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Revision of Poultry and Rabbits Biology Dr Fares El-Khayat

Revision of Poultry and Rabbits Biology
Dr Fares El-Khayat

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Revision of Poultry and Rabbits Biology Dr Fares El-Khayat

  1. 1. 1 Revision of Poultry and Rabbits Biology Dr Fares El-Khayat
  2. 2. 2 Revision of poultry biology Dr. Fares El-Khayat ‫ر‬ ‫ا‬ ‫س‬ ‫أ‬: ‫س‬ ‫أ‬ ‫أ‬‫ت‬ ‫اﻥ‬ ‫ا‬‫ر‬ ‫ا‬ ‫س‬ ‫ا‬‫ی‬‫ا‬ ‫ﺡ‬ ‫ر‬ ‫ا‬ ‫س‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ﺕ‬2500‫ﺕ‬ ‫ﺡ‬ ‫د‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬‫ا‬ ‫ﺡ‬ ‫ت‬ ‫اﻥ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫س‬9000-7000‫د‬ ‫ا‬‫أ‬ ‫اء‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ل‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ض‬ ‫ت‬ ‫اﻥ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫س‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ن‬ ‫وآ‬ ‫ن‬ ‫ﻥ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ی‬ ‫ﺕ‬ ‫أ‬ ‫أﺹ‬ ‫رض‬ ‫وا‬ ‫أو‬ ‫و‬ ‫دی‬ ‫اض‬ ‫أ‬ ‫ر‬ ‫ا‬ ‫س‬ ‫ا‬. ‫ن‬ ‫آ‬ ‫ج‬ ‫ا‬ ‫س‬ ‫أ‬ ‫ای‬ ‫و‬‫ا‬ ‫ی‬ ‫وﺕ‬ ‫أ‬ ‫رة‬‫وا‬ ‫ا‬‫وز‬ ‫ا‬ ‫وا‬ ‫ن‬ ‫و‬ ‫وﻥ‬ ‫وأﻥ‬‫ا‬ ‫ﺡ‬ 1500‫و‬ ‫ا‬ ‫وأ‬ ‫د‬ ‫ا‬‫ا‬ ‫ﺡ‬2500‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫وأ‬ ‫د‬ ‫ا‬‫ا‬ ‫ﺡ‬2500 ‫د‬ ‫ا‬‫م‬ ‫ا‬ ‫وأ‬5000‫زا‬ ‫وا‬ ‫ر‬ ‫وا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫اج‬ ‫أ‬ ‫ﻥ‬ ‫ی‬ ‫ی‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ء‬ ‫ن‬ ‫وآ‬ ‫ی‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ی‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ر‬ ‫ا‬ ‫م‬ ‫ا‬ ‫دة‬ ‫ل‬ ‫ش‬ ‫ﻥ‬ ‫ت‬ ‫و‬ ‫ﺡ‬ ‫ى‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ن‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ﺡ‬‫ن‬ ‫ا‬ ‫وأ‬ ‫ی‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ن‬ ‫ا‬ ‫وا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫وﺕ‬ ‫ی‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ض‬ ‫ری‬ ‫وآ‬ ‫وا‬ ‫ن‬ ‫ا‬ ‫دى‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ن‬ ‫ا‬‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﺕ‬ ‫و‬ ‫ب‬ ‫ا‬ ‫وا‬ ‫ا‬1200‫ا‬‫د‬ ‫وا‬ ‫وا‬ ‫ر‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ق‬ ‫ا‬Differences between birds and poultry -Birds: Both the domesticated and undomesticated species belonging to the class Aves. -Poultry: Domesticated birds including chickens, turkeys, ducks, geese, quail, pigeon, guinea fowls and ostrich. There are about 10,000 avian species arranged in 27 orders. In Egypt, RABBITS are roughly included with poultry although they are mammals.
  3. 3. 3 2- Aim of Poultry production: -Meat production → Commercial broilers in addition to ducks, geese, turkeys, quail and ostriches. ‫ا‬ ‫ﺡ‬ ‫ی‬ ‫وﺕ‬800‫د‬ ‫ن‬‫ا‬‫ري‬ ‫ا‬‫ب‬ ‫ی‬ ‫و‬100‫د‬ ‫ن‬‫ا‬‫م‬ ‫أر‬ ‫أ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ﺕ‬‫وز‬ ‫وا‬‫ﻥ‬ ‫ر‬ ‫م‬ ‫أر‬ ‫ﺕ‬ ‫ن‬ ‫وا‬ ‫م‬ ‫وا‬‫ا‬ ‫ی‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ع‬ ‫ا‬ ‫رك‬ ‫ی‬ ‫آ‬25%‫ا‬ ‫ا‬‫وا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ج‬ ‫ﻥ‬. ‫ت‬‫ا‬ ‫د‬ ‫ه‬‫ز‬ ‫أی‬ ‫ر‬ ‫وأر‬ ‫وأر‬ ‫ن‬ ‫ا‬48 ‫ب‬ ‫ا‬Coob‫وروص‬ Ross‫أر‬ ‫وأي‬IR ‫ت‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ی‬ ‫وا‬ 2900‫دي‬- 2950‫ﻥ‬-3000 ‫ه‬ ‫ﻥ‬. ‫آ‬2950‫دي‬- 3000‫ﻥ‬-3050 ‫ه‬ ‫ﻥ‬. 3000‫دي‬- 3050‫ﻥ‬-3100 ‫ه‬ ‫ﻥ‬. 3050‫دي‬- 3100‫ﻥ‬-3150 ‫ه‬ ‫ﻥ‬. ‫ا‬ ‫ـ‬ ‫أ‬ ‫ی‬22%‫دي‬- 20%‫ﻥ‬-18% ‫ه‬ ‫ﻥ‬. ‫ـ‬ ‫أ‬ ‫ی‬23%‫دي‬-21 %‫ﻥ‬-18%‫ه‬ ‫ﻥ‬. ‫ـ‬ ‫أ‬ ‫ی‬23%‫دي‬-21 %‫ﻥ‬-18%‫ه‬ ‫ﻥ‬. ‫ـ‬ ‫أ‬ ‫ی‬23.5%‫دي‬- 21.5%‫ﻥ‬-19% ‫ه‬ ‫ﻥ‬. ‫م‬ ‫ا‬ ‫وﺕ‬ ‫ـ‬ ‫أ‬ ‫وی‬0.48% ‫دي‬-0.42%‫ﻥ‬- 0.39%‫ه‬ ‫ﻥ‬. ‫ـ‬ ‫أ‬ ‫وی‬0.5% ‫دي‬-0.45%‫ﻥ‬- 0.40%‫ه‬ ‫ﻥ‬. ‫ـ‬ ‫أ‬ ‫وی‬0.53% ‫دي‬-0.48%‫ﻥ‬- 0.45%‫ه‬ ‫ﻥ‬. ‫ـ‬ ‫أ‬ ‫ی‬0.7%‫دي‬ -0.6%‫ﻥ‬-0.5% ‫ه‬ ‫ﻥ‬. ‫ﻥ‬ ‫ـ‬ ‫أ‬ ‫وی‬1% ‫دي‬-0.9%- 0.85%‫ه‬ ‫ﻥ‬. ‫ـ‬ ‫أ‬ ‫وی‬1.2% ‫دي‬-1%- 0.9%‫ه‬. ‫ـ‬ ‫أ‬ ‫وی‬1.3% ‫دي‬-1.1%- 0.9%‫ه‬. ‫ـ‬ ‫أ‬ ‫ی‬1.5% ‫دي‬-1.3%- 1.1%‫ه‬. ‫ی‬ ‫اري‬ ‫د‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ﺕ‬ 33-34 33-34 32-33 34-35 ‫ا‬ ‫ارة‬ ‫در‬ -Table egg production → Commercial layers. ‫ن‬ ‫ه‬ ‫آ‬ ‫ري‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ض‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ت‬Lohmann‫ی‬ ‫ي‬ ‫وا‬Hi-Lyne‫ي‬ ‫وا‬Hisex‫ﻥ‬ ‫وا‬Bovans‫اﻥ‬ ‫ﺕ‬ ‫وا‬ ‫ان‬H&N‫وا‬Novogen‫وآ‬‫ن‬ ‫ﻥ‬"‫وأ‬"‫ا‬ ‫ة‬ ‫و‬ ‫ی‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ن‬ ‫ﺡ‬‫ی‬ ‫وﺕ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ﺡ‬200‫د‬ ‫ن‬‫ا‬ ‫ی‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ع‬ ‫ا‬ ‫رك‬ ‫ی‬ ‫ري‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ض‬ ‫ا‬15%‫ج‬ ‫ﻥ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬‫ا‬. -Fertile egg production → Breeders. ‫ب‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ت‬ ‫آ‬ ‫ت‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ت‬Breeder of Coob‫وص‬ ‫وا‬Breeder of Ross‫ن‬ ‫وا‬48Breeder of Avian 48‫د‬ ‫وا‬Breeder of Hubbard‫ز‬ ‫ای‬ ‫ر‬ ‫ر‬ ‫وا‬Breeder of Arbor Ickarz‫ر‬ ‫وا‬Breeder of Arboplus‫وا‬Breeder of Saso breed‫ب‬ ‫ی‬ ‫وﺕ‬15‫أم‬ ‫ن‬. -Feather production → Ostrich. ‫ا‬ ‫ت‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﺕ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫م‬ ‫وی‬ ‫م‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ی‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ج‬ ‫أﻥ‬ ‫ی‬.
  4. 4. 4 -Fun and show → zoo birds. ‫ﺕ‬‫زان‬ ‫آ‬ ‫ی‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ر‬Pheasants‫ی‬ ‫ا‬ ‫و‬Sparrows‫وات‬ ‫وا‬Parrot‫م‬ ‫وا‬Pigeons‫أ‬ ‫ی‬ ‫ا‬‫و‬‫ر‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ت‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ﺕ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ی‬ ‫ا‬ ‫رض‬ ‫ا‬. Poultry Terms Important ‫ا‬ ‫ی‬ ‫ﻥ‬ Aves Class of birds ‫ر‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ﺉ‬ Aviary A large enclosure for holding birds in confinement ‫ر‬ ‫ر‬ ‫أو‬ Avian Pertaining to birds ‫ر‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ی‬ ‫أي‬ Aviculture The science of birds ‫ر‬ ‫ا‬ ‫درا‬ Broilers Meat-type chicken reared till 5 wk old (2 kg). ‫ا‬ ‫ج‬ ‫د‬ Capon A surgerically castrated male chicken at 5-7 month old and weighs 3-4 kgs. ‫اﺡ‬ ‫ك‬ ‫دی‬ Chick Young chick ‫ج‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ﺹ‬ Cockerel Immature male chicken ‫ا‬ ‫أﺹ‬ ‫دی‬ Cock = Rooster Adult male chicken or adult male pigeon ‫دی‬‫ﺽ‬ ‫ﻥ‬ Cygnet = flapper Young swan. ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫وز‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ﺹ‬ Drake Mature male duck. ‫ا‬ ‫ذآ‬ Duckling Young ducks. ‫ا‬ ‫ﺹ‬ Feral Wild untamed ‫ي‬ ‫أو‬ ‫وﺡ‬ Flock A group of birds living together ‫ر‬ ‫ا‬ Fowl = poultry Domesticated birds ‫ا‬‫ﻥ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ر‬ Gaggle Group of geese. ‫وز‬ ‫ا‬ Gander Adult male goose. ‫وز‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ذآ‬
  5. 5. 5 Poultry Terms Important ‫ا‬ ‫ی‬ ‫ﻥ‬ Gosling Young goose ‫وز‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ﺹ‬ Guinea cock Adult male guinea fowl ‫ج‬ ‫د‬ ‫ذآ‬ Guinea hen Adult female guinea fowl ‫ﺽ‬ ‫ﻥ‬ ‫د‬ Guinea cockerel Young male guinea fowl under 1 year of age ‫أﺹ‬ ‫ج‬ ‫د‬ ‫دی‬ Guinea pullet Female guinea fowl under one year of age ‫ﺽ‬ ‫ﻥ‬ ‫د‬ Hen Adult female of poultry. ‫ر‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ع‬ ‫ﻥ‬ ‫أي‬ ‫أﻥ‬ Keet Young guinea fowl ‫ج‬ ‫د‬ ‫ﺹ‬ Jake Young male turkey ‫ا‬ ‫و‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ذآ‬ Jenny Young female turkey ‫ا‬ ‫و‬ ‫ا‬ ‫أﻥ‬ Peacock Adult make peafowl ‫ﺽ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ووس‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ذآ‬ Peachick Young peafowl ‫ﺹ‬‫ووس‬ ‫ا‬ Peahen Adult female peafowl. ‫ا‬ ‫ووس‬ ‫ا‬ ‫أﻥ‬‫ﺽ‬ Pullet Immature female bird ‫ة‬"‫ﺽ‬ ‫ﻥ‬ ‫د‬" Poult Young turkey or pheasant ‫راج‬ ‫ا‬ ‫أو‬ ‫و‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ﺹ‬ Squab Young pigeon that has not yet left the nest ‫م‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ﺹ‬ Tom or Gobbler Adult male turkey ‫ﺽ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫و‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ذآ‬ ‫ر‬ ‫ا‬ ‫اع‬ ‫ﻥ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ء‬ ‫ا‬ Poultry Scientific Name Poultry Scientific Name Domestic duck Anas platyrhyncha Muscovy duck Cairina moschata Guinea fowl Numida meleagris Geese Anser anser Domestic chicken Gallus domesticus Peafowl Pavo cristatus Turkeys Meleagris gallopavo Jungle Hen Gallus gallus Japanese quail Coturnix japonica Pigeon Columbia livia Common quail Coturnix coturnix Ostrich Struthio camelus Swan Cygnus atratus Pheasant Phasianus colchicus Differences between Commercial layers and Breeders BreedersCommercial layersCriteria Fertile eggTable eggAim of production Essential for fertilization. Not present at all because this is non fertile egg. Presence of Male Deep litter system only for random fertilization. Deep litter system or CagesSystem of housing Not less than 3 kg Not more than 2 kg and if increased over this figure this means obesity. Weight of hen Not less than 80 gmNot more than 60 gmWeight of egg Not less than 160 gmNot more than 120 gmAmount of feed/hen/day Lower "higher feed intake".Higher "lowered feed intake".Feed intensity Ranges from 160-180 eggRanges from 290-300 eggEgg productivity/year Economically 70 weeks.Economically 60 weeks.Life Span All vaccines including the inactivated vaccines of IBD, Reo and AE. All except for inactivated vaccines of IBD, Reo and sometimes AE. Vaccination schedule
  6. 6. 6 Avian characteristics Morphological characteristics
  7. 7. 7
  8. 8. 8
  9. 9. 9 1-The presence of feathers which cover most of the poultry bodies. 2-The presence of preen or oil bag or gland is well developed in aquatic birds' → preening and Vit. D biosynthesis.
  10. 10. 10 2-Absence of the teeth and the lips. The lips are replaced by horny keratinized beaks of different shapes according to the nature of the avian species. Beaks are used for pecking either pecking of feeds or pecking of other birds for enacting the dominance "Pecking behavior". De-beaking is a process which is used for removal of about one third of the beak to control of cannibalism. ‫ر‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ل‬ ‫أ‬Shapes of beak 3-Presence of comb and wattle in chickens = Snood and caruncles of turkey. ‫أس‬ ‫ﺹ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ی‬ ‫ا‬ ‫اآ‬ ‫ا‬Structures of heads ‫ف‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ل‬ ‫أ‬Shapes of comb:
  11. 11. 11 Morphological characteristics of rabbits Skeletal characteristics 1-Fusion of the skeleton in certain area of vertebral column e.g. synsacrum "fusion of the 14th and 15th vertebrae of caudal area of vertebral column" → increase the tensile strength of the vertebral column. 2-The presence of the sternum ‫ا‬ ‫م‬ in all avian species except for the non-flying birds including ostrich, rhea and emus.
  12. 12. 12 3-The presence of pneumatic ‫اﺉ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫م‬ ‫ا‬ . ‫ا‬ ‫أو‬ ‫اﺉ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫م‬ ‫ا‬Pneumatic bones:‫و‬ ‫أو‬ ‫ی‬ ‫م‬ ‫ه‬Hollow‫ﺕ‬ ‫ﺕ‬ ‫ع‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ﺥ‬ ‫اﺉ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫س‬ ‫آ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ل‬ ‫ﺥ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ز‬‫ﺡ‬‫ان‬ ‫ا‬ ‫وی‬ ‫وزﻥ‬ ‫ی‬ ‫ر‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ﺕ‬‫آ‬ ‫ﺉ‬ ‫أ‬ ‫ﺥ‬ ‫ﺕ‬‫اﺉ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫اد‬ ‫اﻥ‬ ‫ﺡ‬ ‫ی‬ ‫ان‬ ‫ی‬ ‫ج‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ان‬ ‫ﺡ‬ ‫اء‬‫اﺉ‬ ‫ه‬ ‫ر‬ ‫ا‬ ‫م‬ ‫و‬ ‫آ‬Skull‫ة‬ ‫وا‬clavicle‫وا‬Sternum‫وا‬Humerus‫وا‬‫ا‬ ‫ات‬Lumber vertebrae ‫ی‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ات‬ ‫وا‬Coccygeal vertebrae. 4-The presence of the medullary bones ‫ا‬ ‫م‬ ‫.ا‬ ‫م‬ ‫ا‬‫ا‬boneMedullary:‫ه‬‫م‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ت‬ ‫اآ‬ ‫ﺕ‬‫ﺕ‬‫ة‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ء‬ ‫أ‬ ‫ث‬ ‫ﻥ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫م‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ع‬ ‫ﻥ‬ ‫داﺥ‬ ‫ﻥ‬ ‫ا‬‫و‬‫ﺕ‬‫م‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ﻥ‬ ‫ن‬ ‫ی‬ ‫ﺹ‬ ‫ﺥ‬ ‫م‬ ‫آ‬ ‫ی‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ی‬ ‫و‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ه‬ ‫را‬ ‫ـ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫م‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ن‬ ‫وﺕ‬ ‫ﺉ‬ ‫ا‬10-14‫م‬ ‫ی‬‫وذ‬‫ﺡ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫و‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ن‬ ‫ه‬ ‫ﺕ‬ ‫ﺕ‬ ‫داﺥ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫م‬ ‫ا‬ ‫وﺕ‬ ‫غ‬‫س‬ ‫وا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫م‬Femur and Tibia‫ع‬ ‫وا‬Ribs‫ض‬ ‫ا‬ ‫م‬ ‫و‬Pelvic bone‫ﻥ‬ ‫وا‬ ‫و‬Radius‫م‬ ‫ا‬ ‫م‬ ‫و‬Toes‫ا‬ ‫ح‬ ‫و‬Scapula‫ر‬ ‫آ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ی‬ ‫ا‬ ‫وا‬ ‫ی‬ ‫ا‬ ‫أ‬ ‫ی‬ ‫ﻥ‬ ‫و‬ ‫ا‬ ‫إﺽ‬ ‫و‬ ‫ض‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ج‬ ‫وا‬. 3-Modified forelimbs into two wings for flying and the hind limb for perching "perching behavior".
  13. 13. 13 Skeletal characteristics of rabbits Muscular characteristics ‫وا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ز‬ ‫ا‬Avian Muscular System ‫ا‬ ‫ز‬ ‫ا‬ ‫آ‬ ‫ی‬Avian muscular System‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ت‬ ‫ا‬ ‫اع‬ ‫اﻥ‬ ‫ت‬ ‫ی‬ ‫ا‬ ‫آ‬ ‫ر‬ ‫ا‬‫وه‬ ‫و‬: -‫ء‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ت‬ ‫ا‬Smooth muscles:‫أرادی‬ ‫ت‬ ‫وه‬Involuntary muscles‫ﺕ‬ ‫أدﻥ‬ ‫دون‬ ‫ﺕ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ز‬ ‫ا‬ ‫وی‬ ‫وا‬ ‫وا‬ ‫وا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ز‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ء‬ ‫وأ‬ ‫ی‬ ‫ا‬ ‫و‬ ‫ا‬ ‫وﺕ‬ ‫ﺉ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫اﺕ‬ ‫ا‬Autonomic nervous system‫ﻥ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫و‬‫ﺉ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ق‬ ‫إ‬ ‫ﺕ‬ ‫ة‬ ‫ت‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ه‬ ‫ض‬. -‫ا‬ ‫أو‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ت‬ ‫ا‬Skeletal or striated muscles:‫ﺕ‬ ‫وﺕ‬ ‫ﺉ‬ ‫م‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫د‬ ‫ﺕ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫وه‬ ‫ارادی‬ ‫ت‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ت‬ ‫وا‬ ‫آ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ر‬ ‫واوﺕ‬ ‫ار‬ ‫ل‬ ‫ﺥ‬ ‫م‬Voluntary muscles‫ﺕ‬ ‫ﺕ‬ ‫ا‬‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ز‬ ‫ا‬ ‫وی‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ﺉ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ة‬Somatic nervous system‫ز‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ء‬ ‫وه‬ ‫ي‬ ‫آ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬Central nervous system. ‫ا‬ ‫ت‬ ‫إ‬ ‫ﺕ‬ ‫ی‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ت‬ ‫ا‬ ‫وه‬Cutaneous muscles‫أس‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ت‬ ‫و‬Head muscles ‫ع‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ت‬ ‫و‬Trunk muscles‫اف‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ت‬ ‫و‬Limb muscles. ‫ف‬ ‫أ‬ ‫ت‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ن‬ ‫وﺕ‬Muscle fibers‫ف‬ ‫أ‬ ‫ة‬ ‫وآ‬ ‫ﻥ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ة‬ ‫ی‬ ‫ز‬ ‫وﺕ‬ ‫آ‬ ‫رة‬ ‫وه‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ء‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ی‬ ‫ء‬ ‫ه‬ ‫ف‬ ‫أ‬ ‫ﺡ‬ ‫وآ‬ ‫اﺥ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ء‬ ‫ی‬ ‫م‬ ‫ﺹ‬ ‫ﻥ‬ ‫ی‬ ‫وا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫م‬‫ر‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ف‬ ‫ی‬ ‫م‬ ‫ﺽ‬ ‫ط‬ ‫ﺕ‬ ‫آ‬. ‫ﺡ‬ ‫و‬ ‫وآ‬ ‫ة‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ت‬ ‫وا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ت‬ ‫وا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ت‬ ‫وا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ت‬ ‫ا‬ ‫دة‬ ‫ﺉ‬ ‫و‬ ‫ت‬ ‫د‬ ‫و‬ ‫ن‬. ‫و‬ ‫ر‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ﻥ‬ ‫اﻥ‬ ‫ن‬ ‫وﺕ‬ ‫ان‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ﺕ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ه‬ ‫ر‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ت‬ ‫و‬‫ر‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ر‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ﺕ‬ ‫ن‬ ‫ﺽ‬ ‫وه‬ ‫وا‬ ‫ﻥ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫وﺕ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫إ‬ ‫ﺡ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ﺹ‬ ‫ﺥ‬ ‫وه‬ ‫ﺉ‬ ‫ا‬.
  14. 14. 14 ‫ر‬ ‫و‬ ‫ان‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ه‬ ‫ر‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ت‬ ‫و‬ ‫أ‬ ‫إ‬ ‫ﺡ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ﺹ‬ ‫ﺥ‬ ‫وه‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ر‬ ‫ا‬ ‫و‬ ‫إ‬ ‫ج‬ ‫ی‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ن‬ ‫ﺥ‬ ‫أﺹ‬ ‫ﺡ‬ ‫ا‬‫ﺉ‬ ‫آ‬ ‫د‬ ‫ی‬ ‫ا‬ ‫وه‬ ‫ا‬ ‫إ‬ ‫اء‬ ‫ا‬ ‫د‬. ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ر‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ت‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ر‬ ‫أوﺕ‬ ‫وﺕ‬‫ﺹ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫و‬ ‫وا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ی‬ ‫و‬ ‫م‬ ‫ا‬ ‫آ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ﺉ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ی‬ ‫ا‬‫ا‬ ‫ﺹ‬ ‫ه‬ ‫ر‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ﻥ‬ ‫إذا‬ ‫وذا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫إ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ﺹ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ﺕ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫وی‬ ‫م‬ ‫ا‬ ‫إ‬ ‫م‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ﺡ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ﺕ‬ ‫ن‬ ‫ا‬. -‫ا‬ ‫ا‬Cardiac muscle:‫أرادی‬ ‫وه‬Involuntary muscles‫دون‬ ‫ﺕ‬‫ﺉ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ﺕ‬ ‫أدﻥ‬ ‫اﺕ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ز‬ ‫ا‬ ‫وی‬Autonomic nervous system‫ﻥ‬ ‫آ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ت‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ﺕ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫وا‬ Striated muscles‫آ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫أرادی‬ ‫ﻥ‬ ‫آ‬ ‫ء‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ت‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ﺕ‬ ‫و‬‫ه‬ ‫ض‬ ‫ﻥ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫و‬ ‫إ‬ ‫ﺕ‬ ‫ة‬ ‫ت‬ ‫ا‬‫ﺉ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ق‬ ‫إ‬ ‫ﺕ‬ ‫ة‬ ‫ت‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ه‬ ‫ض‬ ‫ﻥ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫و‬ ‫ﺉ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ق‬ ‫ﻥ‬ ‫أو‬ ‫ة‬. ‫و‬‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻥ‬ ‫آ‬ ‫ت‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ث‬ ‫ﻥ‬‫ا‬ ‫ت‬ ‫ا‬Skeletal muscles‫وﺕ‬‫م‬ ‫ل‬ ‫آ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ء‬ ‫ا‬ ‫وا‬ ‫ا‬‫وﺕ‬‫ا‬ ‫ت‬ ‫ا‬‫ر‬ ‫ا‬ ‫وزن‬ ‫ﻥ‬ ‫أآ‬‫ج‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ﺉ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫داﺥ‬ ‫أﺥ‬ ‫أي‬ ‫ﻥ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ﺡ‬42‫ـ‬45%‫ا‬ ‫وزن‬‫ا‬ ‫ﻥ‬ ‫أﺡ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ه‬ ‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﺕ‬ ‫و‬0.75%‫آ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫وزن‬‫ا‬ ‫ه‬ ‫وﺕ‬ ‫ت‬ ‫ا‬ ‫زن‬ ‫ج‬ ‫ﻥ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ض‬ ‫وا‬ ‫وا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ة‬ ‫ت‬ ‫ا‬ ‫وزن‬ ‫وی‬ ‫ى‬ ‫ﺥ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫وا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫اع‬ ‫أﻥ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ج‬ ‫ا‬ ‫أآ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ج‬ ‫د‬ ‫وﻥ‬ ‫ت‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ووزن‬ ‫ث‬ ‫ﻥ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫أ‬ ‫ر‬ ‫آ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫وﻥ‬. ‫ر‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ت‬ ‫ا‬ ‫اع‬ ‫أﻥ‬ ‫ی‬ ‫ت‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ن‬ ‫دا‬ ‫وأ‬: -‫ول‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ع‬ ‫ا‬‫ن‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ﺕ‬ ‫ت‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ه‬Dark meat‫وا‬ ‫آ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫داﺉ‬ ‫ع‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫وه‬‫آ‬ ‫أﺡ‬ ‫ن‬ ‫ی‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ط‬ ‫ت‬ ‫آ‬ ‫وا‬ ‫اء‬ ‫ا‬ ‫وﺕ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫وه‬ ‫ه‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ﻥ‬ ‫اء‬ ‫ﺡ‬ ‫ف‬ ‫أ‬ ‫ذات‬ ‫ن‬ ‫ﺕ‬ ‫و‬ ‫ی‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ت‬ ‫ت‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ه‬ ‫وأه‬ ‫م‬ ‫ا‬ ‫وا‬Leg muscles‫ي‬ ‫وا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ه‬ ‫ت‬ ‫وه‬. -‫ا‬ ‫ع‬ ‫ا‬‫ﻥ‬‫ن‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ء‬ ‫ت‬ ‫ا‬ ‫وه‬White meat‫ا‬ ‫اه‬ ‫و‬ ‫اء‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ف‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫وه‬ ‫ر‬ ‫ا‬ ‫أه‬ ‫و‬Pectoral or Breast muscles‫ه‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫وه‬‫ان‬ ‫ا‬. ‫أو‬ ‫ر‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ت‬ ‫اء‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ت‬ ‫آ‬ ‫ن‬ ‫ﺕ‬ ‫ج‬ ‫ود‬ ‫وز‬ ‫وا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫و‬‫اء‬ ‫ﺡ‬ ‫ر‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ت‬Dark meat. ‫ا‬ ‫ی‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ﻥ‬ ‫ج‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫و‬5.72‫وﺕ‬ ‫وا‬32.3‫ه‬ ‫وا‬2.3‫د‬ ‫وا‬2.1‫ﺡ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ی‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﺡ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬7.3‫وﺕ‬ ‫وا‬21‫ه‬ ‫وا‬7.4‫د‬ ‫وا‬1.1‫آ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ی‬ ‫م‬ ‫و‬ ‫وي‬ ‫ا‬‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫وف‬ ‫وا‬ ‫ی‬ ‫ا‬ ‫وف‬ ‫و‬ ‫و‬ ‫ﺉ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ع‬ ‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﺡ‬ ‫ت‬. ‫اء‬ ‫ﺡ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ﺡ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ﺡ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫أن‬ ‫ﺡ‬ ‫ﺹ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫أﻥ‬ ‫ده‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ن‬ ‫ی‬ ‫ا‬ ‫و‬ ‫ن‬ ‫ه‬ ‫ا‬ ‫أ‬ ‫ﻥ‬. -‫ا‬ ‫ع‬ ‫ا‬‫د‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ج‬ ‫ا‬ ‫وی‬ ‫د‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ه‬‫درة‬ ‫ﻥ‬ ‫وﻥ‬ ‫أﻥ‬ ‫ی‬ ‫ي‬ ‫ا‬‫ﺕ‬Silky chicken‫وﺕ‬ ‫ق‬ ‫ب‬ ‫و‬ ‫وا‬ ‫ا‬‫ا‬ ‫اق‬ ‫وی‬‫ا‬ ‫ﻥ‬ ‫اﺉ‬ ‫د‬ ‫وﺕ‬ ‫ج‬ ‫ا‬ ‫اع‬ ‫أﻥ‬ ‫أ‬ ‫وی‬ ‫و‬ ‫ة‬ ‫ﺉ‬ ‫ى‬ ‫ﺕ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ی‬‫م‬ ‫ا‬ ‫وی‬ ‫د‬ ‫أ‬ ‫إ‬ ‫رق‬ ‫دي‬ ‫ر‬‫آ‬ ‫آ‬ ‫د‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ن‬ ‫ا‬ ‫أر‬ ‫ی‬ ‫ى‬ ‫ﺥ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ج‬ ‫ا‬ ‫اع‬ ‫أﻥ‬ ‫أن‬ ‫ﺡ‬ ‫م‬ ‫آ‬ ‫أﺹ‬ ‫ﺥ‬ ‫ی‬ ‫أن‬‫و‬‫ی‬ ‫ﺕ‬ ‫ی‬ ‫ه‬ ‫دي‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ج‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ی‬ ‫ي‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ﺡ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ء‬ ‫ا‬ ‫و‬ ‫د‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ج‬ ‫ا‬ ‫آ‬ ‫و‬‫ﻥ‬‫و‬‫ا‬ ‫ق‬‫درة‬ ‫ﻥ‬ ‫وﻥ‬ ‫إﻥ‬ ‫إ‬ ‫د‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ج‬ ‫ا‬ ‫وی‬ ‫ی‬ ‫ا‬ ‫إ‬ ‫إﺽ‬ ‫ی‬‫و‬‫ع‬ ‫ی‬ ‫ة‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ت‬ ‫ی‬ ‫ا‬‫و‬‫إ‬ ‫ة‬ ‫اﺡ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ی‬2500‫ر‬ ‫دو‬. ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫و‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ج‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ع‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ه‬ ‫ی‬ ‫و‬ ‫ای‬ ‫وا‬ ‫وا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫د‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ﻥ‬ ‫ع‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫وه‬‫ل‬ ‫ی‬ ‫ذ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ه‬ ‫ان‬ ‫ل‬ ‫وی‬ ‫ﺹ‬ ‫ﺥ‬ ‫س‬ ‫ا‬ ‫آ‬ ‫اﺉ‬ ‫ل‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ج‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ع‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ه‬ ‫وی‬ ‫ج‬ ‫د‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ﺉ‬ ‫ه‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ی‬ ‫ج‬ ‫ا‬!‫و‬ ‫ﺕ‬ ‫آ‬ ‫ج‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ه‬ ‫و‬ ‫ء‬ ‫ﺡ‬ ‫دﺕ‬ ‫و‬ ‫أة‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ول‬ ‫ﺕ‬ ‫ذ‬‫ج‬ ‫وا‬ ‫ن‬ ‫ا‬ ‫د‬ ‫أ‬ ‫ج‬ ‫د‬ ‫د‬ ‫ا‬‫أ‬ ‫ان‬ ‫ﺡ‬ ‫دي‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫و‬ ‫وء‬ ‫د‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ج‬ ‫ا‬ ‫وی‬ ‫م‬ ‫وا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫إ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ﺡ‬ ‫وی‬100‫ی‬ ‫ﺕ‬ ‫ا‬.
  15. 15. 15 Internal anatomy Respiratory characteristics 1-The avian lung is non-tidal = hepatized i.e. can not inflated by air. The mammalian lung is tidal = spongy i.e. can be inflated by air.
  16. 16. 16 The differences between respiratory system of poultry and mammals. Criteria Avian respiratory system Mammalian Respiratory system Lung Non tidal = hepatized Tidal = Spongy Air sacs Present Not Pneumatic bone Present Not Respiration Unidirectional bi-phasic air flow Bidirectional uni-phasic air flow Efficiency Extremely efficient Efficient 2-The presence of air sacs. They are nine in number in most avian species and take their names from their situation as follows: 1-Cervical air sac: one pair of air sac present in the cervical region. 2-Interclavicular air sac: single air sac present in-between the inter-clavicle bone. 3-Anterior thoracic air sac: one pair of air sac present in the anterior region of the thoracic cavity under the lung. 4-Posterior thoracic air sac: one pair of air sac present in the anterior region of the thoracic cavity between the lung and the genital organs. 5-Abdominal air sac: one pair of air sac presents behind to the last rib and extends into the pelvic cavity. ‫س‬ ‫آ‬ ‫ا‬‫اﺉ‬ ‫ا‬Air sacs:‫وﺕ‬ ‫أ‬ ‫آ‬ ‫ﺕ‬ ‫س‬ ‫أآ‬ ‫ه‬‫ا‬ ‫أﺕ‬‫ی‬ ‫ا‬ ‫و‬ ‫ا‬ ‫م‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ﺉ‬ ‫ا‬‫ا‬ ‫ﺉ‬ ‫وا‬ ‫زي‬ ‫ا‬ ‫دل‬ ‫ا‬ ‫م‬ ‫وا‬ ‫آ‬ ‫وا‬ ‫اء‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ی‬ ‫ﺕ‬‫ا‬ ‫زن‬ ‫ا‬ ‫آ‬ ‫ﺉ‬ ‫ی‬ ‫ی‬ ‫ﺉ‬ ‫ا‬‫و‬ ‫ان‬ ‫ا‬‫ا‬ ‫ﺉ‬ ‫ا‬‫ا‬ ‫ل‬ ‫ﺡ‬ ‫اﺥ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ارة‬ ‫ا‬ ‫در‬ ‫آ‬ ‫ی‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ت‬ ‫اﻥ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ج‬ ‫ﻥ‬ ‫خ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ی‬Spermatogenesis.
  17. 17. 17 ‫ا‬ ‫اﺉ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫س‬ ‫آ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ﺕ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ﺡ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫و‬: 1-‫ا‬ ‫اﺉ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫س‬ ‫آ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫وﺕ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫اﺉ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫س‬ ‫آ‬ ‫ا‬Cervical air sac‫ي‬ ‫ﺕ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫اﺉ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫وا‬ clavicular air sac-Inter‫ا‬ ‫ری‬ ‫ا‬ ‫اﺉ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫س‬ ‫آ‬ ‫وا‬Anterior thoracic air sac. 2-‫ا‬ ‫اﺉ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫س‬ ‫آ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫وﺕ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫اﺉ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫س‬ ‫آ‬ ‫ا‬‫ا‬ ‫ری‬Posterior thoracic air sac‫س‬ ‫آ‬ ‫وا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫اﺉ‬ ‫ا‬Abdominal air sac. Comparison between air sac of different poultry species Duck air sacs Turkey air sacs Chicken air sacs Cervical one pair Cervical Fused Cervical one Pair Inter-clavicular Fused Inter-clavicular one pair Inter-clavicular Fused Anterior thoracic one pair Anterior thoracic one pair Anterior Thoracic one pair Posterior thoracic one pair Posterior thoracic one pair Posterior Thoracic one pair Abdominal one pair Abdominal one pair Abdominal one pair 3-No muscular diaphragm so the thoracic, abdominal and pelvic cavities are fused in one celomic cavity. Fused body cavities facilitates the transmission of infections in-between the visceral organs. ‫ر‬ ‫وا‬ ‫ك‬ ‫وا‬ ‫ت‬ ‫ا‬ ‫وا‬ ‫ن‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ت‬ ‫أ‬ Mechanism of respiration in human, animals, fish and poultry ‫ا‬Respiration‫ة‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ار‬ ‫ا‬ ‫أ‬ ‫ﺕ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ی‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ت‬ ‫ا‬ ‫أه‬ ‫واﺡ‬ ‫ه‬‫أ‬ ‫وه‬‫ا‬ ‫ء‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ء‬ ‫أﻥ‬ ‫آ‬ ‫إ‬ ‫م‬ ‫ا‬ ‫وی‬ ‫ی‬‫ا‬ ‫وﺡ‬ ‫ج‬ ‫ی‬7%‫ی‬ ‫ﺡ‬ ‫م‬ ‫ا‬ ‫آ‬ ‫ا‬‫ﺕ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫وه‬ ‫ك‬ ‫وأ‬ ‫ت‬ ‫اﻥ‬ ‫وﺡ‬ ‫ر‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ت‬ ‫ﺉ‬ ‫ا‬. ‫ه‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ﺉ‬ ‫ﻥ‬ ‫أه‬ ‫و‬ ‫ت‬ ‫ون‬ ‫و‬ ‫ﺹ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ار‬ ‫إ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ﻥ‬ ‫ار‬ ‫وإ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫آ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫آ‬ ‫ل‬ ‫ا‬‫ا‬ ‫ت‬ ‫ز‬‫اﺉ‬ ‫ا‬Metabolism‫ا‬ ‫ث‬ ‫ﺕ‬ ‫ا‬‫ا‬ ‫ﺽ‬‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ت‬ ‫ﺽ‬ ‫ی‬ ‫و‬ ‫وري‬ ‫ﺽ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ن‬ ‫ا‬ ‫أآ‬ ‫ﻥ‬‫ا‬‫ی‬‫ت‬‫ر‬ ‫وا‬ ‫ك‬ ‫وا‬. 1-‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫أ‬‫ت‬ ‫ی‬:‫ﺕ‬‫ا‬ ‫م‬‫و‬ ‫ت‬ ‫ی‬ ‫ا‬‫أﺥ‬ ‫ن‬ ‫ﻥ‬ ‫ا‬‫ا‬‫ودﺥ‬ ‫اء‬‫ا‬ ‫أو‬ ‫ﻥ‬ ‫ا‬‫ورا‬ ‫ووﺹ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ات‬‫ﺉ‬‫ف‬ ‫ﺕ‬‫ا‬Inspiration‫زات‬ ‫ا‬ ‫دل‬ ‫ﺕ‬ ‫وث‬ ‫ﺡ‬ ‫و‬Gas exchange‫ا‬ ‫وﻥ‬ ‫ﺉ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫إ‬ ‫اﺥ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫اء‬ ‫ا‬ ‫آ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫وأﺥ‬ ‫ﺉ‬ ‫ا‬‫د‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬‫م‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ات‬ ‫ا‬‫ا‬ ‫ت‬ ‫وث‬ ‫ﺡ‬ ‫أ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ی‬ ‫ﺥ‬ ‫إ‬ ‫اء‬‫اﺉ‬ ‫ا‬Metabolism‫اء‬ ‫ا‬ ‫اج‬ ‫إﺥ‬ ‫و‬‫ف‬ ‫ﺕ‬ ‫ا‬Expiration‫ﻥ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫أو‬ ‫ا‬ ‫وه‬ ‫دﺥ‬ ‫ي‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ن‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ﻥ‬ ‫و‬ ‫وﺥ‬ ‫ن‬ ‫ا‬ ‫أآ‬ ‫ﻥ‬. 2-‫ك‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫أ‬:‫ا‬ ‫ﺕ‬‫ا‬ ‫ك‬ ‫ا‬‫أو‬‫ا‬‫ا‬‫ك‬ ‫ا‬ ‫أن‬ ‫و‬ ‫ا‬ ‫داﺉ‬ ‫ت‬ ‫ﺉ‬ ‫آ‬‫ء‬ ‫ا‬‫ﺕ‬‫ب‬ ‫ا‬ ‫آ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ﺥ‬ ‫ج‬‫و‬ ‫ء‬ ‫ا‬‫أن‬ ‫وف‬ ‫ا‬‫آ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫آ‬ ‫ء‬ ‫وی‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ﺥ‬ ‫ی‬ ‫آ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ء‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ن‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ة‬ ‫آ‬ ‫ء‬ ‫دة‬ ‫ا‬‫داﺥ‬ ‫دة‬ ‫ا‬ ‫و‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ات‬ ‫ه‬ ‫وآ‬ ‫ت‬ ‫ﺕ‬ ‫وا‬ ‫ﺕ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ء‬ ‫ا‬ ‫آ‬ ‫ﺕ‬ ‫وا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫س‬ ‫ا‬‫ا‬ ‫ء‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ی‬ ‫و‬‫أو‬ ‫ا‬‫إ‬‫ف‬ ‫ی‬Lamella‫زات‬ ‫ا‬ ‫دل‬ ‫ﺕ‬ ‫وث‬ ‫ﺡ‬ ‫أ‬Gas exchange‫آ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫وأﺥ‬ ‫ك‬ ‫ه‬ ‫و‬ ‫ء‬ ‫ا‬‫ن‬ ‫ا‬ ‫أآ‬ ‫ﻥ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ء‬ ‫ا‬ ‫وج‬ ‫ﺥ‬. 3-‫ر‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫أ‬:‫ر‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ز‬ ‫ا‬‫ز‬‫ا‬ ‫وی‬ ‫ى‬ ‫ﺥ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ت‬ ‫اﻥ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ر‬ ‫ت‬ ‫ان‬ ‫ا‬ ‫أ‬ ‫أﺹ‬ ‫ت‬ ‫ﺉ‬ ‫آ‬ ‫ر‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ذ‬‫ت‬ ‫أرﺕ‬ ‫و‬ ‫ی‬‫ي‬ ‫وا‬‫ﺕ‬ ‫ی‬‫ا‬ ‫ج‬ ‫آ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ة‬ ‫آ‬ ‫ت‬ ‫آ‬‫زات‬ ‫ا‬ ‫دل‬ ‫ﺕ‬ ‫ة‬ ‫ی‬ ‫ي‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬Gas exchange‫ر‬ ‫ا‬. ‫و‬‫أن‬ ‫ث‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ت‬ ‫أآ‬‫ا‬ ‫ج‬ ‫ﺕ‬ ‫ر‬ ‫ا‬‫دورﺕ‬‫و‬‫دورﺕ‬‫زي‬ ‫ا‬ ‫دل‬ ‫ا‬ ‫م‬ ‫ﺕ‬ ‫ز‬Gas exchange.
  18. 18. 18 ‫ول‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫و‬First inspiration‫و‬ ‫رج‬ ‫ا‬ ‫اء‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ﺥ‬ ‫ی‬‫ی‬‫ﺉ‬ ‫ور‬ ‫ا‬ ‫دون‬ ‫ا‬ ‫اﺉ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫س‬ ‫آ‬ ‫ة‬. ‫ول‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫و‬First expiration‫ه‬ ‫وی‬ ‫ا‬ ‫اﺉ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫س‬ ‫آ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫اء‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ج‬ ‫ی‬‫ﺉ‬‫زي‬ ‫ا‬ ‫دل‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ی‬ ‫ﺡ‬ Gas exchange. ‫ﻥ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫و‬Second inspiration‫و‬ ‫رج‬ ‫ا‬ ‫اء‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ﺥ‬ ‫ی‬‫ة‬ ‫ی‬‫ور‬ ‫ا‬ ‫دون‬ ‫ا‬ ‫اﺉ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫س‬ ‫آ‬ ‫ﺉ‬‫ا‬ ‫اﺉ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫س‬ ‫آ‬ ‫ﺉ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫د‬ ‫ا‬ ‫اء‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ج‬ ‫وی‬. ‫ﻥ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫و‬Second expiration‫ه‬ ‫وی‬ ‫ا‬ ‫اﺉ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫س‬ ‫آ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫اء‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ج‬ ‫ی‬‫ﺉ‬‫دل‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ی‬ ‫ﺡ‬ ‫زي‬ ‫ا‬Gas exchange‫س‬ ‫آ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫د‬ ‫ا‬ ‫اء‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ج‬ ‫وی‬‫رج‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬. ‫اء‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ور‬ ‫وی‬ ‫ر‬ ‫ﺹ‬ ‫ﺥ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫وه‬‫اﺡ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫واﺕ‬ ‫ﺡ‬Unidirectional bi-phasic air flow. ‫ا‬ ‫ت‬ ‫ﺉ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ل‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ﺉ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ع‬ ‫ﻥ‬‫ا‬ ‫ة‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ل‬‫ا‬ ‫ﺉ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ع‬ ‫ﻥ‬‫ا‬ ‫ة‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ل‬ ‫ا‬‫ن‬ ‫ﻥ‬16-18‫س‬ ‫ا‬10-30 ‫ر‬ ‫ا‬12-28‫ا‬5-20 ‫م‬ ‫ا‬12-20‫ا‬10-18 ‫رﻥ‬ ‫ا‬100-140‫ج‬ ‫ا‬20-40 ‫و‬ ‫ا‬12-14‫ا‬50-70 ‫وز‬ ‫ا‬15-25‫م‬ ‫ا‬40-60 ‫ن‬ ‫ا‬40-60‫م‬ ‫ا‬10-12 Renal characteristics 1-Relatively large right and left tri-lobed kidney having cranial or cephalic or anterior lobe, middle lobe and caudal or posterior lobe.
  19. 19. 19 2-No urinary bladder and no urethra and the Ureters open directly in the cloaca. Birds are Uricotelic i.e. their end product of protein metabolism is uric acid. N.B Animal species are classified according to their end product of nitrogen metabolism into: Ureatelic "all mammals except for ruminant and Dalmatian dog"; Allantolotelic "ruminant and Dalmatian dog"; Amoniatelic "Fish" and Uricotelic "Poultry“. 3-Avian urine is creamy colored containing 60-80% uric acid. ‫ﺽ‬":" ‫أو‬-‫ری‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ت‬ ‫ت‬ ‫ﺉ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ﻥ‬ ‫آ‬ ‫ر‬ ‫ا‬ ‫أن‬Ureatelic‫ی‬ ‫ا‬ ‫أو‬Allantolotelic‫ا‬ ‫ﻥ‬ ‫ة‬ ‫ﻥ‬ ‫أو‬ ‫ة‬ ‫أول‬ ‫ی‬ ‫ف‬ ‫ت‬ ‫ﺡ‬ ‫وث‬ ‫ﺡ‬ ‫ه‬ ‫ة‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬‫ر‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ث‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ل‬ ‫ا‬. ‫ﻥ‬-‫ﻥ‬ ‫ر‬ ‫ا‬ ‫أن‬Urinary bladder‫ة‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ﻥ‬ ‫ل‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ی‬ ‫ﺕ‬ ‫ی‬ ‫ا‬ ‫وه‬ ‫ر‬ ‫ا‬ ‫داﺥ‬ ‫ات‬ ‫ﺡ‬ ‫ی‬ ‫ﺕ‬ ‫ه‬. -‫ل‬ ‫ي‬ ‫ر‬ ‫ا‬ ‫أن‬Urethra‫ة‬ ‫ﺡ‬ ‫ی‬ ‫ﺕ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ﻥ‬‫داﺥ‬. 4-In marine birds there are salt gland in the nasal cavity. ‫ی‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ر‬ ‫ا‬Marine birds‫ی‬‫ا‬ ‫ة‬ ‫ا‬ ‫أو‬ ‫ﻥ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ة‬ ‫ف‬ ‫ی‬Salt glands‫ا‬ ‫وﺕ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫اﺉ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫اج‬ ‫اﺥ‬ ‫وو‬ ‫ﻥ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ی‬ ‫ﺕ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ب‬ ‫ي‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ف‬ ‫ا‬‫ا‬ ‫ﺡ‬ ‫م‬ ‫دی‬ ‫ا‬ ‫أو‬ ‫ا‬ ‫آ‬ ‫ﺕ‬ ‫ة‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ه‬ ‫ﺕ‬ ‫ﺡ‬3-5‫آ‬ ‫ﺕ‬ ‫ر‬ ‫ات‬‫آ‬ ‫ﺕ‬ ‫ﺕ‬ ‫وأآ‬ ‫م‬‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ء‬ ‫ﻥ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ی‬ ‫ا‬ ‫أﺥ‬ ‫ی‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ر‬. ‫ﺉ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫وه‬‫ا‬‫ﻥ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ت‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ی‬‫ﺉ‬‫ات‬ ‫ر‬ ‫ا‬ ‫وی‬‫ﺉ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫م‬ ‫ی‬ ‫ﺥ‬ ‫و‬. ‫و‬‫م‬ ‫اء‬ ‫ی‬ ‫ﺹ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ی‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ر‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ﺕ‬ ‫ة‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ه‬‫أو‬ ‫ﺡ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ی‬‫ا‬‫ب‬‫ا‬‫ء‬‫ا‬‫وث‬ ‫ﺡ‬ ‫دون‬ ‫و‬ ‫ﺹ‬ ‫آ‬‫ءا‬ ‫أو‬ ‫ﺡ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ی‬ ‫م‬ ‫ی‬ ‫را‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ه‬ ‫ی‬ ‫اذا‬‫أ‬ ‫ی‬ ‫ز‬ ‫ﺕ‬ ‫ي‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ﺉ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ه‬ ‫ن‬ ‫م‬ ‫آ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﺕ‬ ‫ر‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ه‬ ‫ﻥ‬ ‫آ‬ ‫آ‬ ‫ات‬ ‫ا‬.
  20. 20. 20 Digestive characteristics
  21. 21. 21 1-The presence of crop in most avian species in addition to two stomach system "glandular or proventriculus and muscular or gizzard".
  22. 22. 22 2-Avian GIT is of low physical limitation, so, the avian feeds should be nutritionally concentrated, having all nutritive elements and easily digested and absorbed. Presence of the cloaca "universal sac having 4 openings; coprodium (for intestine), Urodieum (for Ureters), proctodeum (for vas deference in male and left oviduct in female) + small opening of bursa of Fabricius. Cloacal openings Male Female Coprodium 1 1 Urodieum 2 2 Proctodeum 2 "two vas deferences 1 left oviduct Opening of bursa of Fabricius 1 1 Vent opening 1 1 Total 7 6 Cardiovascular characteristics -‫و‬ ‫ي‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ﺡ‬ ‫ﺉ‬ ‫ر‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ر‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ی‬‫ن‬ ‫ی‬‫ر‬ ‫ا‬4‫أذﻥ‬ ‫ات‬ ‫ﺡ‬Two atria‫و‬ Two ventricles‫ﺉ‬ ‫ووﺹ‬ ‫م‬ ‫ا‬ ‫دوران‬ ‫ی‬ ‫ی‬‫دل‬ ‫ا‬‫ءة‬ ‫زى‬ ‫ا‬. ‫ﻥ‬ ‫أآ‬ ‫ر‬ ‫ا‬ ‫و‬1.5-2‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ﺡ‬ ‫ﻥ‬ ‫أن‬ ‫ﺡ‬ ‫ت‬ ‫ی‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ة‬‫ﺡ‬‫ر‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬0.8% ‫ت‬ ‫ی‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ه‬ ‫أن‬ ‫ﺡ‬0.6.% ‫و‬‫ا‬‫أآ‬ ‫آ‬ ‫ي‬ ‫ی‬ ‫ر‬ ‫ا‬‫ﺕ‬ ‫أن‬ ‫آ‬ ‫ت‬ ‫ی‬ ‫ا‬‫ی‬‫أﺹ‬‫ت‬ ‫ی‬ ‫ا‬ ‫أ‬ ‫ءة‬ ‫وأ‬ ‫م‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ﺽ‬ ‫أ‬ ‫م‬ ‫و‬ ‫أآ‬ ‫رة‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ی‬. ‫ه‬ ‫وﺡ‬ ‫ج‬ ‫ﺕ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫و‬7%‫م‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫آ‬ ‫ا‬.
  23. 23. 23 ‫ی‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ورة‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ن‬ ‫ﻥ‬ ‫ر‬ ‫ا‬ ‫وی‬‫ع‬ ‫ا‬‫ول‬ ‫ا‬‫و‬‫ه‬‫أو‬ ‫زی‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ی‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ورة‬ ‫ا‬‫ی‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ورة‬ ‫ا‬‫ا‬ Systemic circulations‫و‬ ‫ى‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ی‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ورة‬ ‫ا‬ ‫وﺕ‬‫ع‬ ‫ا‬‫ﻥ‬ ‫ا‬‫و‬‫ه‬‫ی‬ ‫ﺉ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ی‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ورة‬ ‫ا‬Pulmonary circulation‫ن‬ ‫دﺕ‬ ‫و‬ ‫ن‬ ‫ن‬ ‫ورﺕ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ن‬ ‫ﺕ‬ ‫وه‬ ‫ي‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ی‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ورة‬ ‫ا‬ ‫وﺕ‬. ‫آ‬‫ه‬ ‫ى‬ ‫أﺥ‬ ‫ی‬ ‫د‬ ‫دورة‬ ‫ﺕ‬‫ا‬ ‫ی‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ورة‬ ‫ا‬hepatic portal circulation‫د‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ی‬ ‫ا‬ ‫و‬ ‫ا‬ ‫وﺕ‬ ‫ﺕ‬ ‫ﺡ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫اﺕ‬ ‫اﺉ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫اد‬ ‫ا‬ ‫وﺕ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ة‬ ‫ا‬‫م‬ ‫ا‬ ‫در‬ ‫ی‬ ‫ی‬ ‫ا‬‫ری‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ي‬ ‫ا‬‫ا‬ ‫ف‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ری‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ی‬ ‫ي‬ ‫ا‬. ‫و‬‫ج‬ ‫ا‬‫ی‬‫ا‬ ‫ی‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ورة‬ ‫ف‬ ‫ﺕ‬ ‫ﺹ‬ ‫ﺥ‬ ‫ی‬ ‫د‬ ‫دورة‬Renal portal circulation of chickens‫وا‬ ‫ر‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ي‬ ‫ری‬ ‫ا‬ ‫م‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ﺕ‬ ‫ی‬‫ا‬ ‫ﺥ‬ ‫ی‬ ‫ي‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ﻥ‬ ‫ی‬ ‫ا‬ ‫م‬ ‫ا‬ ‫إ‬ ‫ﺽ‬ ‫اج‬ ‫ﺥ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫اد‬ ‫ﺕ‬ ‫ی‬ ‫ا‬ ‫دات‬ ‫ﺡ‬ ‫ن‬ ‫ه‬ ‫و‬ ‫ه‬ ‫ﻥ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫م‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ج‬ ‫ی‬ ‫ض‬ ‫ا‬‫ا‬ ‫ت‬‫ر‬‫ا‬‫دي‬ ‫ی‬ ‫ج‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬‫ا‬ ‫دات‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ه‬‫ی‬ ‫ا‬‫ا‬‫و‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ﺕ‬ ‫أن‬ ‫وذ‬ ‫ي‬‫و‬ ‫دي‬ ‫ﺕ‬ ‫أن‬ ‫دون‬. The avian erythrocytes are "nucleated" and the avian neutrophils are modified to heterophils and the avian blood platelets are true cells i.e. "nucleated" and known as thrombocytes. -‫اء‬ ‫ا‬ ‫م‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ات‬ ‫آ‬ ‫ﺕ‬Avian RBCs‫ا‬ ‫ی‬ ‫وﺥ‬Thrombocytes‫اة‬ ‫ﻥ‬ ‫ن‬ ‫ر‬ ‫ا‬Nucleated ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫آ‬ ‫ن‬ ‫ی‬ ‫ی‬ ‫ا‬-1Major histocompatability complex-I ‫ن‬ ‫ی‬ ‫و‬‫دور‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ﺕ‬. The natural activities, the metabolic and the growth rates of avian species are higher than those of mammals, so the number of heart beats, the respiratory rhythm, the nutritional requirements of the former are much higher than in the latter. Genital characteristics ‫وی‬ ‫و‬ ‫ﻥ‬ ‫ء‬ ‫وو‬ ‫و‬ ‫ﺥ‬ ‫ر‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ر‬ ‫ذآ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ز‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ن‬ ‫ی‬‫د‬ ‫و‬ ‫م‬ ‫ت‬ ‫ی‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ی‬ ‫ﻥ‬ ‫د‬Secondary genital glands‫ی‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ﺹ‬ ‫آ‬Seminal vesicle‫ﺕ‬ ‫و‬ ‫وا‬Prostate gland.
  24. 24. 24 ‫ر‬ ‫ا‬‫ا‬ ‫ت‬ ‫واﺽ‬Oviparous‫ر‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ﻥ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ز‬ ‫ا‬ ‫م‬ ‫وی‬‫ن‬ ‫وی‬ ‫ج‬ ‫ﻥ‬ ‫وا‬‫ا‬ ‫ي‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ة‬ ‫و‬ ‫ی‬ ‫ا‬Left sided ovary and oviduct‫ﺡ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ء‬ ‫أ‬ ‫ﻥ‬ ‫ی‬ ‫أﻥ‬ ‫ر‬ ‫ﺕ‬ ‫و‬ ‫ی‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫أ‬ ‫ﺡ‬ ‫ء‬ ‫أ‬ ‫ن‬ ‫ی‬ ‫اﻥ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬‫ا‬‫وی‬‫ﺕ‬ ‫ان‬‫ا‬ ‫ﻥ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ﺕ‬. ‫ي‬ ‫ﻥ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ز‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ن‬ ‫وی‬: ‫أ‬-‫ا‬Ovary:‫ه‬‫ا‬ ‫دة‬ ‫دی‬ ‫آ‬‫ا‬ ‫وی‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ار‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ی‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ى‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ر‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ن‬ ‫وی‬ ‫م‬ ‫ﺽ‬ ‫ﻥ‬‫وﺕ‬ ‫ة‬ ‫ف‬ ‫ﺕ‬ ‫ر‬ ‫ﺥ‬ ‫ه‬ ‫أﺡ‬‫داﺥ‬ ‫ي‬ ‫ﺥ‬ ‫وا‬ ‫ت‬ ‫ی‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ي‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ت‬ ‫ی‬ ‫ا‬ ‫آ‬ ‫د‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ى‬ ‫وی‬ ‫وا‬ ‫ي‬ ‫ا‬ ‫اد‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ي‬ ‫ﺕ‬ ‫ع‬ ‫ف‬ ‫ﺕ‬ Ovarian follicles‫ت‬ ‫ی‬ ‫ﺡ‬‫ا‬ ‫ﺡ‬ ‫ﺽ‬ ‫ﻥ‬5-6‫و‬‫ت‬ ‫ی‬ ‫ﺡ‬‫ا‬ ‫ﺡ‬ ‫ﺽ‬ ‫ﻥ‬)500-4000.( ‫ى‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫د‬ ‫و‬‫ا‬ ‫ﺕ‬‫ا‬ ‫ي‬ ‫ی‬ ‫ي‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ت‬ ‫ی‬ ‫ا‬ ‫د‬ ‫أ‬ ‫ن‬ ‫ی‬ ‫ﻥ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ﺕ‬ ‫ﺡ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ل‬ ‫ﺡ‬ ‫ت‬ ‫ا‬ ‫آ‬ ‫ﺕ‬ ‫ی‬ ‫ﺡ‬ ‫ت‬ ‫ی‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ﺕ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬)‫ی‬ ‫ا‬( ‫ی‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ر‬ ‫وﺕ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ﺡ‬ ‫ء‬ ‫أ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ی‬ ‫م‬ ‫ه‬ ‫ر‬ ‫ر‬ ‫ا‬ ‫وی‬‫ن‬ ‫ا‬ ‫از‬ ‫ﻥ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ت‬ ‫ت‬ ‫ی‬ ‫ا‬F.S.H‫ا‬ ‫ا‬‫ا‬ ‫ت‬ ‫ی‬ ‫ﺡ‬ ‫وﻥ‬ ‫ﻥ‬ ‫ل‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ن‬ ‫ا‬ ‫وه‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ة‬ ‫ن‬ ‫ه‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ز‬ ‫وی‬‫از‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ﺕ‬ ‫ل‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ون‬ ‫و‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ن‬ ‫وه‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ة‬ ‫ر‬ ‫ﺕ‬ ‫ل‬ ‫ا‬ ‫و‬ ‫ا‬ ‫إ‬ ‫ة‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬‫ی‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ن‬ ‫ه‬ ‫از‬LH‫ی‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ن‬ ‫وه‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ة‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬LH‫ل‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ه‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ة‬ ‫آ‬ ‫ﺡ‬ ‫ﺕ‬ ‫ی‬ ‫آ‬ ‫ی‬ ‫ا‬. ‫ب‬-‫ة‬‫ا‬The Oviduct:‫ی‬ ‫ﺕ‬ ‫ك‬ ‫ه‬ ‫ن‬ ‫ی‬ ‫ة‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ر‬ ‫ا‬‫ا‬ ‫م‬ ‫ا‬ ‫و‬ ‫ى‬ ‫وی‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ة‬ ‫ﺕ‬‫ه‬ ‫ى‬ ‫ا‬ ‫وﺕ‬‫ا‬ ‫ﺕ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ة‬ ‫ل‬ ‫وی‬ ‫ا‬‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ﺡ‬ ‫ء‬ ‫أ‬ ‫ن‬ ‫ج‬ ‫ﻥ‬ ‫ا‬18-11‫ج‬ ‫ﻥ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ﺡ‬ ‫ء‬ ‫وأ‬70-75‫ﺥ‬ ‫ن‬ ‫وﺕ‬‫اء‬ ‫أ‬‫ه‬: 1-‫ا‬Infundibutum = Funnel:‫رة‬ ‫ه‬‫ا‬ ‫ی‬ ‫ر‬ ‫ء‬‫و‬10‫ط‬ ‫ا‬ ‫وو‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ﻥ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ات‬ ‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﺕ‬ ‫وی‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ی‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ی‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ء‬ ‫أ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ی‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ی‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ت‬ ‫اﻥ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ش‬ ‫ف‬ ‫ﺕ‬ ‫د‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ي‬ ‫وی‬ ‫ی‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ء‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ث‬ ‫ﺕ‬Sperm nets‫ی‬ ‫وا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ت‬ ‫اﻥ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ی‬ ‫ﺕ‬‫ا‬ ‫ی‬‫وی‬‫ا‬‫ا‬ ‫ص‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ل‬ ‫وی‬ ‫ی‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ب‬ ‫إﺥ‬)‫د‬ ‫ا‬( )‫درم‬ ‫ا‬(‫ی‬ ‫ا‬ ‫وﺕ‬10-20‫د‬.
  25. 25. 25 2-‫ا‬Magnum‫از‬ ‫إ‬ ‫أو‬‫ض‬ ‫ا‬Albumen secreting portion:‫وی‬ ‫ر‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ة‬ ‫اء‬ ‫ا‬ ‫أآ‬ ‫ه‬ 30–33‫ض‬ ‫ا‬ ‫از‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ی‬ ‫ي‬ ‫ء‬ ‫وه‬‫أو‬‫ا‬‫ز‬ ‫ﺕ‬ ‫أﻥ‬ ‫اه‬ ‫أﺡ‬ ‫د‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ﻥ‬ ‫ى‬ ‫وی‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ض‬ ‫ا‬ ‫وﺕ‬‫ی‬ ‫ا‬ ‫وﺕ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ض‬ ‫ا‬ ‫وﺕ‬ ‫ز‬ ‫ﺕ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ة‬ ‫وﺡ‬ ‫ﻥ‬ ‫وا‬2.5–3‫ت‬. 3-‫زخ‬ ‫ا‬Isthmus‫از‬ ‫إ‬ ‫أو‬‫ة‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ء‬Shell membrane secreting portion:‫ی‬ ‫ﺽ‬ ‫ء‬ ‫وه‬ 7-10‫ی‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ف‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫آ‬ ‫ان‬ ‫ی‬ ‫ان‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ر‬ ‫وا‬ ‫اﺥ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ة‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ﺉ‬ ‫از‬ ‫إ‬ ‫وی‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ﺡ‬ ‫ی‬ ‫ا‬ ‫وی‬ ‫اﺉ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ن‬75‫د‬)‫ور‬‫ا‬.( 4-‫ا‬Uterus‫ة‬ ‫ا‬ ‫از‬ ‫إ‬ ‫أو‬Shell secreting portion:‫ي‬ ‫ء‬ ‫وه‬10 ‫ی‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ة‬ ‫وی‬Shell glands‫وا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ة‬ ‫ی‬ ‫ﺕ‬ ‫ی‬ ‫ﺡ‬‫و‬ ‫م‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ت‬ ‫ﻥ‬ ‫آ‬ ‫أ‬ ‫ن‬ ‫ﺕ‬ ‫وی‬ ‫ﻥ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ح‬ ‫ا‬‫ل‬ ‫ا‬‫ا‬ ‫ﺕ‬ ‫ﻥ‬ ‫ا‬‫ی‬ ‫ا‬ ‫وﺕ‬ ‫ح‬ ‫وا‬ ‫ء‬19-20. 5-‫ا‬Vagina:‫و‬ ‫ا‬ ‫وی‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ة‬ ‫ﺥ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ء‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ه‬7‫ا‬ ‫ی‬ ‫ﺕ‬ ‫دور‬ ‫و‬ ‫ا‬ ‫وﺽ‬ ‫ه‬ ‫دورا‬ ‫وی‬ ‫و‬ ‫ﺥ‬ ‫ﻥ‬ ‫وی‬‫د‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ي‬ ‫وی‬ ‫ا‬‫ی‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ت‬ ‫اﻥ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ش‬ ‫ف‬ ‫ﺕ‬Sperm nets‫ی‬ ‫ت‬ ‫وی‬ ‫ی‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ت‬ ‫اﻥ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ی‬ ‫ﺕ‬ ‫ی‬ ‫وا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫وج‬ ‫ﺥ‬ ‫ی‬ ‫ت‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ه‬ ‫ط‬ ‫واﻥ‬Cloaca. ‫ا‬ ‫وﺽ‬ ‫ﺕ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫وج‬ ‫ﺥ‬ ‫و‬Ovi-position‫ﻥ‬ ‫وﺕ‬‫ﺕ‬ ‫وا‬ ‫ﺡ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ت‬ ‫ض‬ ‫ﻥ‬‫ﺕ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ة‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ز‬ ‫ی‬ ‫ي‬ ‫ا‬ ‫وآ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ن‬ ‫ه‬‫آ‬ ‫ءا‬ ‫و‬‫ا‬ ‫ﺡ‬ ‫ق‬ ‫ﺕ‬25-27 ‫ﺕ‬‫ن‬‫ووﺽ‬ ‫و‬ ‫ﺥ‬ ‫وﺡ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ة‬ ‫ره‬ ‫ورا‬ ‫ا‬. ‫ن‬ ‫وﺕ‬‫ة‬‫ا‬‫ﺥ‬‫اء‬ ‫أ‬‫ه‬ ‫اء‬ ‫ا‬‫ل‬ ‫ا‬‫ا‬‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ Infundibutum 10 ‫ی‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ء‬ ‫أ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ی‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ط‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ی‬ ‫ا‬. 10-20‫د‬ ‫ا‬Magnum30–33‫از‬ ‫إ‬‫ض‬ ‫ا‬Albumen secreting portion2.5–3‫ت‬. ‫زخ‬ ‫ا‬Isthmus7-10 ‫ة‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ء‬ ‫از‬ ‫إ‬Shell membrane secreting portion ‫ور‬‫ا‬ ‫ا‬Uterus10‫ة‬ ‫ا‬ ‫از‬ ‫إ‬Shell secreting portion19-20 ‫ا‬Vagina7‫ا‬ ‫اج‬ ‫أﺥ‬Oviposition15‫د‬
  26. 26. 26 ‫ا‬ ‫ر‬ ‫ا‬ ‫اع‬ ‫ﻥ‬ ‫ی‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ات‬ ‫ﺽ‬ ‫ی‬ ‫ول‬ ‫ی‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ة‬/‫م‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ع‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ی‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ة‬/‫م‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ع‬ ‫ا‬ 17 ‫م‬ ‫ا‬ 21 ‫ج‬ ‫ا‬ 16-19 ‫ن‬ ‫ا‬ 28 ‫و‬ ‫ا‬ 40-45 ‫م‬ ‫ا‬ 28 ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ 33-35 ‫وز‬ ‫ا‬ 35 ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ 1-Avian females have 2 ovaries and 2 oviducts but the right ones are atrophied and un- functional while the left ones are only active. Birds are oviparous.
  27. 27. 27 Nervous characteristics Avian senses ‫ر‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫اس‬ ‫ا‬ 5-‫ؤی‬ ‫ا‬Sight:‫وﺕ‬ ‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﺉ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫رﻥ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ﻥ‬ ‫آ‬ ‫ی‬ ‫رة‬ ‫ر‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ؤی‬ ‫ا‬ ‫وزاوی‬ ‫أس‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ﻥ‬ ‫ر‬ ‫ا‬‫وي‬ ‫ﺕ‬ ‫ر‬300‫ا‬ ‫آ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ؤی‬ ‫ا‬ ‫وزاوی‬ ‫در‬ ‫وي‬ ‫ﺕ‬26‫ر‬ ‫ا‬ ‫أن‬ ‫آ‬ ‫ر‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ؤی‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ل‬ ‫ز‬ ‫ی‬ ‫ی‬ ‫اﺉ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ی‬ ‫ا‬ ‫آ‬ ‫أس‬ ‫ا‬ ‫وﺕ‬ ‫در‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ی‬ ‫ﺉ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫رأس‬ ‫ا‬ ‫آ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ﺡ‬ ‫ﺕ‬15%‫ا‬ ‫ی‬ ‫ي‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ت‬ ‫ی‬ ‫رﻥ‬2%‫ا‬ ‫ن‬ ‫إﻥ‬ ‫ی‬ ‫آ‬ ‫ن‬ ‫ﻥ‬ ‫رﻥ‬ ‫أآ‬ ‫ر‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ة‬ ‫ﺡ‬ ‫و‬ ‫ت‬ ‫ی‬ ‫ا‬ ‫رﻥ‬ ‫ر‬ ‫ا‬‫ن‬ ‫وی‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ی‬ ‫وه‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ﺽ‬ ‫ن‬ ‫رﺉ‬Nictitating membrane‫اﺥ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫اوی‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ی‬ ‫ي‬ ‫وا‬ ‫ی‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫وه‬‫ر‬ ‫ﺥ‬ ‫أي‬ ‫ﺽ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ﺕ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ی‬ ‫ﻥ‬ ‫ا‬. Avian Eyes ‫ر‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫آ‬ ‫ﺕ‬ Visual sense‫ر‬ ‫ا‬
  28. 28. 28 ‫ج‬ ‫ا‬ ‫أ‬ ‫ءة‬ ‫أﺽ‬ ‫ة‬ ‫د‬ ‫و‬ ‫ر‬ ‫ا‬ ‫رة‬ ‫ی‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ن‬ ‫ﻥ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ن‬ ‫ج‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ن‬ ‫ﺕ‬ ‫ت‬ ‫ی‬ ‫ا‬ ‫أو‬ ‫ر‬ ‫ا‬ ‫اع‬ ‫أﻥ‬ ‫ع‬ ‫ﻥ‬ ‫أي‬‫أو‬ ‫ی‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ة‬ ‫ا‬ ‫و‬ ‫ا‬ ‫أ‬ ‫ري‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ط‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ذات‬ ‫ر‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ج‬ ‫م‬ ‫ر‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ﺥ‬ ‫أ‬ ‫وي‬ ‫ی‬ ‫ج‬ ‫ا‬ ‫أن‬ ‫ﻥ‬ ‫ة‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬. ‫ی‬ ‫س‬ ‫أﺡ‬ ‫و‬ ‫أآ‬ ‫ه‬ ‫ر‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ؤی‬ ‫وا‬‫و‬‫رؤی‬ ‫زاوی‬ ‫ر‬ ‫و‬ ‫ی‬ ‫ی‬ ‫رؤی‬ ‫ﺡ‬ ‫ر‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ﺕ‬ 300‫ءی‬ ‫رؤی‬ ‫وزاوی‬ ‫در‬26‫ا‬ ‫ﺕ‬ ‫ان‬ ‫ا‬ ‫وأآ‬ ‫ن‬ ‫ﻥ‬ ‫آ‬ ‫ان‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ي‬ ‫وﺕ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫دة‬ ‫ﺡ‬ ‫ر‬ ‫ا‬ ‫أن‬ ‫آ‬ ‫در‬ ‫ان‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ی‬ ‫وﺕ‬ ‫ﺥ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ن‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ی‬ ‫ﺡ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ن‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ی‬ ‫زرق‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ن‬ ‫ا‬ ‫داﺉ‬ ‫ﺕ‬ ‫ر‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ﻥ‬ ‫آ‬ ‫وأن‬ ‫ﺥ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ن‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ه‬ ‫ء‬ ‫ر‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ب‬ ‫ا‬‫أآ‬ ‫ه‬ ‫ر‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ؤی‬ ‫وا‬ ‫وا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫وأﻥ‬ ‫ت‬ ‫آ‬ ‫ء‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ن‬ ‫وی‬ ‫اء‬ ‫وا‬ ‫ﺡ‬ ‫ؤی‬ ‫ا‬ ‫وز‬ ‫ا‬ ‫أ‬ ‫ﺥ‬ ‫ﺡ‬ ‫ي‬ ‫ﺕ‬ ‫أن‬ ‫ﺕ‬ ‫ج‬ ‫وا‬ ‫ی‬ ‫س‬ ‫أﺡ‬ ‫و‬120. ‫رة‬ ‫ر‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ى‬ ‫ر‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ﺡ‬ ‫إن‬‫ی‬‫ري‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ی‬ ‫ﺕ‬ ‫ﺉ‬ ‫ی‬ ‫ﺡ‬‫ﺡ‬ ‫أ‬ ‫ة‬ ‫آ‬ ‫ی‬ ‫وا‬ ‫ة‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ت‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ؤی‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ﺕ‬ ‫ر‬ ‫ا‬ ‫أن‬ ‫ث‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ت‬ ‫أآ‬ ‫و‬ ‫أوﺽ‬ ‫رؤی‬‫رة‬ ‫أن‬ ‫و‬ ‫و‬ ‫ز‬ ‫وﺕ‬ ‫ذ‬ ‫ن‬ ‫ﻥ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫رة‬ ‫ل‬ ‫أ‬ ‫ة‬ ‫ت‬ ‫رة‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ﺹ‬ ‫ﺕ‬ ‫رؤی‬ ‫ر‬ ‫ا‬‫ر‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ى‬ ‫ر‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ة‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ل‬ ‫أ‬ ‫ﻥ‬‫ر‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ة‬ ‫و‬ ‫ن‬ ‫ﻥ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ؤی‬‫ن‬ ‫ﻥ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫أ‬ ‫ة‬ ‫ﺕ‬ ‫م‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ي‬. ‫ان‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ﺕ‬ ‫رة‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ر‬ ‫و‬ ‫ن‬ ‫ﻥ‬ ‫رﻥ‬ ‫ح‬ ‫وﺽ‬ ‫أ‬ ‫و‬ ‫رة‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ی‬ ‫ﺕ‬ ‫ع‬ ‫أ‬ ‫رة‬ ‫ر‬ ‫وا‬ ‫م‬ ‫ا‬ ‫آ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫اﺽ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ؤی‬ ‫ا‬ ‫رة‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ر‬ ‫ا‬ ‫أن‬ ‫آ‬. ‫ﺉ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ت‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ی‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ى‬ ‫وﺕ‬Photoreceptors‫ﺕ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫رات‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ء‬ ‫ﺕ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ﻥ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ب‬ ‫ﻥ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫از‬ ‫م‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ﺉ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫رة‬ ‫ا‬Releasing factors‫ا‬ ‫ﺕ‬ ‫وا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫از‬ ‫إ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ة‬ ‫ا‬‫ا‬ ‫ت‬ ‫ﻥ‬. ‫ا‬ ‫وﺕ‬ ‫ﺕ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ی‬ ‫ﺕ‬ ‫اآ‬ ‫ر‬ ‫ﺕ‬ ‫ی‬ ‫ر‬ ‫وا‬‫و‬ ‫ازن‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ی‬ ‫ی‬ ‫ﺡ‬ ‫ی‬ ‫أن‬ ‫آ‬ ‫دی‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ان‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ى‬ ‫ﺕ‬ ‫ان‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ﺕ‬ ‫إ‬ ‫ج‬ ‫ﺕ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ر‬ ‫أ‬ ‫ان‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ق‬ ‫ﺕ‬ ‫أن‬ ‫ﺕ‬ ‫ر‬ ‫ا‬. ‫و‬‫أ‬ ‫ت‬ ‫اﻥ‬ ‫ﺡ‬ ‫د‬ ‫ﺕ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ر‬ ‫ا‬‫ا‬ ‫د‬ ‫ﺡ‬ ‫ه‬ ‫ى‬ ‫ﺥ‬‫و‬‫د‬ ‫ی‬ ‫م‬ ‫وا‬ ‫ن‬ ‫ﻥ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ﻥ‬ ‫ل‬ ‫أ‬ ‫ة‬ ‫ن‬ ‫ی‬‫وﺕ‬ ‫ی‬ ‫أس‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ﺕ‬ ‫م‬ ‫ا‬ ‫و‬ ‫آ‬ ‫ﺕ‬ ‫إذا‬ ‫ﺕ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ات‬ ‫ﺹ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫اﺉ‬ ‫د‬ ‫ا‬ ‫أو‬ ‫ا‬ ‫دة‬ ‫ن‬ ‫ﺕ‬ ‫ی‬ ‫ا‬ ‫وه‬ ‫ی‬ ‫ل‬ ‫ا‬‫ن‬ ‫و‬ ‫رض‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ی‬ ‫را‬ ‫اء‬ ‫أ‬ ‫ى‬ ‫ت‬ ‫ا‬ ‫آ‬ ‫ی‬ ‫أن‬ ‫ی‬ ‫ا‬ ‫أس‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ﻥ‬. ‫ا‬ ‫ادراك‬ ‫ا‬ ‫آ‬ ‫دورا‬ ‫ر‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ﺕ‬‫ا‬Perception of environment‫ی‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ان‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ي‬ ‫وﺕ‬ ‫ء‬ ‫وا‬ ‫ان‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ن‬ ‫ﻥ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫رك‬ ‫ی‬ ‫ا‬‫ا‬ ‫دة‬ ‫د‬ ‫و‬ ‫ه‬ ‫ﺡ‬ ‫ا‬Pectin‫ة‬ ‫ﺡ‬ ‫دة‬ ‫وه‬ ‫ر‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ر‬ ‫ا‬Acuity or sharpness of vision‫ان‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ؤی‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ن‬ ‫ﻥ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫أن‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ﺽ‬Tri-chromatic‫أ‬ ‫ان‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ؤی‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ر‬ ‫ا‬Tetra-chromatic‫ان‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ؤی‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ﺥ‬ ‫و‬Penta-chromatic ‫ا‬ ‫ره‬ ‫وﺕ‬ ‫ﺉ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫رة‬ ‫ﺹ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ي‬ ‫وﺕ‬lens‫ا‬retina‫ؤی‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ی‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ﺕ‬ ‫ﺡ‬ rod and cone cells‫ي‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫وﺕ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫رة‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ي‬optic nerve‫ي‬ ‫وا‬ ‫ي‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ی‬optic lobes‫ﺕ‬ ‫ﺹ‬ ‫ﺥ‬ ‫ت‬ ‫وﺕ‬ ‫رة‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ه‬ ‫ادراك‬ ‫ی‬ ‫ﺡ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ت‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ف‬ ‫أﺥ‬ ‫رة‬ ‫ري‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬.
  29. 29. 29 6-‫ا‬Hearing:‫ی‬ ‫ی‬ ‫ﺡ‬ ‫ر‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ﺕ‬‫ذن‬ ‫ان‬ ‫ﺹ‬ ‫د‬ ‫و‬ ‫م‬‫ا‬ ‫ات‬ ‫ﺹ‬ ‫وا‬ ‫اوح‬ ‫ﺕ‬ ‫ددﺕ‬ ‫ﺕ‬250‫ا‬3000‫ا‬ ‫دد‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ذات‬ ‫ات‬ ‫ﺹ‬ ‫ر‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ب‬ ‫وﺕ‬ ‫اﺹ‬ ‫اءات‬ ‫آ‬ ‫م‬ ‫ﺕ‬ ‫ﺕ‬ ‫ه‬ ‫اء‬ ‫ا‬ ‫م‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ت‬ ‫ﺹ‬ ‫اری‬ ‫وا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫وا‬clucking‫ا‬ ‫ی‬ ‫اﻥ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ات‬ ‫ﺹ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫وﺕ‬ ‫ره‬ ‫ﺹ‬ ‫د‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ل‬ ‫أ‬ ‫أﺡ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ه‬ ‫وی‬ ‫ر‬‫ی‬ ‫ي‬ ‫ا‬‫أداء‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ﺕ‬‫ة‬ ‫ا‬ ‫وا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ارع‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ه‬ ‫وی‬ ‫ج‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ب‬ ‫دة‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ارع‬ ‫ا‬ ‫وآ‬ ‫رات‬ ‫وا‬ ‫رات‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ات‬ ‫ﺹ‬ ‫وا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫آ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ذات‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ق‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ع‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫آ‬ ‫وی‬ ‫ج‬ ‫ز‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ﺕ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫د‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ة‬ ‫ی‬ ‫ر‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ض‬ ‫ﺕ‬ ‫ﺡ‬ ‫رات‬ ‫ا‬. 7-‫ا‬Smell:‫ﺽ‬ ‫ﺡ‬ ‫ﺕ‬ ‫ر‬ ‫ا‬‫ر‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ن‬‫ا‬ ‫ﺕ‬ ‫ر‬ ‫وا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫اﺉ‬ ‫ا‬‫ذة‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ﻥ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫اﺉ‬ ‫ی‬ ‫م‬ ‫ا‬ ‫أن‬‫ر‬ ‫ا‬ ‫اع‬ ‫اﻥ‬ ‫ك‬ ‫ذ‬ ‫و‬‫ﻥ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ﺡ‬ ‫ﺕ‬‫و‬ ‫ﺡ‬ ‫ا‬‫ا‬ ‫ﺕ‬ ‫ر‬ ‫ا‬ ‫أن‬ ‫ﻥ‬ ‫و‬ ‫ا‬ ‫أ‬ ‫ﺡ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ﻥ‬ ‫آ‬ ‫د‬ ‫ة‬ ‫ی‬ ‫ن‬ ‫ﺕ‬ ‫راﺉ‬ ‫ﺕ‬ ‫اد‬ ‫ا‬ ‫وه‬ ‫وﺥ‬ ‫ی‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ی‬ ‫ا‬ ‫د‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ﺉ‬ ‫آ‬ ‫اد‬ ‫ﺕ‬ ‫رة‬ ‫ی‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ر‬ ‫ا‬ ‫اع‬ ‫أﻥ‬ ‫ی‬ ‫اﻥ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ر‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ﺡ‬ ‫ﺽ‬ ‫و‬‫أﻥ‬ ‫ﺡ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ﻥ‬ ‫زی‬ ‫ﻥ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ي‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ر‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ﺡ‬ ‫ل‬ ‫ﺥ‬ ‫اﺉ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ﺕ‬)‫ا‬ ‫ﺽ‬(. 8-‫وق‬ ‫ا‬Taste:‫ﺕ‬ ‫ر‬ ‫ا‬ ‫م‬ ‫ا‬ ‫و‬‫وق‬ ‫ﺕ‬ ‫ﺡ‬‫ﺡ‬ ‫ا‬‫و‬‫ا‬ ‫د‬ ‫ی‬ ‫وق‬ ‫ا‬Taste buds‫اوح‬ ‫ی‬24‫ا‬300‫وﺕ‬‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ه‬ ‫ي‬ ‫وﺕ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ی‬ ‫ﺕ‬ ‫وا‬ ‫ن‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ة‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ﻥ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ﺕ‬ ‫ت‬ ‫ی‬ ‫ﻥ‬Glossopharyngeal nerve‫د‬ ‫ادراك‬ ‫وﺕ‬
  30. 30. 30 ‫و‬ ‫ﺉ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫اد‬ ‫ا‬‫ب‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ة‬ ‫ﺹ‬ ‫ﺥ‬ ‫و‬ ‫م‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ی‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ﺡ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ﺕ‬‫ا‬ ‫ت‬ ‫وی‬ ‫وﺕ‬‫دة‬ ‫وق‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ر‬ ‫ل‬ ‫ﺥ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ﺕ‬ ‫و‬ ‫ب‬ ُ ‫ا‬ ‫ت‬ ‫وی‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ه‬ ‫وب‬ ‫ﺕ‬ ‫ﺡ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫اﺉ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫أو‬ ‫اء‬. ‫وی‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ﺉ‬ ‫ﺡ‬ ‫أدراك‬ ‫اد‬ ‫ا‬ ‫اد‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ن‬ ‫ﺕ‬ ‫داد‬ ‫ﺕ‬ ‫ر‬ ‫ا‬ ‫وق‬ ‫ا‬ ‫دراآ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫رة‬ ‫وا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫م‬ ‫ﻥ‬ ‫ذ‬‫دوی‬‫ب‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ل‬ ‫ة‬ ‫ی‬ ‫ا‬ ‫أو‬ ‫ب‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ﻥ‬ ‫أﺡ‬ ‫ر‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ﺕ‬ ‫ﺡ‬ ‫ر‬ ‫ب‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ة‬ ‫ارﺕ‬ ‫ﺡ‬ ‫در‬ ‫ﺕ‬ ‫ي‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ء‬ ‫ا‬ ‫وﺕ‬ ‫ب‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ء‬ ‫ارة‬ ‫ﺡ‬ ‫در‬ ‫رك‬ ‫ﺕ‬ ‫أن‬ ‫ر‬ ‫ا‬ ‫وﺕ‬33‫ء‬ ‫ا‬ ‫داﺉ‬ ‫وﺕ‬ ‫در‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ﺕ‬ ‫ﺡ‬ ‫اري‬ ‫ا‬ ‫س‬ ‫ﺡ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ذ‬ ‫وی‬ ‫رد‬ ‫ا‬‫ا‬ ‫در‬ ‫ی‬ ‫و‬ ‫ﺡ‬ ‫رد‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ء‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ب‬ ‫ر‬ ‫آ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫وق‬ ‫ﺕ‬ ‫ر‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ﺕ‬ ‫و‬‫م‬ ‫وا‬‫ﺕ‬ ‫ﺕ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ول‬ ‫ﺕ‬ ‫ﺕ‬ ‫آ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫أن‬ ‫و‬ ‫ﺡ‬ ‫ﺡ‬ ‫ا‬0.9%‫ي‬ ‫ء‬ ‫آ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ﺕ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫آ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫وق‬ ‫ﺕ‬ ‫ر‬ ‫ا‬ ‫وﺕ‬10%‫ول‬ ‫ا‬ ‫م‬ ‫ا‬ ‫اد‬ ‫م‬ ‫ﻥ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫أو‬ ‫آ‬ ‫ی‬ ‫ا‬ ‫اد‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ة‬ ‫ﺹ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ه‬ ‫ﻥ‬ ‫أﻥ‬ ‫آ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ر‬ ‫ا‬ ‫وق‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ﺡ‬ ‫أن‬ ‫ی‬ ‫ا‬ ‫أو‬ ‫ذ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫اد‬ ‫ا‬ ‫وق‬ ‫ﺕ‬ ‫ﺕ‬ ‫ر‬ ‫ا‬ ‫أن‬ ‫و‬ ‫و‬ ‫ارة‬ ‫ا‬ ‫دواﺉ‬ ‫ات‬ ‫ا‬ ‫أآ‬‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ات‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ﺕ‬ ‫ان‬ ‫ی‬ ‫ﺡ‬ ‫ﻥ‬‫ا‬ ‫أو‬. 9-‫ا‬Touch:‫ﺕ‬ ‫ر‬ ‫ا‬‫و‬ ‫ه‬ ‫اذا‬ ‫ﺕ‬ ‫ج‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ث‬ ‫أﻥ‬ ‫أن‬ ‫و‬ ‫و‬ ‫ﺽ‬ ‫ﺡ‬ ‫اس‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ر‬ ‫ا‬ ‫س‬ ‫إﺡ‬ ‫أن‬Cannibalism‫ا‬ ‫ﺉ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ك‬ ‫ی‬ ‫ﺡ‬ ‫ﺽ‬‫ر‬ ‫ا‬ ‫وح‬ ‫ر‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ك‬ ‫ﺕ‬ ‫أﻥ‬ ‫ر‬ ‫ﺽ‬ ‫ن‬ ‫ی‬ ‫ر‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ى‬ ‫ى‬ ‫ا‬ ‫س‬ ‫ﺡ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫أن‬ ‫ﺡ‬ ‫ه‬ ‫س‬ ‫إﺡ‬ ‫دون‬ ‫ﺕ‬ ‫ى‬ ‫ﺥ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫وی‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ر‬ ‫ا‬ ‫اع‬ ‫أﻥ‬ ‫ﺕ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ه‬ ‫و‬ ‫و‬ ‫و‬ ‫س‬ ‫إﺡ‬ ‫دون‬ ‫اس‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ﺕ‬ ‫ى‬ ‫ﺥ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫م‬ ‫ی‬ ‫ي‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬‫ﺥ‬ ‫ﺉ‬‫وا‬ ‫وز‬ ‫وا‬ ‫ا‬‫ره‬ ‫ﺕ‬ ‫أو‬ ‫ي‬ ‫ﺕ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ر‬ ‫ا‬ ‫و‬ ‫ی‬ ‫ﺡ‬ ‫ة‬ ‫ی‬ ‫ه‬ ‫ﺕ‬ ‫ر‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫رؤی‬ ‫ی‬ ‫وا‬ ‫ت‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ع‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ﺡ‬2000‫ر‬ ‫ا‬ ‫اف‬ ‫أ‬ ‫ﺕ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ب‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ت‬ ‫ی‬ ‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﺡ‬‫ا‬ ‫ء‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ان‬ ‫ا‬ ‫وی‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ة‬ ‫ی‬ ‫ه‬ ‫م‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ى‬. Immunological characteristics
  31. 31. 31 1-There is no lymph nodes in avian species except for ducks, geese and swans in which there are two primitive lymph nodes. They are the cervico-thoracic node and the lumber nodes. 2-The avian erythrocytes are "nucleated" and the avian neutrophils are modified to heterophils and the avian blood platelets are true cells i.e. "nucleated" and known as thrombocytes. -‫اء‬ ‫ا‬ ‫م‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ات‬ ‫آ‬ ‫ﺕ‬Avian RBCs‫ا‬ ‫ی‬ ‫وﺥ‬Thrombocytes‫اة‬ ‫ﻥ‬ ‫ن‬ ‫ر‬ ‫ا‬Nucleated‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫آ‬ ‫ن‬ ‫ی‬ ‫ی‬-1Major histocompatability complex-I‫ن‬ ‫ی‬ ‫و‬ ‫دور‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ﺕ‬. 3-The presence of bursa of Fabricius. It is a unique organ and not present in any animal except for birds. 4-Avian antibodies are three only. They are IgM, IgG and IgA. There is no IgD and IgE. Absence of IgE means absence of anaphylaxis in birds. Thermoregulatory characteristics Warm-blooded = homothermous i.e. their body temperature is constant whatever the ambient temperature. No sweat gland in birds and so they are highly susceptible to the heat stress.
  32. 32. 32 Endocrinal characteristics The endocrine system is one of the controlling and regulating system in the body. Theory of the external receptor and the second messenger
  33. 33. 33 Theory of the cytoplasmic and nuclear receptor
  34. 34. 34
  35. 35. 35 1-Absence of the intermediate lobe of pituitary gland. 2-Presence of ultimobranchial gland. 3-There is no corpus luteum in birds. Serous and mucous membranes ‫ا‬ ‫وا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫وق‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ﺽ‬ ‫ی‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ول‬ ‫وا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫وا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫وه‬ ‫ا‬ ‫اﺥ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ن‬ ‫ﻥ‬ ‫ك‬ ‫ه‬: ‫رﻥ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫أو‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ Serous membranes ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ Mucous membranes Situation ‫ی‬Covering‫ء‬ ‫ا‬ ‫و‬Lining‫ا‬ ‫وی‬. Lining‫ﺡ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫وی‬ ‫رج‬ ‫ﺕ‬ ‫وا‬. Mucous or goblet cells---+++ Catarrhal inflammation---+++ Exposure to antigensRarelyIntensively Immune responseVery weak reactivityHighly reactive ExamplesPericardiumMM lining the GIT PleuraMM lining the respiratory tract. MeaningesMM lining the urinary systems. Peritoneum MM lining the reproductive system. Glisson's capsule of liverMM lining the conjunctiva. Synovial sheath--- Periostum--- Bird Name Sit on Eggs Leave Nest Robin 12-14 days 14-16 days Dove 13-14 days 12-14 days Sparrow 10-13 days 14-17 days Cardinal 12-13 days 9-10 days Hummingbird 11-14 days 14-28 days Wren 12-14 days 12-18 days Pigeon 16-19 days 25-26 days Quail 21-24 days 0 days Hawk 30-35 days 45-46 days Eagle 34-36 days 70-98 days