﺣ‬ ‫أﻛﺛر‬‫ﻟﻠﺣﻛوﻣﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﻧﺳﺑﺔ‬.‫ذﻟك‬ ‫وﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫أﺳﻣﺎﻟﯾﺔ‬‫ر‬‫اﻟ‬ ‫ﻧﻘذا‬ُ‫ﻣ‬ ‫ﻫﻣﺎ‬‫اﻋﺗﺑﺎر‬ ‫ﻣﻛن‬ُ‫ﯾ‬ ‫ﻓﻠت‬‫ز‬‫ورو‬ ‫ﻛﯾﻧز‬ ‫ﻣن‬ ‫ﻛل‬ ‫ﻓﺈن‬‫أزﻣﺔ‬ ‫أﻛﺑر‬ ‫ﻣن‬ ‫اﺟﻬﺗﻬﺎ‬‫و‬. ‫ﻓﺮﯾﺪﻣﺎن‬ ‫ﻣﯿﻠﺘﻮن‬ ‫أﻋﻤﺎل‬ ‫أھﻢ‬:  "Utility Analysis of Choices Involving Risk" with L. Savage, 1948, JPE.  "A Monetary and Fiscal Framework for Economic Stability", 1948, AER.  "Some Comments on the Significance of Labor Unions for Economic Policy", 1951, in D. McC. Wright, editor, The Impact of the Union. New York: Harcourt Brace.
  12. 12. ‫أ‬.‫د‬/‫ﻣﺼﻄﻔﻰ‬ ‫ﻣﺪﺣﺖ‬ ‫ﻣﺤﻤﺪ‬ 12  "Commodity-Reserve Currency", 1951, JPE  "The Expected-Utility Hypothesis and the Measurability of Utility", with L. Savage, 1952, JPE  "The Methodology of Positive Economics" in Friedman, 1953 (excerpts)  Essays in Positive Economics, 1953.  "The Quantity Theory of Money: A restatement", 1956, in Friedman, editor, Studies in Quantity Theory.  A Theory of the Consumption Function, 1957.  "The Supply of Money and Changes in Prices and Output", 1958, in Relationship of Prices to Economic Stability and Growth.  A Program for Monetary Stability, 1959.  "The Demand for Money: Some theoretical and empirical results", 1959, JPE  "The Lag in Effect of Monetary Policy", 1961, JPE  Capitalism and Freedom, 1962.  "Should There be an Independent Monetary Authority?", in L.B. Yeager, editor, In Search of a Monetary Constitution  Inflation: Causes and consequences, 1963.  A Monetary History of the United States, 1867-1960, with Anna J. Schwartz, 1963.  "Money and Business Cycles" with A.J. Schwartz, 1963, REStat.  "The Relative Stability of Monetary Velocity and the Investment Multiplier in the United States, 1898- 1958", with D. Meiselman, 1963, in Stabilization Policies.  "A Reply to Donald Hester", with D. Meiselman, 1964, REStat  "Interest Rates and the Demand for Money", 1966, JLawE  "What Price Guideposts?", in G.P. Schultz, R.Z. Aliber, editors, Guidelines  "The Role of Monetary Policy: Presidential Address to AEA", 1968, AER  "Money: the Quantity Theory", 1968, IESS
  13. 13. 13 ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻣﺨﺘﺎرات‬‫اﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎد‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻧﻮﺑﻞ‬  "The Definition of Money" with Anna J. Schwartz, 1969.  The Optimum Quantity of Money and Other Essays, 1969  "Comment on Tobin", 1970, QJE  Monetary Statistics of the United States: Sources, methods. with Anna J. Schwartz, 1970.  "A Theoretical Framework for Monetary Analysis", 1970, JPE.  The Counter-Revolution in Monetary Theory. 1970.  "A Monetary Theory of National Income", 1971, JPE  "Comments on the Critics", 1974, in Gordon, Milton Friedman and his Critics.  Monetary Correction: A proposal for escalation clauses to reduce the cost of ending inflation, 1974  "Comments on Tobin and Buiter", 1976, in J. Stein, editor, Monetarism.  "Inflation and Unemployment: Nobel lecture", 1977, JPE.  Free to Choose: A personal statement, with Rose Friedman, 1980  "Interrelations between the United States and the United Kingdom, 1873-1975.", with A.J. Schwartz,, 1982, J Int Money and Finance  Monetary Trends in the United States and the United Kingdom: Their relations to income, prices and interest rates, 1876-1975. with Anna J. Schwartz, 1982  "Monetary Policy: Tactics versus strategy", 1984, in Moore, editor, To Promote Prosperity.  "The Case for Overhauling the Federal Reserve", 1985, Challenge  "Has Government Any Role in Money?" with Anna J. Schwartz, 1986, JME  "Quantity Theory of Money", in J. Eatwell, M. Milgate, P. Newman, editors, The New Palgrave  "The Case for Free Trade" with Rose Friedman, 1997, Hoover Digest
  14. 14. ‫أ‬.‫د‬/‫ﻣﺼﻄﻔﻰ‬ ‫ﻣﺪﺣﺖ‬ ‫ﻣﺤﻤﺪ‬ 14  "George J. Stigler, 1911-1991: Biographical Memoir", 1998, at NAS (pdf version)  Two Lucky People, with Rose Friedman.

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