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دكتور فارس الخياط --- تركيب الجهاز المناعي في الطيور للأخوة المربيين والسادة المهندسين الزراعيين



Avian biology ---- Dr Fares El-Khayat

Avian biology ---- Dr Fares El-Khayat

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Avian biology ---- Dr Fares El-Khayat

  1. 1. Revision of Poultry Biology Birds & Poultry PoultryBirds Domesticated birds including chickens, turkeys, ducks, geese, quail, pigeon & ostrich. Both domesticated & undomesticated species of class Aves. About 10000 avian species in 27 orders. N.B Some author classifies RABBITS with poultry although they are mammals. Aims of poultry production: 1-Meat production → commercial broilers" Hubbard, Ross, Coob 500 & 700, Avian 48 and Arboplus" & cross-bred broilers "Saso breed". In addition Turkeys, ducks, ostriches and quails are reared for meat production. ‫سللتي‬‫الكب‬‫والروص‬‫من‬‫السللت‬‫عالية‬‫الحتياجات‬‫من‬‫ناحية‬‫الطاقة‬‫الممثلة‬‫والبروتين‬‫والمثيونين‬‫والليسين‬‫في‬ ‫حين‬‫أن‬‫سللت‬‫الفيان‬48‫والربور‬‫أيكرز‬‫والربوبلص‬‫من‬‫السللت‬‫متوسطة‬‫الحتياجات‬‫أما‬‫سللة‬‫الهبرد‬‫فهي‬‫من‬ ‫السللت‬‫كلسيكية‬‫الحتياجات‬‫في‬‫حين‬‫أن‬‫سللة‬‫الساسو‬‫من‬‫السللت‬‫منخفضة‬.‫الحتياجات‬ 2-Table egg production → commercial layers as Hi Lyne, Hisex, Bovans and Lohmann. ‫تتميز‬‫سللة‬‫اللوهمان‬‫بأنتاجيتها‬‫الجيدة‬‫ولكن‬‫يعيبها‬‫أنها‬‫تستهلك‬‫علفا‬‫أكثر‬‫كما‬‫أنها‬‫سللة‬‫عصبية‬‫النزعة‬‫وذلك‬‫عكس‬ ‫كل‬‫السللت‬.‫الخري‬ 3-Fertile egg production → Breeders "Breeder of Hubbard, Ross, Coob 500 & 700, Avian 48 and Arboplus" & Saso breed". 4-Feather production → ostrich. 5-Fun → Pheasants, Sparrows, Parrot and pigeon. The differences between commercial layers & breeders. BreedersCommercial layersCriteria Fertile eggTable eggAim EssentialsNot presentMale Deep litter onlyDeep litter or cagesSystem of housing Not less than 3 kgNot more than 2 kgWeight of hen Not less than 80 gmNot more than 60 gmWeight of egg Not less than 150 gmNot more than 120 gmAmount of feed/hen/day LowerHigherFeed intensity Not more than 180 eggNot less than 300 eggEgg productivity/year About 70 weeks.About 60 weeks.Life Span Classic with IBD, Reo, CIA.Classic without IBD, Reo, CIA.Vaccination schedule
  2. 2. Mention the poultry terms: Broilers: reared till 6-7 wk old either six (2 kg), Tender and easy to cook, 800 million in Egypt. Roaster: Older & slightly larger than a broiler. Capon: Castrated ♂ chicken at 5-7 month old weighs about 4 kgs. Chick: Young chickens. Poult: young turkeys. Pullet: semi-mature chickens. Duckling: young ducks. Gosling: Young geese. Squab: Young pigeon. Tom (Gobbler): matures ♂ turkey. Hen: mature ♀ chicken, turkey, duck & geese. Drake: mature male duck. Gander: adult male goose. Gaggle: group of geese. Avian unique Characteristics I-Anatomical characteristics: 1-Feathers + no sweat glands + sparse distribution of sebaceous glands + uropygial or preen or oil bag or gland that is well developed in aquatic birds, in addition to the scales onto legs and feets. 2-Modified forelimbs into wings for flying in most birds and modified hind limbs for walking, swimming or perching. 3-Birds have no teeth and the lips are replaced by horny beaks of different shapes according to species. It is modified for prehension of feeds. 4-Presence of fused skeleton in certain area of vertebral column e.g. synsacrum "fusion of the 14th and 15th vertebrae of the caudal region of the vertebral column". 5-The presence of air sacs which will be discussed later. They have very important functions in avian respiration. 6-Avian species have no diaphragm and the thoracic, abdominal & pelvic cavities are fused in one celomic cavity. The fusion of body cavities in birds facilitates the transmission of infections in-between the visceral organs. 7-Avian species have no urinary bladder and urethra and the two ureters originate from the two kidneys and open directly in the cloaca. 8-Avian species are characterized by the presence of the cloaca "universal sac having 4 openings; the coprodium (opening of intestine), the urodium (opening of ureters), the proctodeum (opening of vas deference in male and the left oviduct in female) and the opening of bursa of Fabricius. 9-Avian females have 2 ovaries and 2 oviducts but the right ones are atrophied and un- functional while the left ones are the only active ovary and oviduct. 10-Avian species have no lymph nodes except for ducks and geese in which there are two primitive lymph nodes, each of which is located along the side of the femur.
  3. 3. II-Physiological characteristics: 1-Avian digestive system is of low physical limitation, so, the avian feeds should be nutritionally concentrated, having all nutrients and easily digested and absorbed. 2-The activity, number of heart beats, respiratory rhythm, metabolic and growth rates of avian species are higher than those of the mammals, so the nutritive requirements of the former are higher than in the latter. 3-Avian R.B.Cs are nucleated, avian neutrophilis are modified to hetrophils and avian blood platelets are true cells "thrombocytes". Avian antibodies are only three types "IgG, IgM and IgA". ‫نظرا‬‫لن‬‫كريات‬‫الدم‬‫الحمراء‬Avian R.B.Cs‫والخليا‬‫التجلطية‬Thrombocytes‫تحتوي‬‫علي‬‫نواة‬‫فمن‬‫المحتمل‬‫أن‬ ‫تحتوي‬‫علي‬MHC-I‫وبالتالي‬‫يكون‬‫لها‬‫دور‬‫هام‬‫في‬.‫المناعة‬ 4-The avian species are warm-blooded animals i.e. constant body temperature is whatever the ambient temperature. 5-The avian species are oviparous i.e. reproduction via internal fertilization and external brooding of eggs. 6-Avian species are uricotelic i.e. their end product of protein metabolism is uric acid. N.B. Animal species are classified according to their end product of protein metabolism into: Ureatelic "all mammals except for ruminant and Dalmatian dog"; Allantolotelic "ruminant and Dalmatian dog"; Amoniatelic "Fish" and Uricotelic "Poultry“. Avian species are uricotelic i.e. their end product of protein metabolism is uric acid. External Avian Anatomy Skin: it is thinner and more delicate than that of mammals. The color of the skin varies according to species, breed, age and diet. Feathers: cover almost the entire surface of bird. Grow from feather follicles, which are organized into feather tracts. Feather tracts are named according to the structure they are associated with e.g. the femoral feather tract is on the thigh, which contains the femur. It insulates and protects skin from getting wet or injured. It also helps birds to fly or glide. Newly hatched chicks have down ‫.الزغب‬ Feathers begin growing in a few days and are grown by 4-6 weeks. Second feather growth at 2-3 months. Final feather growth occurs at sexual maturity. Feather patterns and colors vary with breeds and varieties. Male feathers have pointed tips; female feathers have rounded ends. Molting: Hens molt (lose feathers) once a year when they stop laying eggs. Most birds molt and replace their feathers by growing new ones. Comb & wattles are external structures on the head of birds and are largely ornamental ‫.للزينة‬ The size and color of them are correlated with the gonad development and secretion of the sex hormones. The red color of the comb and wattles is attributed to the high vascularity of the
  4. 4. dermis covering them. They have different characteristic features in male vs. female birds, and among different poultry species. Snoods and whiskers (beards) are the external structures in turkeys' equivalent to the comb and wattles. Uropygial, preen, oil gland or oil bag: it is the only significant gland of the skin that is located dorsally near the tip of tail. It is present in all birds but well-developed in water fowls. In the chicken, two lobes drain through a median nipple-like papilla. Its function is somewhat uncertain but preening birds take oil from it and apply it to their feathers. It also has a function in vitamin D and calcium metabolism. Avian Skelton: the avian skeleton has the following characteristics: -Essentially modified for flight: Supports flight muscles (pectoral girdle, keel/sternum) to withstand the stress of flight. -The forelimbs are modified into two wings. -There are fewer and fused digits. -It has a reduced mass. - It has Fused bones adding rigidity e.g. synsacrum which resulted from the fusion of the 14th and 15th vertebrae of the caudal region of the vertebral column.
  5. 5. - It has pneumatic bones ‫العظام‬‫الهوائية‬ : major bones hollow "Not completely hollow" with struts, air spaces connected to respiratory system. Major bones of body are pneumatic. Lack teeth- lightweight beak. Beak: it is composed of hard-keratinized epidermal tissue. This rostral structure forms part of the upper and lower jaws. The beak functions much like the lips and teeth of mammals. Debeaking is the removal of approximately one-third of the upper and lower level. In some cases, only the upper beak is removed. Debeaking is used in poultry industry to prevent cannibalism. Medullary bone ‫العظام‬‫النخاعية‬ forms in hens during egg production, providing calcium. The sternum, “keel or breast bone” is a single large bone on the ventral surface of the body. Ribs are divided into two types. The vertebral ribs are those that originate from the vertebral column. The sternal ribs are those that originate from the sternum (keel, breast bone).
  6. 6. Birds have no teeth: However, they can digest food 6 times faster than mammals. How does it happen? There are two essential adaptations, the crop and the two stomach system. The Crop is a storage unit for easy gluttony and escape. The two stomachs are the upper (Proventriculus) and the lower (Gizzard). The upper adds the enzymes and the lower crunches the feed. Wings, Feet and Legs: Chickens’ legs have scales; most chickens have 3-4 toes with claws used in scratching. Domestic chickens have wings but cannot fly well or at all. Lighter birds can fly short distances and clear fairly high fences.
  7. 7. Chicken Muscles Dark meat: Red fibers with more myoglobin (oxygen carrying protein) for greater aerobic metabolism e.g. Leg muscles. White meat: White fibers containing very little myoglobin e.g. breast meat. The avian digestive system: Mouth & pharynx: tongue, beak, choanal cleft, no soft palate, salivary glands and taste buds. Mouth secretions: Mucus (lubricant), amylase in some species and adhesive saliva. Esophagus: long, contains mucus glands. Crop (ingluvies)...Variable in size and shape ‫مطلوب‬‫هنا‬‫تحديد‬‫أثر‬‫الشكل‬‫علي‬‫حدوث‬‫بعض‬‫المراض‬‫من‬‫ناحية‬‫ومن‬‫ناحية‬‫أخري‬‫أثره‬‫علي‬‫نظم‬‫التغذية‬ Produce crop “milk” in pigeon and doves under the influence of prolactin hormone. Esophagus and crop secretions: Mucus and if amylase is secreted in saliva there may be CHO digestion in crop. Proventriculus: fusiform, variable relative size. It has chief cells and mucus cells. The secretions are HCl and pepsin "Chief cells" and mucus "Mucus cells". Gizzard (ventriculus) -Two pairs of muscles "thin and thick". It has koilin "protein lining whose color is related to bile pigments". It is responsible for the mechanical digestion. It has special digestive functions (grit - small bits of stone retained in the gizzard).
  8. 8. -Small intestine: duodenal loop, jejunum and ileum. Shorter than mammals. Chemical or enzymatic digestion and absorption. The intestinal Secretions are amylase, saccharidases, peptidases, lipase, maltase, isomaltase Enterokinase and Sucrase. -Liver: relatively large, left and right ducts and gall bladder may or may not be present. The liver secretions - bile "Emulsifies fats, contain lipase and activates pancreatic lipase". -Pancreas: lies in duodenal loop, has three ducts. The secretions are bicarbonate, chymotrypsin, trypsin and amylase. -Ceca: single, paired or absent, short, junction of ileum and colon, ilieocecal valves, fermentation and fiber digestion. Colon or rectum: short, ilieocecal junction to cloaca and water balance Cloaca: universal sac having 4 openings; the coprodium (opening of intestine), the urodium (opening of ureters), the proctodeum (opening of vas deference in male and the left oviduct in female) and the opening of bursa of Fabricius. It is responsible for excretion, mineral and water balance. ‫الفروق‬‫بين‬‫الجهاز‬‫الهضمي‬‫في‬‫الطيور‬:‫والثدييات‬ .‫القانصة‬ ‫فى‬ ‫الموجودة‬ ‫الحصى‬ ‫بمساعدة‬ ‫القانصة‬ ‫في‬ ‫الغذاء‬ ‫طحن‬ ‫معظم‬ ‫يتم‬ ‫لذا‬ ‫بالفم‬ ‫أسنان‬ ‫وجود‬ ‫-عدم‬ ‫محدودة‬ ‫سعة‬ ‫ذات‬ ‫طول‬ ‫قصيرة‬ ‫حجما‬ ‫صغيرة‬ ‫للدواجن‬ ‫الهضمية‬ ‫-القناة‬Low physical limitation of digestive system. ) ‫الهضمية‬ ‫بالقناة‬ ‫هضمه‬ ‫أثناء‬ ‫الغذاء‬ ‫مرور‬ ‫معدل‬ ‫-زيادة‬3–8‫الهاضمة‬ ‫الفرازات‬ ‫وتأثير‬ ‫لفعل‬ ‫الغذاء‬ ‫تعرض‬ ‫وقت‬ ‫فان‬ ‫وبالتالي‬ (‫ساعات‬ .‫الغذائية‬ ‫القيمة‬ ‫عالي‬ ‫الحجم‬ ‫صغير‬ ‫الهضم‬ ‫سهل‬ ‫مركز‬ ‫علف‬ ‫إلى‬ ‫بأنواعها‬ ‫الدواجن‬ ‫تحتاج‬ ‫لذا‬ ‫قليل‬ ‫الطاقة‬ ‫من‬ ‫خصوصا‬ ‫المختلفة‬ ‫الغذائية‬ ‫العناصر‬ ‫من‬ ‫فاحتياجاتها‬ ‫لذا‬ ‫الثديية‬ ‫الحيوانات‬ ‫من‬ ‫وحركة‬ ‫وحيوية‬ ‫نشاطا‬ ‫أكثر‬ ‫الطيور‬ ‫أن‬ ‫ويلحظ‬ ‫الخارجية‬ ‫البيئة‬ ‫بمؤثرات‬ ‫وحساسية‬ ‫تأثرا‬ ‫أكثر‬ ‫الطيور‬ ‫أن‬ ‫كما‬ ‫منها‬ ‫نسبيا‬ ‫أعلى‬ ‫المعدنية‬ ‫والعناصر‬ ‫والفيتامينات‬ ‫والبروتينات‬ ‫الممثلة‬ ‫العلفية‬ .‫عامة‬ ‫بصفة‬ ‫والقتصادية‬ ‫النتاجية‬ ‫الحياة‬ ‫وقصر‬ ‫الحياة‬ ‫دورة‬ ‫بسرعة‬ ‫وتتميز‬ ‫أنواع‬:‫الهضم‬ 1-‫الهضم‬‫الميكانيكي‬Mechanical digestion‫ويشمل‬‫المضغ‬Mastication‫في‬‫الفم‬‫بواسطة‬‫السنان‬‫في‬‫الثدييات‬ ‫ول‬‫يحدث‬‫في‬‫الطيور‬‫لعدم‬‫وجود‬‫أسنان‬‫بها‬‫ولكن‬‫يحدث‬‫جزئيا‬‫نتيجة‬‫للفعل‬‫الجزئي‬‫للحوصلة‬‫وكذلك‬‫للطحن‬‫في‬ ‫القانصة‬‫في‬...‫أذن‬ ‫الدواجن‬‫هو‬‫ضعيف‬‫التأثير‬‫في‬.‫الطيور‬
  9. 9. 2-‫الهضم‬‫الميكروبي‬digestion Microbial‫ويشمل‬‫الهضم‬‫في‬‫الكرش‬‫في‬‫المجترات‬‫والعورين‬‫في‬‫الفصيلة‬ ‫الخيلية‬‫والرانب‬‫والطيور‬‫وتقوم‬‫به‬‫الكائنات‬‫الدقيقة‬‫النافعة‬‫الموجودة‬‫في‬...‫أذن‬ ‫الكائن‬‫هو‬‫ضعيف‬‫التأثير‬‫في‬.‫الطيور‬ 3-‫الهضم‬‫الكيماوي‬‫أو‬‫النزيمي‬Chemical or enzymatic digestion‫ويشمل‬‫عمليات‬‫الهضم‬‫فى‬‫المعدة‬‫العاملة‬ ‫أو‬‫الحقيقية‬‫في‬‫جميع‬‫الكائنات‬‫ويتم‬‫اعتمادا‬‫على‬‫إفراز‬‫النزيمات‬‫النوعية‬.‫الهاضمة‬ ‫النوعين‬‫الولين‬‫من‬‫الهضم‬‫محدودان‬‫في‬‫الدواجن‬‫حيث‬‫أن‬‫أنواع‬‫الدواجن‬‫المختلفة‬‫ليس‬‫بها‬‫أسنان‬‫لذا‬‫فالهضم‬ ‫الميكانيكي‬‫محدود‬‫ول‬‫يتواجد‬‫إل‬‫في‬‫حركية‬...‫أما‬ ‫القانصة‬‫عن‬‫الهضم‬‫الميكروبي‬‫فهو‬‫أيضا‬‫محدود‬‫ول‬‫يتواجد‬‫إل‬‫في‬ ..‫وبسبب‬ ‫العورين‬‫محدودية‬‫الهضم‬‫الميكانيكي‬‫والميكروبي‬‫نجد‬‫أن‬‫المواد‬‫الخشنة‬‫كاللياف‬‫ل‬‫يمكن‬‫أو‬‫يقل‬‫بشدة‬ ...‫أما‬ ‫هضمها‬‫الساس‬‫في‬‫عمليات‬‫الهضم‬‫في‬‫الطيور‬‫هو‬‫الهضم‬‫الكيماوي‬‫أو‬‫النزيمي‬‫بالتالي‬‫لبد‬‫من‬‫غذاء‬‫مركز‬ ‫قليل‬.‫اللياف‬ Summary of Physiology of Digestion G.I Tract Region Enzyme (secretion) Substrate End Product pH Mouth Saliva Lubricates and softens food -- Crop Mucus Lubricates and softens food 4.5 Proventriculus & gizzard HCI Pepsin Lowers stomach pH 2.5 Protein Polypeptides Duodenum Trypsin, Chymotrypsin & Elastases Carboxy- petidases Collagenase Proteins, Peptones & Peptides Peptides Collagen Peptones, Peptides and amino acids Peptides & amino acids Peptides 6.0 to 6.8 Jejunum Peptidases Polynucleotidase Peptides Nucleic acids Dipeptides & amino acids Mononucleotides 5.8 to 6.6 Avian Respiratory System: Very efficient, unidirectional biphasic air flow. Presence of air sacs "Average of 9 in number", Serve variety of functions and lack muscular diaphragm. Small lungs (2% of body volume) connected to large air sacs (~10X larger). Respiration: Smallest birds have fastest breathing rates. Air sacs make the body lighter for flight and are part of the respiratory system. Birds are susceptible to respiratory diseases that spread beyond the lungs into the abdominal cavity and bones.
  10. 10. Pneumatic bone: discussed before. ‫العظام‬‫الهوائية‬‫تم‬‫شرحها‬‫في‬‫الجهاز‬‫الهيكلي‬ . The differences between respiratory system of poultry and mammals. Criteria Respiratory system "poultry" Respiratory system "mammals" lung Non tidal Tidal Air sacs Present Not present Respiration Unidirectional bi-phasic Unidirectional uni-phasic Air Sacs in Poultry: The air sacs are named according to their location: 1. Cervical air sac: in the neck. 2. Interclavicular air sac: between the clavicle. 3. Anterior thoracic air sac: fore portion of the chest below and in contact with the lungs. 4. Posterior thoracic air sac: hind portion of the chest (thorax), behind the lungs in the area between the lungs and the reproductive organs. 5. Abdominal air sac: behind the last rib backward to the pelvic cavity. Air sacs form in the embryo in pairs but some fuse forming a single sac. Not all classes of poultry have the same number of air sacs because different species fuse different pairs of air sacs. The following are the air sac specifications for different species of poultry: Air sac diverticula are out-branchings of the air sacs. The cervical air sacs have diverticula into vertebrae of the neck, back and ribs. The interclavicular air sacs have diverticula into the breastbones and the bones of the shoulder girdle as well as around the shoulder joint. The thoracic air sacs have no
  11. 11. diverticula. The abdominal air sacs invest the abdominal viscera and extend into the kidney crypts. They have diverticula around the hip joints. Duck air sacs Turkey air sacs Chicken air sacs Cervical 1 pair Cervical Fused Cervical 1 Pair Interclavicular Fused Interclavicular 1 pair Interclavicular Fused Anterior thoracic 1 pair Thoracic 1 pair Anterior Thoracic 1 pair Posterior thoracic 1 pair Abdominal 1 pair Posterior Thoracic 1 pair Abdominal 1 pair Abdominal 1 pair Abdominal 1 pair The avian cardiovascular System: Circulation: A chicken heart is four chambered. Chicken heart beat are about 200-300 times/minute. Smallest birds have highest heart rates and relatively larger hearts than larger birds. 1.5-2 X larger than in comparable mammals. Maintain higher metabolism. Heart size increases with altitude for same species. There are separate systemic, pulmonary circulations. Homeotherms. Blood Pressure: Slightly higher than mammals' → Aortic ruptures may occur in turkeys. Aorta: it is the main vascular trunk in birds and aortic arch is the curvature of aorta after leaving the heart which is weak in nature leading to aortic rupture in heavy weight turkeys.
  12. 12. The avian Urinary system: The urinary system of the chicken does not contain a urinary bladder. There are two trilobed kidneys, one on each side of the ventral surface of the vertebral column. This pair of kidneys is embedded in the deep bony crypts of the pelvic and synsacral area of the skeleton. Ureters carry the urinary waste to the cloaca. The uric acid is discharged into the cloaca and excreted with the feces. The white pasty material in chicken droppings is considered to be urinary system excretion. Birds excrete their nitrogen waste as uric acid, whereas mammals excrete it in the form of urea. Excretion: Kidneys & salt glands, Kidneys similar to mammal kidneys but 2X as large (relative), more rapid metabolism and not as efficient at removing salt → need for salt glands. Kidneys produce uric acid rather than urea. Requires less water (not as toxic as urea). Uric acid works well in dry climates, conserves weight, Water not needed in large quantities, Wastes dumped into cloaca (no urinary bladder), mixed with feces, forms white paste with dark lumps. Salt glands in head concentrate salt 3-5X that in blood discharge through nostrils especially active in marine birds. There is no urinary bladder; urethra and the ureters are open directly in the cloaca. Define with examples: Ureatelic, allantolotelic, uricotelic & amoniatelic: Discussed before The avian Reproduction Different from mammals in: oviparous and not viviparous. Male reproductive anatomy: Paired testes grow during breeding season; shrink otherwise, up to 200-300X difference in size between seasons. Left testis is slightly larger than right. Vas deferens is wavy tubes.
  13. 13. Mature sperm collect until transferred. End nearest cloaca may swell to serve as storage sac. Copulatory organ "phallus" present in more primitive birds e.g. flightless ratites, galliformes, ducks & geese, erectile, grooved structure used to guide sperm into female’s cloaca during copulation. Birds lacking feature just press cloacal openings together. Sperm development "spermatogenesis": High body temperature causes problems. Sperm cells can’t develop at normal body temperatures. Alternatives: Develop at night when body temperature may drop. Delay final development until storage in cooler sac or pouch near cloaca. ‫يجب‬‫معرفة‬‫الدور‬‫الحيوي‬‫الذي‬‫تلعبه‬‫الكياس‬‫الهوائية‬‫البطنية‬‫في‬‫التأقلم‬‫وخفض‬‫درجة‬‫الحرارة‬‫الجسمية‬‫أثناء‬‫تكوين‬ ‫الحيوانات‬.‫المنويه‬ Sperm Output: Millions to billions/copulation. Sperm viability: Sperm cells remain in oviduct 2-3 wks after mating. At the 10th day 50% ability and at the 19th day 15% ability. Female reproductive anatomy: Left sided ovary and oviduct are the only active one but the right ovary and oviduct atrophied. Ovary: Ovary may contain thousands of ovarian follicles. Only few per year mature into ova. Rapid growth through addition of fat, protein food (yolk) probably from liver Oviduct has five parts: Infundibulum “Funnel”, Magnum, Isthmus, Uterus and Vagina.
  14. 14. Infundibulum “Funnel”: Receives the yolk from the ovary. Sperm cells received from the rooster are stored here. It captures released ova, 2 ova released simultaneously produce “double-yoked” egg. Ovum spends ~20 minutes here in chicken. Magnum: The largest region that secretes layers of albumen (egg-white). It takes 3 hrs for the thick white to be placed around the yolk in the magnum. Ovum spends 4 hrs here in chicken. Isthmus: the yolk and thick white then moves to the Isthmus, 2 shell membranes are added; Produces shell membranes. Flexible keratin, Ovum spends 1.25 hrs here in chicken. Uterus: thin white colored producing the outer shell of egg, egg remains in the uterus about 20 hrs in chicken. Shell gland produces calcium carbonate shell. Pigment glands apply colors. Vagina: after the egg is completed it moves to the vagina. Stays in the vagina for a short time and is then expelled from the hens' body. Lined with mucous glands and muscular to aid egg- laying. Ovum spends very brief time here in chicken - just passing through. One egg takes 25-27 hours for a chicken to produce one egg. Hormones, light and nutritional programs influencing in egg production. Fertilization Process: Male places the sperm into the female oviduct. Male papillae deposits sperm in cloacal wall of female. Sperm move up the oviduct to the funnel where the egg is fertilized "at the ampoula". Sperm cells remain in oviduct 2-3 wks after mating. Sperm have full fertilizing ability for about 6 days after then ability of sperm to fertilize egg decreased. After yolk is fertilized it moves through the tract where the rest of the egg is added. Egg is laid - embryo grows inside the shell "Oviparous". Incubation: keeping eggs at right temperature and humidity for hatching. Hen does this by sitting on eggs. Commercial hatcheries use mechanical incubators. Incubation of chickens is 21 days. Temperature 38-39 C. Relative humidity 60% for the first 18 days. RH 70% for the last 3 days. Eggs are turned twice daily for the first 15 days. Keeps the embryo from sticking to the inside of the shell. Provide a small amount of oxygen.
  15. 15. The avian Eyes: The eyes should be clear with dark black pupils surrounded by a colored iris. The color of the iris varies with the breed and age of the bird, but in general is steel-grey in chicks and poults. In adult broilers, layers, and broiler breeders the iris is yellow-orange; but brown in adult turkeys. The avian Ears: The ear in a bird is covered with fine feathers and is a small opening located on the side of the head. The eye should be a bright yellow-orange in color and free of discharges. The avian nervous system
  16. 16. The avian body temperature: Normal for chickens are 41-42 C. Chickens are comfortable up to 25 C with 65% relative humidity. Birds keep cool through the comb and by respiration – panting and spreading their wings when too hot. Heat management is more important for chicks than for older birds. ‫هنا‬‫يجب‬‫التذكرة‬‫بالليات‬‫الكلسيكية‬‫أو‬‫العتيادية‬‫والليات‬‫الفوق‬‫أعتيادية‬‫لتنظيم‬‫درجة‬‫الحرارة‬‫الجسمية‬‫مع‬‫درجة‬ ‫الحرارة‬‫الجوية‬‫كما‬‫يجب‬‫التذكرة‬‫بعملية‬‫الحتباس‬‫الحراري‬‫في‬.‫الطيور‬ The avian life span: Fast heartbeat and high rate of metabolism limits life span. Chickens living to 10-15 years are the exception. Broiler chickens go to slaughter at a very early age about 7 wks. Commercial egg producers replace birds at about 60 wk of age. Commercial breeders' producers replace birds at about 65-70 wk of age. Serous & mucous membranes and differences between them. Serous membranes are the covering while the mucous membranes are the lining membranes. Mucous membranes contain mucous or goblet cells while serous do not. Serous membranes are not suffering from catarrhal inflammation. Examples of serous membranes are: pericardium, pleura, meanings, peritoneum, Glisson's capsule of liver, synovial sheath and periostum. Examples of mucous membranes are: mucous membrane lining the canalized systems "digestive, respiratory, urinary and reproductive". Comparison of scientific terms to common poultry plant terms: Scientific Term Plant Term Uropygial gland Oil gland, preen gland, oil bag Stifle joint Knee joint Esophagus Gullet, goozle Ingluvies Crop, craw Cloacal bursa (Bursa of Fabricius) Rosebud, flower
  17. 17. Ceca Blind guts Trachea Windpipe Syrinx Voice box Lungs Lights Pericardium Heart sac Tibia and fibula Drumstick Femur thigh bone Thigh Pubis Pin bone Clavicles (fused) Wishbone Sternum keel Breast bone Fused metacarpals Wing tip Radius and ulna Wing portion Humerus Peg leg Avian behavior: Chickens have a well-developed social order (peck order) and birds at the bottom may become culls if there is insufficient feed or water space. Close confinement of birds in cages may aggravate this problem. If birds are mixed, considerable fighting to re-establish the peck order may occur. Temperament is a breed characteristic. Leghorns are more flighty than White Rocks. Birds are structurally very different from mammals, and nowhere is this difference so striking as it is in the arrangements of their digestive systems. The evolutionary lineage of modern birds is in dispute, but one widely held theory, for which there is some considerable support, holds that they're more or less direct descendants of the dinosaurs. As you might expect, therefore, there's not much similarity to the typical mammalian pattern; furthermore, the avian digestive tract is suited to the peculiarities of bird life. The central fact of being a bird is that everyone wants to eat you. With a few notable exceptions, birds are on nearly every predator's menu. Consequently, their anatomy reflects adaptations for evasion and escape. To be able to "eat and run" (or "eat and fly") has real selective value, so birds have evolved a digestive system that permits them to "eat now, digest later," after they get away from whatever is chasing them. ‫طرق‬‫تربية‬‫الدواجن‬ ‫تربى‬‫الدواجن‬‫بطرق‬‫متعددة‬‫يمكن‬‫إجمالها‬‫كالتي‬: 1-‫التربية‬‫الفردية‬Small scale production:‫وهذه‬‫هي‬‫الطريقة‬‫الوحيدة‬‫للفلح‬‫والريفيين‬‫لتربية‬‫عدد‬‫محدود‬‫من‬ ‫الطيور‬‫فوق‬‫أسطح‬‫المنازل‬‫وتتميز‬‫بعدم‬‫الدقة‬‫في‬‫معظم‬‫المور‬‫الخاصة‬‫بالتربية‬‫وعلي‬‫رأسها‬‫نظم‬‫التغذية‬‫العلمية‬ ‫للدواجن‬‫وطرق‬‫الوقاية‬‫والسيطرة‬‫ضد‬‫المراض‬‫ويمثل‬‫هذا‬‫النوع‬‫من‬‫التربية‬‫حوالي‬20%‫من‬‫النتاج‬‫الداجني‬‫في‬ .‫مصر‬ 2-‫التربية‬‫النصف‬‫مكثفة‬Semi-intensive production:‫يتم‬‫تربية‬‫عدد‬‫من‬‫الطيور‬‫كبير‬‫نسبيا‬‫وتتم‬‫في‬‫عنابر‬ ‫مخصصة‬‫لذلك‬‫ويراعى‬‫فيها‬‫بعضا‬‫من‬‫سبل‬‫التربية‬‫الحديثة‬‫فيما‬‫يخص‬‫نظم‬‫التغذية‬‫العلمية‬‫للدواجن‬‫وطرق‬‫الوقاية‬ ‫والسيطرة‬‫ضد‬‫المراض‬‫وهذا‬‫النمط‬‫من‬‫التربية‬‫هو‬‫الغالب‬‫في‬‫بلدنا‬‫الحبيب‬‫مصر‬‫ويمثل‬‫هذا‬‫النوع‬‫من‬‫التربية‬‫حوالي‬ 70%‫من‬‫النتاج‬‫الداجني‬‫في‬.‫مصر‬ 3-‫التربية‬‫المكثفة‬production = Fully Integrated systems Intensive = Mass‫وهذا‬‫النوع‬‫من‬‫التربية‬ ‫يطلق‬‫عليه‬‫النظام‬‫المتكامل‬‫حيث‬‫يشمل‬‫تربية‬‫المهات‬‫والتسمين‬‫الناتج‬‫منها‬‫كما‬‫يشمل‬‫مصانع‬‫أعلف‬‫ومعامل‬ ‫تشخيصية‬..‫وفيه‬‫نجد‬‫أن‬‫وحدة‬‫التربية‬‫يربي‬‫فيها‬‫عدد‬‫كبير‬‫من‬‫الطيور‬‫فى‬‫عنابر‬‫مخصصة‬‫لذلك‬‫ويراعى‬‫فيها‬‫كل‬‫سبل‬
  18. 18. ‫التربية‬‫الحديثة‬‫وهذا‬‫النمط‬‫من‬‫التربية‬‫بدأ‬‫يشق‬‫طريقه‬‫بقوة‬‫في‬‫بلدنا‬‫الحبيب‬‫مصر‬‫ويمثل‬‫هذا‬‫النوع‬‫من‬‫التربية‬‫حوالي‬ 10%‫من‬‫النتاج‬‫الداجني‬‫في‬.‫مصر‬ ‫مساكن‬‫الطيور‬‫والرانب‬ :‫مساكن‬ ‫أول‬:‫الدجاج‬ 1-‫مساكن‬‫دجاج‬:‫اللحم‬‫تنقسم‬‫عنابر‬‫دجاج‬‫اللحم‬‫الى‬‫عنابر‬‫مفتوحة‬‫وعنابر‬‫مغلقة‬‫أو‬‫سابقة‬‫التجهيز‬‫والتربية‬‫فى‬ .‫بطاريات‬ -‫العنابر‬ ‫أ‬:‫المفتوحة‬‫تعتمد‬‫فى‬‫تهويتها‬‫على‬‫شبابيك‬‫وفتحات‬‫التهوية‬‫التى‬‫تمثل‬‫حوالى‬20-30%‫من‬‫مساحة‬ ‫الرضية‬‫والعنبر‬‫منشأ‬‫من‬‫الخرسانة‬‫والطوب‬‫وغالبا‬‫يكون‬‫العنبر‬‫ابعاده‬50×10‫متر‬‫أو‬40×12‫م‬‫ويخصص‬‫لهذا‬ ‫العنبر‬5000‫كتكوت‬‫حتى‬‫التسويق‬‫ويعتمد‬‫الغالبية‬‫العظمى‬‫من‬‫منتجى‬‫بدارى‬‫اللحم‬‫على‬‫هذه‬‫النوعية‬‫من‬.‫العنابر‬ -‫العنابر‬ ‫ب‬‫المغلقة‬‫أو‬‫سابقة‬:‫التجهيز‬‫تكون‬‫جدرانها‬‫والسقف‬‫من‬‫اللومنيوم‬‫والجدران‬‫مزدوجة‬‫بينهما‬‫مادة‬ ‫عازلة‬‫مثل‬‫الفلين‬‫والعنابر‬‫المغلقة‬‫معزولة‬‫تماما‬‫عن‬‫الجو‬‫الخارجى‬‫ويتم‬‫التحكم‬‫بدقة‬‫فى‬‫جوها‬‫الداخلى‬‫من‬‫خلل‬ ‫انظمة‬‫اتوماتيكية‬‫للتدفئة‬‫والتهوية‬‫والتبريد‬‫والتغذية‬‫والشرب‬‫ومخصص‬‫للمتر‬‫المربع‬‫فى‬‫هذه‬‫العنابر‬10‫طيور‬‫حتى‬ .‫التسويق‬ : -‫البطاريات‬ ‫ج‬‫أقفاص‬‫من‬‫سلك‬‫مجلفن‬‫مركبة‬‫على‬‫هياكل‬‫حديدية‬‫فى‬‫عدة‬‫أدوار‬‫يصل‬‫فى‬‫بعض‬‫الحيان‬‫لخمسة‬ ‫أدوار‬‫وبين‬‫كل‬‫دور‬‫وآخر‬‫يوجد‬‫صوانى‬‫صاج‬‫أو‬‫بلستيك‬‫لتجميع‬‫الفضلت‬‫الناتجة‬‫بعيدا‬‫عن‬‫الطيور‬‫وفى‬‫معظم‬‫الحيان‬ ‫تحضن‬‫الكتاكيت‬‫ل‬ً ‫أو‬‫على‬‫الرض‬‫حتى‬‫عمر‬2–3‫أسابيع‬‫ثم‬‫تنقل‬‫للبطاريات‬‫ومخصص‬‫للمتر‬‫المربع‬‫فى‬‫حالة‬‫التربية‬ ‫فى‬‫البطاريات‬‫حتى‬‫التسويق‬‫من‬20–25/‫م‬ ‫طائر‬2 . 2-‫مساكن‬‫الدجاج‬:‫البياض‬ -‫أ‬‫مساكن‬‫ذات‬:‫احواش‬‫تستخدم‬‫فى‬‫المزارع‬‫محدودة‬‫النتاج‬‫ويتكون‬‫المسكن‬‫من‬‫جزأين‬‫جزء‬‫للمبيت‬‫يكون‬‫من‬ ‫الطوب‬‫وجزء‬‫ملعب‬‫أو‬‫حوش‬‫بارتفاع‬0.5‫متر‬‫طوب‬‫والباقى‬‫سلك‬‫شبكى‬‫وتكون‬‫مساحة‬‫البيت‬‫الى‬‫مساحة‬‫الحوش‬ ‫كمساحة‬2:3‫ويخصص‬5/‫م‬ ‫طيور‬2‫وتستخدم‬‫فى‬‫القطعان‬‫التى‬‫ل‬‫تزيد‬‫اعدادها‬‫عن‬300‫دجاجة‬‫ومميزاتها‬"‫ملئمة‬ ‫لصغار‬‫المنتجين‬+‫مبانيها‬‫غير‬‫مكلفة‬+‫يمكن‬‫استخدامها‬‫فى‬‫الراضى‬‫الجديدة‬"‫أما‬ ‫المستصلحة‬‫عيوبها‬"‫عدم‬‫سهولة‬ ‫مراقبة‬‫القطعان‬+‫تحتاج‬‫لعمالة‬‫أكثر‬+‫ل‬‫تلئم‬‫النتاج‬."‫المكثف‬ -‫المرعى‬ ‫ب‬:‫الحر‬‫فى‬‫هذا‬‫النظام‬‫يطلق‬‫الدجاج‬‫فى‬‫المرعى‬‫طول‬‫النهار‬‫ثم‬‫يجمع‬‫للمبيت‬‫فى‬‫المساكن‬‫المصنوعة‬ ‫من‬‫الخشب‬‫ويمكن‬‫نقلها‬‫من‬‫مكان‬‫الى‬‫آخر‬‫وتكون‬‫ارضية‬‫هذه‬‫المساكن‬‫من‬‫سدائب‬‫الخشب‬‫لتسمح‬‫بنزول‬‫الزرق‬ ‫على‬‫ارض‬.‫المرعى‬ -‫العنابر‬ ‫جـ‬‫المفتوحة‬)‫نظام‬‫الفرشة‬‫العميقة‬Deep litter system:(‫تصميمها‬‫مثل‬‫عنابر‬‫انتاج‬‫اللحم‬‫ولكن‬ ‫تكون‬‫مزودة‬‫بالبياضات‬‫والمجاثم‬‫وتضاف‬‫الفرشة‬‫التى‬‫تكون‬‫فى‬‫الغالب‬‫تبن‬‫أو‬‫نشارة‬‫ويضاف‬‫كل‬‫فترة‬‫طبقة‬‫جديدة‬ ‫من‬‫الفرشة‬‫ول‬‫تزال‬‫ال‬‫بعد‬‫التخلص‬‫من‬.‫ومميزاتها‬ ‫القطيع‬"‫تسع‬‫لعدد‬‫كبير‬‫من‬+‫منخفضة‬ ‫الطيور‬‫التكاليف‬‫مقارنة‬ ‫بالبطاريات‬+‫ل‬‫تحتاج‬‫الى‬‫عمالة‬‫كثيرة‬+‫سهولة‬‫مراقبة‬"‫أما‬ ‫الطيور‬‫عيوبها‬"‫سرعة‬‫انتشار‬‫المرض‬‫لقرب‬‫الطيور‬‫من‬ ‫مصدر‬‫العدوى‬‫وهو‬‫الزرق‬‫والفرشة‬+‫كثرة‬‫عدد‬‫البيض‬‫المتسخ‬‫أو‬‫المكسور‬+‫تفشى‬‫داء‬."‫الفتراس‬ -‫القفاص‬ ‫د‬:‫المعلقة‬‫أفضل‬‫الطرق‬‫لنتاج‬‫بيض‬‫المائدة‬‫حيث‬‫توضع‬‫كل‬‫دجاجة‬‫فى‬‫قفص‬‫مستقل‬‫مصنوع‬‫من‬ ‫السلك‬‫المجلفن‬‫وقاعدة‬‫القفص‬‫مائلة‬‫للخارج‬‫لتسمح‬‫بانزلق‬‫البيضة‬‫وتعلق‬‫هذه‬‫القفاص‬‫اسفل‬‫مظلة‬‫مصنوعة‬‫من‬ ‫مادة‬‫ذات‬‫كفاءة‬‫عالية‬‫على‬.‫ومميزاتها‬ ‫العزل‬"‫توفير‬‫تكلفة‬‫الفرش‬‫وتلفى‬‫مشاكلها‬+‫تحاشى‬‫داء‬‫الفتراس‬+ ‫انخفاض‬‫العلف‬+‫انتاج‬ ‫المهدر‬‫بيض‬‫نظيف‬‫القشرة‬+‫قلة‬‫نسبة‬‫النفوق‬+‫ل‬‫تحتاج‬‫الى‬"‫أما‬ ‫بياضات‬‫عيوبها‬"‫زيادة‬‫نسبة‬ ‫البيض‬‫المكسور‬+‫تأثر‬‫الطيور‬‫بارتفاع‬‫أو‬‫انخفاض‬‫الحرارة‬‫عن‬‫الحد‬‫المناسب‬+‫وجود‬‫بعض‬‫الحشرات‬‫التى‬‫تتراكم‬ ‫على‬‫الزرق‬+‫عدم‬‫ملئمتها‬‫لبعض‬‫سللت‬."‫الدجاج‬
  19. 19. : -‫البطاريات‬ ‫هـ‬‫تبلغ‬‫ابعاد‬‫القفص‬‫حوالى‬40×40×40‫سم‬‫وتخصص‬‫لكل‬‫دجاجة‬45‫سم‬3 ‫وتوجد‬‫الغذايات‬ ‫والمساقى‬‫على‬‫جانبى‬‫كل‬‫بطارية‬‫ويعمل‬‫نظام‬‫الشرب‬‫اتوماتيكيا‬‫وكذلك‬‫ازالة‬‫الزرق‬‫وتوضع‬‫البطاريات‬‫فى‬‫مبنى‬‫به‬ ‫تحكم‬‫للحرارة‬‫والتهوية‬‫والرطوبة‬‫والضاءة‬‫ومميزاتها‬"‫توفير‬‫العمالة‬+‫تربية‬‫عدد‬‫كبير‬‫جدا‬‫فى‬‫حيز‬‫محدود‬+‫سهولة‬ ‫مراقبة‬‫الطيور‬+‫سهولة‬‫عزل‬‫الفراد‬‫المصابة‬+‫الستغناء‬‫عن‬‫الفرشة‬"‫أما‬ ‫واضرارها‬‫عيوبها‬"‫ارتفاع‬‫تكاليف‬‫شرائها‬+ ‫زيادة‬‫نسبة‬‫الصابة‬‫بداء‬‫الفتراس‬+‫الحتياج‬‫الى‬‫علئق‬‫كاملة‬‫التزان‬+‫زيادة‬‫نسبة‬‫البيض‬‫ضعيف‬‫القشرة‬+‫زيادة‬ ‫عصبية‬."‫الطيور‬ -‫العنابر‬ ‫و‬‫المغلقة‬‫أو‬‫سابقة‬:‫التجهيز‬‫مثل‬‫التى‬‫يربى‬‫بها‬‫دجاج‬‫اللحم‬‫بالضافة‬‫الى‬‫تجهيزها‬‫بالبياضات‬‫ومميزاتها‬ "‫التحكم‬‫فى‬‫البيئة‬‫الداخلية‬‫للعنبر‬+‫سهولة‬‫التنظيف‬‫والتطهير‬+‫تربية‬‫عدد‬‫كبير‬‫من‬‫الطيور‬+‫سهولة‬‫مراقبة‬‫الطيور‬+ ‫يمكن‬‫استخدامها‬‫على‬‫مدر‬‫السنة‬‫أما‬‫عيوبها‬"‫ارتفاع‬‫تكاليف‬‫انشائها‬+‫تحتاج‬‫الى‬‫عمالة‬‫مدربة‬+‫سهولة‬‫انتشار‬‫المرض‬ ‫عند‬."‫حدوثه‬ -‫مساكـن‬ ‫ثانيا‬:‫الرومــى‬ ‫ل‬‫يحتاج‬‫الرومى‬‫لمساكن‬‫عالية‬‫التكاليف‬‫ويكتفي‬‫باقامة‬‫مظلت‬‫حماية‬‫من‬‫الحرارة‬‫صيفا‬‫ويمكن‬‫استخدام‬‫نظام‬ ‫الحواش‬‫السابق‬‫الشارة‬‫اليه‬‫فى‬‫الدجاج‬‫ويخصص‬‫لكل‬‫طائر‬1.25‫م‬2‫من‬‫مساحة‬‫الحوش‬‫ونصف‬‫هذه‬‫المساحة‬ ‫فى‬‫المبيت‬‫كما‬‫يمكن‬‫تربية‬‫الرومى‬‫على‬‫المراعى‬‫ويحاط‬‫سور‬‫المرعى‬‫بسور‬‫عالى‬‫من‬‫السلك‬‫بارتفاع‬2‫م‬‫وتزود‬ ‫المراعى‬‫بمجاثم‬‫ومعالف‬‫وبياضات‬‫ويلحق‬‫بالمرعى‬‫الذى‬‫يبلغ‬‫مساحته‬500-600‫م‬2‫مبيت‬‫بمساحة‬20‫م‬2 ‫والمرعى‬‫والمبيت‬‫يكون‬‫لحوالى‬30.‫طائر‬ -‫مساكن‬ ‫ثالثا‬:‫البط‬‫هناك‬‫نوعان‬‫من‬‫التربية‬‫فى‬‫البط‬:‫هى‬ 1-‫التربية‬‫المكثفة‬:( )‫المحبوسة‬‫عنبر‬‫ارتفاعه‬3‫م‬‫ويخصص‬3–4/‫م‬ ‫بطة‬2‫حتى‬‫التسويق‬‫ويستخدم‬‫من‬‫سن‬‫يوم‬ ‫حتى‬.‫التسويق‬ 2-‫التربية‬‫فى‬:‫البرك‬‫يربى‬‫البط‬‫تربية‬‫مشتركة‬‫مع‬‫السماك‬‫حيث‬‫يكون‬‫هناك‬‫مساكن‬‫للمبيت‬‫ملحقة‬‫بالبرك‬‫التى‬ ‫يربى‬‫بها‬‫السمك‬‫وتنجح‬‫هذه‬‫الطريقة‬‫فى‬‫تربية‬‫البط‬‫وخاصة‬‫فى‬‫المناطق‬‫الحارة‬‫وتكون‬‫معيشة‬‫البط‬‫والسمك‬‫فى‬ ‫هذا‬‫النوع‬‫من‬‫المساكن‬‫معيشة‬.‫تكافلية‬ 3-‫نظام‬:‫الحواش‬‫ويخصص‬‫للمتر‬‫المربع‬‫فى‬‫الحوش‬2/‫م‬ ‫بطة‬2‫وفى‬‫المبيت‬3‫بطة‬/‫م‬2. -‫مساكن‬ ‫رابعا‬:‫الوز‬ ‫ل‬‫يحتاج‬‫الوز‬‫الى‬‫مساكن‬‫ذو‬‫مواصفات‬‫خاصة‬‫وحيث‬‫ان‬‫الوز‬‫من‬‫الطيور‬‫التى‬‫يمكن‬‫أن‬‫تتغذى‬‫على‬‫الحشائش‬ ‫الخضراء‬‫وتنجح‬‫تربيته‬‫فى‬‫المراعى‬‫الخضراء‬‫ويستخدم‬‫حظائر‬‫خشبية‬‫للمبيت‬‫ويمكن‬‫تربية‬‫الوز‬‫فى‬‫أى‬‫نوع‬‫من‬ ‫المساكن‬‫ولكن‬‫اذا‬‫كان‬‫الوز‬‫سيربى‬‫لنتاج‬‫الكبد‬‫المسمن‬‫فيجب‬‫أن‬‫يمد‬‫المسكن‬‫بالت‬‫التغذية‬‫الجبارية‬‫وان‬‫يكون‬ ‫المبيت‬‫جيد‬.‫التهوية‬ -‫مسـاكـن‬ ‫خامسا‬:‫الحمــام‬ 1-‫التربية‬‫فى‬:‫المساكن‬‫تتكون‬‫المساكن‬‫من‬‫الخشب‬‫والسلك‬‫ويعلق‬‫بها‬‫أعشاش‬‫من‬‫الجريد‬‫أو‬‫الخشب‬‫التى‬‫تقسم‬ ‫إلى‬‫عيون‬‫بمساحة‬40×50×40‫سم‬‫يخصص‬‫لزوج‬.‫الحمام‬ 2: -‫البـــراج‬‫تستخدم‬‫البراج‬‫فى‬‫حالة‬‫التربية‬‫بأعداد‬‫كبيرة‬‫وتبنى‬‫من‬‫الطين‬‫والخرسانة‬‫وتكون‬‫أسطوانية‬‫الشكل‬ ‫ومستطيلة‬‫وتعلق‬‫على‬‫جدرانها‬‫من‬‫الداخل‬‫قواديس‬‫من‬‫الفخار‬‫أسطوانية‬‫الشكل‬‫طولها‬‫حوالى‬25‫سم‬‫وقطرها‬15 ‫سم‬‫ويقسم‬‫البرج‬‫من‬‫الداخل‬‫الى‬‫أربعة‬‫أقسام‬‫وكل‬‫قسم‬‫مقسم‬‫جزأين‬‫من‬‫الطين‬‫على‬‫مراين‬‫خشبية‬‫ويحتوى‬‫البرج‬ ‫عادة‬‫على‬700-1200‫قدوس‬‫ويوجد‬‫بأعلى‬‫البرج‬‫فتحات‬‫قطرها‬8‫سم‬‫لدخول‬‫وخروج‬.‫الحمام‬ -‫مسـاكـن‬ ‫سادسا‬:‫السمـان‬
  20. 20. ‫يربى‬‫السمان‬‫فى‬‫البطاريات‬‫التى‬‫تنقسم‬‫الى‬‫بطاريات‬‫للحضانة‬‫المزودة‬‫بمصدر‬‫حرارى‬‫وتتميز‬‫بأن‬‫فتحات‬‫السلك‬‫بها‬ ‫ضيقة‬‫والرضية‬‫مغطاة‬‫وبطاريات‬‫اخرى‬‫للتربية‬‫مكونة‬‫من‬‫عيون‬‫مساحة‬‫العين‬20×30×20‫سم‬3‫ومخصص‬‫للزوج‬ ‫السمان‬)‫الذكر‬(‫للحصول‬ ‫والنثى‬‫على‬‫بيض‬...‫وهناك‬ ‫مخصب‬‫بطاريات‬‫النتاج‬‫سواء‬‫لنتاج‬‫البيض‬‫أو‬‫اللحم‬‫وتكون‬ ‫البطارية‬‫مكونة‬‫من‬4–5‫أدوار‬‫ويمكن‬‫تربية‬100‫طائر‬‫بالغ‬‫على‬‫المتر‬‫المربع‬‫ويمكن‬‫بيع‬‫السمان‬‫على‬‫عمر‬6‫أسابيع‬ ‫ويمكن‬‫فى‬‫حالة‬‫عدم‬‫توفر‬‫البطاريات‬‫أن‬‫يربى‬‫السمان‬‫على‬‫الرض‬‫بدون‬‫اى‬.‫مشاكل‬ -‫مساكـن‬ ‫سابعا‬:‫الرانـب‬ 1-‫نظم‬‫التربية‬‫فى‬:‫مجاميع‬‫فى‬‫هذا‬‫النظام‬‫تربى‬‫الذكور‬‫والناث‬‫فى‬‫حجرات‬‫مستقلة‬‫ومخصص‬‫للمتر‬‫المربع‬‫من‬ ‫مساحة‬‫الرضية‬12‫أرنب‬‫وتكون‬‫ارضية‬‫العنبر‬‫من‬‫الخرسانة‬‫لتسهيل‬‫تنظيفها‬‫ويراعى‬‫توفير‬‫عش‬‫للولدة‬‫لكل‬‫أم‬‫وعند‬ ‫التلقيح‬‫تنقل‬‫الناث‬‫للذكور‬‫وتزود‬‫الحجرات‬‫بابواب‬‫لدخول‬‫المربى‬‫وابواب‬‫لخروج‬‫الرانب‬‫للفسحة‬‫ويفضل‬‫أن‬‫يتم‬‫زراعة‬ ‫الحوش‬‫ببعض‬‫مواد‬‫العلف‬‫الخضراء‬"‫سهولة‬ ‫ومميزاتها‬‫انشاء‬‫المسكن‬+‫تسع‬‫لعدد‬‫كبير‬‫من‬‫الرانب‬+‫ل‬‫تحتاج‬‫الى‬ ‫عمالة‬‫كثيرة‬+‫ملئمة‬‫لطبيعة‬‫الرانب‬+‫وجود‬‫حوش‬‫او‬‫ملعب‬‫يوفر‬‫العليقة‬‫الخضراء‬‫للرانب‬‫وخاصة‬"‫الحوامل‬ ‫وعيوبهـا‬"‫ارتفاع‬‫تكاليف‬‫انشائها‬+‫تحتاج‬‫الى‬‫عمالة‬‫مدربة‬+‫صعوبة‬‫التغذية‬‫على‬‫مواد‬‫العلف‬."‫الخضراء‬ 2: -‫البطاريات‬‫لها‬‫عدد‬‫محدد‬‫من‬‫العيون‬‫يخصص‬‫لكل‬‫عين‬‫منها‬‫أرنب‬...‫ومنها‬‫ذو‬‫الطابق‬‫الواحد‬‫ومنها‬‫متعدد‬ ‫الطوابق‬‫ومنها‬‫المخصص‬‫للنتاج‬‫ومنها‬‫المخصص‬‫للنتاج‬.‫المولود‬
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Avian biology ---- Dr Fares El-Khayat


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