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كتاب المناعة في الطيور دكتور فارس الخياط

كتاب المناعة في الطيور دكتور فارس الخياط

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كتاب المناعة في الطيور دكتور فارس الخياط

  1. 1. ‫ط‬ ‫ا‬ ‫رس‬ ‫ر‬ ‫دآ‬ ‫ــــ‬ ‫ا‬‫ر‬ ‫ا‬ : ‫ا‬ ‫أو‬ ‫ا‬ ‫آ‬Immunity or resistance‫أو‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫آ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬‫ا‬ ‫ا‬"‫م‬ ‫أ‬ ‫أو‬ ‫ا‬ ‫اض‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫و‬ ‫ا‬"‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ـ‬‫ـ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫أ‬Immunis‫ء‬ ‫ون‬ ‫ـ‬ ‫و‬ Exempt from duty‫أو‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ء‬ ‫ء‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫وآ‬ ‫وا‬ ‫اء‬ ‫ا‬ ‫آ‬ ‫آ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ء‬ ‫ا‬‫د‬ ‫أن‬ ‫و‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬. ‫ه‬ ‫ي‬ ‫وا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ك‬ ‫ا‬ ‫وا‬"‫ء‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ة‬"‫ض‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ء‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ن‬ ‫آ‬ ‫اء‬ ‫ا‬ ‫أوا‬ ‫أوا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ت‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ء‬ ‫ا‬ ‫أو‬ ‫و‬ ‫ا‬‫ا‬ ‫ور‬ ‫و‬‫ا‬ ‫و‬ ‫وا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ت‬ ‫ا‬ ‫آ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫وأدر‬ ‫ي‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫وا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ط‬ ‫و‬ ‫ا‬. ‫آ‬ ‫وا‬‫ا‬ ‫وه‬ ‫ا‬ ‫رة‬ ‫ا‬ ‫م‬‫ا‬‫أو‬ ‫وي‬ ‫ا‬ ‫و‬ ‫ض‬The state of resistance to an infection‫ز‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ط‬ ‫ل‬ ‫ا‬ ‫رة‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ه‬ ‫و‬ ‫اء‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ت‬ ‫ا‬ ‫و‬ ‫ا‬"‫آ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ض‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ء‬ ‫أ‬"‫ا‬ ‫أو‬) ‫ا‬ ‫ل‬=‫ا‬(‫ذ‬ ‫ن‬ ‫آ‬ ‫اء‬‫أو‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫إ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ت‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ل‬ ‫د‬ ‫ل‬ ‫أو‬ ‫ه‬ ‫أو‬ ‫أزا‬ ‫أو‬ ‫ء‬ ‫وا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫م‬ ‫ا‬ ‫أو‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ت‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ه‬ ‫ه‬ ‫و‬ ‫أو‬ ‫ه‬. ‫را‬ ‫ي‬ ‫ا‬ ‫وا‬‫ا‬ ‫و‬‫اض‬‫ف‬‫ا‬Immunology‫ع‬ ‫وه‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ر‬ ‫ا‬ ‫را‬ ‫ي‬ ‫وا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫م‬ ‫ا‬ ‫وع‬: ١-‫ر‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ز‬ ‫ا‬ ‫آ‬ ‫ا‬. ٢-‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫و‬ ‫ا‬ ‫وا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ز‬ ‫رو‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ت‬ ‫ا‬ ‫درا‬ ‫اض‬Resistance‫وا‬‫ا‬ ‫أو‬ ‫اض‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫آ‬ ‫أي‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ت‬ ‫ا‬ ‫أو‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ت‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫و‬ ‫ا‬. ٣-‫ا‬ ‫ع‬ ‫أ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ء‬ ‫وآ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ز‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ت‬ ‫ا‬ ‫درا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ت‬ ‫وا‬)‫ا‬ ‫ل‬=‫ا‬(‫ا‬ ‫ز‬ ‫ا‬ ‫د‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫آ‬ ‫درا‬ ‫أي‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ء‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ت‬ ‫ا‬...‫دي‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ز‬ ‫ا‬ ‫أن‬ ‫ل‬ ‫أن‬ ‫ر‬ ‫و‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ض‬ ‫ا‬ ‫و‬ ‫وه‬ ‫أ‬ ‫و‬‫ا‬ ‫ح‬ ‫وا‬ ‫آ‬. ٤-‫ا‬ ‫وا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫آ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ز‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫درا‬Immunosuppression‫و‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ت‬Failure of vaccination‫ا‬ ‫و‬ ‫ت‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ه‬ ‫ب‬ ‫أ‬ ‫و‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫اض‬ ‫وا‬ ‫وآ‬. ‫و‬‫دا‬ ‫أي‬ ‫ة‬ ‫ح‬ ‫ر‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫دات‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫وا‬ ‫ر‬ ‫ا‬ ‫وا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ل‬ ‫ع‬ ‫ا‬ ‫را‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ت‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ذا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ه‬ ‫ا‬
  2. 2. ‫ذ‬ ‫ي‬ ‫أ‬ ‫د‬ ‫و‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬‫ا‬ ‫ءة‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ن‬ ‫و‬ ً‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ن‬ ‫أ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫دي‬ ‫ا‬ ‫دود‬ ‫ا‬ ‫و‬ ‫ن‬ ‫أ‬. ‫ا‬ ‫ر‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ر‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ات‬ ‫أو‬-‫د‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ري‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ض‬ ‫و‬: ‫ن‬ ‫آ‬‫ض‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ه‬‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ب‬ ‫أ‬‫ة‬ ‫ا‬ ‫آ‬ ‫ر‬ ‫ا‬ ‫و‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ن‬ ‫آ‬ ‫ن‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫أ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫أ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ون‬ ‫ا‬ ‫أورو‬ ‫ن‬ ‫ض‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ه‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫م‬ ‫ك‬ ‫ه‬ ‫آ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫أ‬ ‫و‬١٥٥٣‫م‬...‫دة‬ ‫ت‬ ‫و‬ ‫ك‬ ‫ه‬ ‫وآ‬‫ر‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬: ١-‫ـ‬ ‫ا‬Variolation: ‫ه‬‫آ‬ ‫و‬ ‫ا‬ ‫أ‬ ‫ا‬‫و‬ ‫د‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ري‬ ‫ا‬ ‫و‬Variola‫أي‬‫ري‬‫و‬ ‫و‬ ‫ب‬ ‫ذة‬ ‫ري‬ ‫ات‬ ‫أ‬ ‫وي‬‫ي‬ ‫وآ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ق‬ ‫ا‬: -‫ق‬ ‫ا‬Inhalation:‫وآ‬‫ا‬ ‫ا‬‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫وح‬ ‫ا‬ ‫وا‬ ‫أن‬ ‫دوا‬ ‫أ‬‫ب‬ ‫ا‬ ‫و‬‫ا‬ ‫ا‬‫ا‬ ‫و‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ه‬ ‫و‬ ‫ض‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬. -‫ا‬:‫ا‬ ‫ون‬ ‫ا‬ ‫آ‬ ‫وآ‬‫ا‬ ‫وح‬‫و‬ ‫د‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ري‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ص‬ ‫ا‬‫و‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ه‬ ‫و‬ ‫ض‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ه‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ون‬ ‫ا‬ ‫آ‬ ‫ي‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫زو‬ ‫و‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬. ٢-‫ـ‬ ‫ا‬Vaccination: ‫و‬ ‫ض‬ ‫ا‬ ‫و‬ ‫ن‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ب‬ ‫إآ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ه‬ ‫ف‬"ً"‫أو‬"ً"‫أو‬Vaccination ‫آ‬ ‫ا‬Vacca‫أي‬‫ة‬‫ح‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫دة‬ ‫ا‬ ‫أ‬ ‫آ‬Vaccine. ‫و‬‫أآ‬ ‫ا‬‫ي‬ ‫ا‬‫إدوارد‬١٧٤٩-١٨٢٣‫م‬‫ي‬ ‫ا‬‫أن‬‫ر‬ ‫ا‬"‫ن‬ ‫آ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ر‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ري‬"‫وأ‬‫ا‬‫ا‬ ‫ري‬cowpox‫ا‬‫ي‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫د‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ري‬ ‫ص‬ ‫ا‬ ‫و‬ ‫را‬ ‫ا‬ ‫وح‬ ‫وأ‬ ‫ذ‬ ‫م‬ ‫أن‬ ‫ر‬ ‫ن‬ ‫ا‬ ‫و‬ ‫ص‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ه‬ ‫ورا‬ ‫ء‬ ‫ا‬‫د‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ري‬ ‫ا‬ ‫أ‬‫ا‬ ‫ت‬ ‫ا‬ ‫و‬‫ا‬ ‫آ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫أ‬ ‫ا‬. -‫ا‬‫ف‬‫ا‬‫ت‬ ‫و‬ttenuationLaboratory a: ‫ت‬ ‫و‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ف‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ف‬ ‫أآ‬ ‫ا‬Attenuation‫ا‬١٨٢٢- ١٨٩٥‫م‬‫و‬‫ح‬ ‫ج‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ت‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫اض‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ح‬ ‫آ‬ ‫أ‬‫ج‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫آ‬Fowl cholera‫م‬١٨٨٠‫م‬‫ا‬ ‫داء‬ ‫ح‬ ‫ج‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ت‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ل‬ ‫أ‬ ‫ن‬ ‫وآ‬Rabies‫و‬‫ح‬ ‫ج‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ة‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ض‬Anthrax‫م‬١٨٨١‫ع‬ ‫أ‬ ‫و‬ ‫م‬‫ـ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫آ‬ ‫ل‬ ‫أن‬ Vaccination‫ح‬ ‫آ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ت‬ ‫و‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ام‬ ‫أ‬ ‫أ‬. -‫ا‬ ‫ف‬ ‫أآ‬Phagocytosis: ‫ف‬ ‫أآ‬ ‫ا‬‫ا‬ ‫ة‬ ‫ه‬Phagocytosis‫ف‬ ‫أ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫و‬ ‫ا‬‫م‬١٨٨٢‫م‬ ‫أ‬ ‫أ‬ ‫ء‬ ‫أ‬‫ا‬ ‫ه‬ ‫وأن‬ ‫ك‬ ‫ا‬ ‫اع‬ ‫أ‬ ‫ت‬ ‫دة‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ع‬ ‫ك‬ ‫ه‬ ‫أن‬ ‫آ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ه‬ ‫ف‬ ‫ح‬ ‫ء‬ ‫أ‬ ‫آ‬ ‫و‬ ‫ك‬ Phagocytes‫آ‬ ‫أن‬Phages‫وآ‬ ‫آ‬Cite‫ا‬ ‫ه‬ ‫و‬‫ا‬ Phagocytosis‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ت‬ ‫و‬ ‫ا‬ ‫و‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ه‬ ‫وا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫أ‬ ‫ذ‬ ‫وا‬ ‫و‬.
  3. 3. ‫را‬-‫دة‬ ‫ا‬ ‫م‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ف‬ ‫أآ‬Antibodies: ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫آ‬ ‫رل‬ ‫آ‬ ‫وي‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫درس‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ن‬ ‫ا‬ ‫أوا‬‫دة‬ ‫ا‬ ‫م‬ ‫أ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫واآ‬ ‫س‬ ‫رن‬ ‫ي‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ن‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ت‬ ‫ل‬ ‫و‬ ‫ت‬ ‫ا‬ ‫و‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ت‬ ‫و‬ ‫ا‬ ‫إ‬ ‫دة‬ ‫ا‬ ‫م‬ ‫ا‬ ‫أن‬ ‫إ‬ ‫و‬ ‫م‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ت‬ ‫و‬ ‫ت‬ ‫آ‬ ‫ت‬. ‫و‬‫وا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ل‬ ‫ر‬ -‫م‬١٥٦٥‫س‬ ‫و‬ ‫ه‬ ‫ا‬ ‫م‬ ‫م‬١٥٣٧-١٦١٩‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ف‬ ‫آ‬ ‫م‬Cloacal bursa‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ت‬ ‫أ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ه‬ ‫ا‬ ‫و‬ ‫ة‬ ‫ة‬ ‫ل‬ ‫و‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬Bursa of Fabricius‫و‬ ‫أ‬‫م‬ ‫آ‬١٩٥٦‫ر‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ء‬ ‫ا‬ ‫أ‬ ‫م‬ ‫م‬ ‫ا‬ ‫آ‬ ‫وا‬ ‫و‬ ‫ف‬ ‫وس‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫وه‬ ‫وا‬ ‫ا‬ . -‫م‬١٨٨٠‫وب‬ ‫أ‬ ‫ف‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ع‬ ‫أ‬ ‫م‬‫ا‬ ‫أ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ر‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬Fowl cholera‫أ‬ ‫و‬ ‫ض‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ه‬ ‫ح‬ ‫ا‬‫ة‬‫ا‬ ‫ر‬ ‫ا‬ . -‫م‬١٩٤٠‫ء‬ ‫آ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫أ‬ ‫وأ‬ ‫آ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ة‬ ‫أول‬ ‫أ‬ ‫م‬ ‫وى‬ ‫ا‬. -‫م‬١٩٦٥‫و‬ ‫أول‬ ‫آ‬ ‫م‬‫وس‬ ‫ي‬ ‫اد‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ر‬ ‫اد‬ ‫ا‬ ‫أه‬ ‫و‬ ‫رو‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ة‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ت‬ ‫و‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ذ‬ ‫ب‬ ‫إ‬ ‫ح‬ ‫آ‬ ‫و‬ ‫ض‬ ‫ن‬ ‫رو‬ ‫ا‬ ‫إ‬ ‫ت‬ ‫و‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ت‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ول‬ ‫ا‬ ‫رو‬ ‫ا‬ ‫وس‬‫و‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ة‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ل‬ ‫ا‬ ‫رو‬ ‫ا‬. -‫م‬١٩٧٠‫ح‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ه‬ ‫ض‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ه‬ ‫م‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ح‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ه‬ ‫و‬ ‫ر‬ ‫ض‬ ‫ح‬ ‫و‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ة‬ ‫م‬ ‫ا‬ ‫اض‬ ‫ا‬ ‫أ‬ ‫م‬ ‫ي‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ق‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ول‬ ‫ا‬. -‫م‬١٩٧٥‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ت‬ ‫و‬ ‫أول‬ ‫أت‬ ‫م‬‫م‬ ‫ي‬ ‫ا‬ ‫واردن‬ ‫ا‬ ‫آ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ض‬ ‫ب‬ ‫ه‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ح‬ ‫ذ‬ ‫وا‬ ‫م‬ ‫آ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ح‬ ‫ا‬-١‫ا‬ ‫ح‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ن‬ ‫إ‬ ‫دي‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ح‬ ‫ا‬ ‫أن‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ه‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫واردن‬ ‫م‬ ‫و‬ ‫ر‬ ‫اآ‬ ‫ء‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫دة‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫و‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫د‬ ‫و‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ز‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ت‬ ‫ل‬ ‫وأ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫أ‬. -‫ل‬١٩٨٢–١٩٨٣‫ة‬ ‫ام‬ ‫أ‬ ‫وا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ل‬ ‫ن‬ ‫أ‬ ‫ء‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ض‬‫ج‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ح‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ء‬ ‫أ‬ ‫وه‬ ‫ر‬١٨‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫و‬ ‫ا‬ ‫م‬ ‫ت‬ ‫ت‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬"‫ا‬Innovation = In ovo vaccination"‫ه‬ ‫أ‬ ‫و‬ ‫ا‬‫ا‬ ‫أ‬ ‫ء‬ ‫ا‬‫ة‬ ‫ا‬ ‫و‬ ‫ا‬‫ي‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ب‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ض‬ ‫أ‬. -‫م‬٢٠١٠‫اآ‬ ‫ام‬ ‫أ‬ ‫و‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ة‬ ‫و‬ ‫م‬Recombinant vaccine‫دات‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ة‬ ‫ر‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫أ‬ ‫وس‬ ‫را‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ي‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ذة‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬H5N1‫ي‬ ‫ا‬ ‫زر‬ ‫أو‬ ‫ص‬ ‫ا‬ ‫م‬ ‫ا‬ ‫أو‬ ‫را‬ ‫ا‬‫ا‬ ‫وذ‬ ‫ر‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ري‬ ‫وس‬.
  4. 4. ‫ت‬ ‫وا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ل‬ ‫ء‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ت‬ ‫أ‬ ‫ول‬: ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬‫ر‬ ‫ا‬‫ت‬ ‫ا‬ ‫س‬ ‫و‬ ‫ه‬١٥٣٧- ١٦١٩‫م‬ ‫ر‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫اب‬ ‫ف‬ ‫أآ‬١٥٦٥‫م‬. ‫ك‬ ‫ن‬ ‫أ‬ ١٦٣٢- ١٧٢٣‫م‬ ‫ا‬ ‫اع‬ ‫أ‬‫ا‬ ‫ب‬ ‫و‬١٦٧٤‫م‬. ‫ا‬---- ‫د‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ري‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ات‬ ‫م‬ ‫أ‬Variolation‫ا‬ ‫ل‬١٧١٣‫م‬. ‫وار‬ ‫ري‬----‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬١٧١٨‫م‬. ‫إدوارد‬ ١٧٤٩- ١٨٢٣‫م‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ري‬ ‫ات‬ ‫م‬ ‫ا‬Vaccination‫ري‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫د‬ ‫ا‬١٧٩٨‫م‬. ١٨٢٢- ١٨٩٥‫م‬ ‫ت‬ ‫و‬ ‫ا‬ ‫أ‬Attenuation‫و‬ ‫وأ‬ ‫ر‬ ‫وا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ة‬ ‫ا‬ ‫وب‬ ‫و‬ ‫ا‬. ‫خ‬ ‫آ‬ ‫ت‬ ‫رو‬* ١٨٤٣‫ـ‬ ١٩١٠‫م‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ه‬ ‫و‬ ‫اض‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ت‬ ‫ا‬ ‫أآ‬‫د‬. ‫ف‬ ‫أ‬* ١٨٤٥- ١٩١٦‫م‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ة‬ ‫ه‬ ‫أآ‬Phagocytosis١٨٨٢‫م‬ ‫إ‬ ‫ول‬ ١٨٥٤- ١٩١٥‫م‬ ‫ا‬ ‫رة‬ ‫ت‬ ‫ا‬ ‫أن‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ن‬ ‫ا‬ ‫أوا‬ ‫أآ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬. ‫روو‬ ‫ر‬ ‫أ‬١٨٦٣- ١٩٤٣‫م‬ ‫ي‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫أن‬ ‫أآ‬‫م‬ ‫ر‬Exotoxins١٨٨٨‫م‬. ١٨٥٤- ١٩١٧‫م‬ ‫ن‬ ‫إ‬ ‫رو‬ ‫آ‬١٨٥٣- ١٩٣١‫م‬ ‫ا‬ ‫م‬ ‫دة‬ ‫ا‬ ‫م‬ ‫ا‬ ‫أآ‬Antitoxin١٨٩٠‫م‬ ‫أدوارد‬ ١٨٦٠- ١٩١٧‫م‬ ‫ا‬ ‫أآ‬complement١٨٩٣‫م‬. ‫رل‬ ‫آ‬ ١٨٦٨- ١٩٤٣‫م‬ ‫دة‬ ‫ا‬ ‫م‬ ‫ا‬ ‫أآ‬Antibodies‫ا‬ ‫ن‬ ‫ا‬ ‫أوا‬. +‫ن‬ ‫را‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ام‬ ‫أ‬ ‫وأ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫م‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ر‬ ‫ا‬ ‫أن‬ ‫أآ‬ ‫آ‬ ‫وأ‬ ‫ي‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ح‬ ‫آ‬ ‫ر‬ ‫ا‬Toxoid ١٩٢٣. ١٩٠٢- ١٩٧١‫م‬ ‫س‬ ‫أر‬ ‫آ‬ ‫أ‬‫ت‬ ‫و‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ت‬ ‫و‬ ‫دة‬ ‫ا‬ ‫م‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ء‬ ‫أ‬ ‫أآ‬ ‫ت‬Gamma globulins‫ا‬ ‫ن‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ت‬. ١٩٤٠‫م‬‫آ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ض‬ ‫ة‬ ‫أول‬ ‫ام‬ ‫أ‬١٩٤٠‫م‬. ‫وس‬ ‫ا‬‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫أآ‬‫ر‬ ‫ا‬١٩٥٦‫م‬. ‫ر‬ ‫اد‬ ‫ا‬‫ــ‬ ‫رو‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ض‬ ‫أول‬ ‫ام‬ ‫أ‬١٩٦٥‫م‬. ‫ر‬ ‫ض‬ ‫ح‬ ‫و‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ة‬١٩٧٠‫م‬. ‫واردن‬ ‫ا‬‫ح‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬+‫آ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ح‬١٩٧٥‫م‬. ١٩٢٧- ٢٠٠٢‫م‬ ‫ار‬* ‫ه‬ ‫آ‬ ‫رج‬*١٩٤٦- ١٩٩٥‫م‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ة‬ ‫و‬ ‫دة‬ ‫ا‬ ‫م‬ ‫ا‬ ‫أ‬Monoclonal antibodies ١٩٧٥‫م‬. ‫ء‬ ‫أ‬ ‫وا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ام‬ ‫أ‬In ovo vaccination = Innovation‫ر‬ ‫ض‬١٩٨٢–١٩٨٣‫م‬. *‫ة‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ء‬.
  5. 5. ‫آ‬‫وو‬‫ر‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ز‬ ‫ا‬ of the avian Immune Systemand functionsStructure ‫إن‬‫ا‬‫و‬ ‫اض‬ ‫ا‬ ‫و‬ ‫رة‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ت‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ء‬ ‫ور‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ر‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ز‬ ‫ز‬ ‫ا‬ ‫أو‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ض‬Acquired immune deficiency Syndrome = AIDS‫ن‬ ‫ا‬ ‫آ‬ ‫وا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ر‬ ‫ا‬ ‫اض‬ ‫أ‬ ‫وآ‬‫رو‬ ‫ا‬‫ا‬ ‫ج‬ ‫ا‬ ‫وأ‬ ‫ز‬ ‫وا‬ ‫ر‬ ‫ض‬ ‫و‬ ‫رة‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ت‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ذ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫أو‬ ‫ه‬ ‫ا‬ ‫م‬ ‫وا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫وس‬ ‫وا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ت‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬‫و‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ت‬ ‫ا‬ ‫أ‬ ‫ذا‬. ‫ا‬ ‫ز‬ ‫ا‬ ‫و‬:‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ز‬ ‫ا‬ ‫و‬: ١-‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬"Self"‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫وا‬"Non self"‫م‬ ‫ت‬ ‫ا‬ ‫و‬ ‫ت‬ ‫أ‬ ‫اث‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ز‬ ‫ا‬‫اض‬ ‫أ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫دي‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ت‬ ‫ا‬ ‫وه‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫آ‬ ‫اض‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ه‬ ‫و‬ ‫و‬ ‫ذا‬"‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫اض‬ ‫أ‬Autoimmune diseases"‫و‬ ‫ا‬ ‫اع‬ ‫أ‬ ً ‫و‬)‫ا‬(‫ه‬ ‫و‬ ‫ب‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ض‬ ‫و‬...‫و‬ ‫أن‬ ‫آ‬‫ر‬ ‫ا‬ ‫وث‬ ‫ا‬ ‫درة‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫اض‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ه‬. ٢-‫آ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ض‬ ‫ا‬ ‫و‬ ‫أي‬ ‫ا‬ ‫اض‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬.‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫و‬ ‫ا‬ ‫اض‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ت‬. ٣-‫آ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ض‬ ‫ا‬ ‫و‬ ‫أي‬ ‫ا‬ ‫اض‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫و‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ح‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ل‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫اض‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ت‬. ٤-‫ا‬ ‫ة‬ ‫اآ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ه‬ ‫و‬ ‫ء‬ ‫و‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫أ‬ ‫اذا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ت‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ة‬ ‫ذاآ‬ ‫وا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫رة‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬‫أو‬ ‫ة‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫أ‬ ‫اذا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ت‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ه‬ ‫ز‬ ‫ة‬ ‫و‬ ‫ي‬ ‫أ‬ ‫ات‬. ‫ر‬ ‫ـ‬‫ــ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ـ‬‫ـ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ز‬ ‫ـ‬ ‫ـ‬‫ـ‬ ‫وا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫دئ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ت‬ ‫و‬ ‫أي‬ ‫أن‬ ‫آ‬ ‫و‬ ‫ر‬ ‫ووا‬ ‫ة‬ ‫آ‬ ‫اذا‬ ‫ه‬ ‫ـ‬ ‫و‬ ‫ن‬‫آ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ـ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ت‬ ‫ـ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ع‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬. ‫أ‬ ‫أو‬ ‫م‬ ‫أ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫و‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ة‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫را‬ ‫أ‬ ‫ر‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ز‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ر‬ ‫أ‬ ‫و‬. ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ز‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ن‬ ‫آ‬ ‫وا‬ ‫وا‬ ‫وا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫و‬‫آ‬ ‫آ‬ ‫ر‬ ‫آ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫وا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫وا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ء‬ ‫ا‬: ‫أو‬-‫ا‬ ‫ء‬ ‫ا‬:‫و‬ ‫دي‬ ‫ة‬ ‫ا‬ ‫و‬ ‫ن‬ ‫ء‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ت‬ ‫ث‬ ‫و‬ ‫و‬ ‫أ‬ ‫و‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫و‬ ‫دة‬‫ا‬ ‫ة‬. -‫ا‬ ‫ا‬:‫وا‬ ‫وا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ذات‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ة‬ ‫اع‬ ‫أ‬ ‫و‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫در‬ ‫أ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ل‬ ‫ا‬ ‫أ‬ ‫وا‬ ‫ا‬. -‫ا‬ ‫ا‬:‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ت‬ ‫و‬ ‫ا‬ ‫اع‬ ‫أ‬ ‫ة‬ ‫وه‬‫ا‬ ‫ز‬-‫وا‬-‫ج‬ ‫و‬ ‫آ‬ ‫وا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫وا‬Dendertic cells‫آ‬ ‫آ‬ ‫و‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫وا‬Chemical messengers ‫ت‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ه‬ ‫و‬ ‫ا‬ ‫و‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫آ‬ ‫رات‬ ‫أ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫رة‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬...‫وف‬ ‫ا‬ ‫د‬ ‫وا‬ ‫ن‬ ‫ا‬٩٠‫ع‬..‫أ‬ ‫د‬ ‫وا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫و‬. ‫أو‬-‫ا‬ ‫ء‬ ‫ا‬:‫وه‬ ‫دة‬ ‫و‬ ‫ت‬ ‫أو‬ ‫اع‬ ‫أ‬: ‫أ‬-‫ا‬ ‫ء‬ ‫ا‬mitive or originative organsPri:‫أ‬‫و‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬‫ا‬ ‫وا‬ ‫ة‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬Undifferentiated–Unprogrammed stem cells‫و‬‫ا‬ ‫ه‬ ‫ي‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫اع‬ ‫أ‬ ‫آ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ر‬ ‫ا‬‫و‬‫ا‬ ‫ء‬ ‫ا‬‫آ‬:
  6. 6. -‫ا‬ ‫آ‬cYolk sa:‫ن‬‫ا‬ ‫آ‬‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ه‬ ‫ة‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ر‬ ‫ر‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ل‬ ‫ا‬ ‫را‬ ‫ا‬ ‫و‬ ‫م‬ ‫أ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫و‬ ‫ب‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫آ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫و‬ ‫ر‬ ‫و‬ ‫و‬ ‫ا‬ ‫أو‬ ‫ول‬ ‫ا‬ ‫م‬ ‫ا‬ ‫را‬ ‫أ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ة‬ ‫ا‬‫ا‬ ‫ر‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ي‬ ‫ا‬ ‫م‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ع‬ ‫ا‬. -‫ا‬ ‫ا‬Fetal liver:‫ـ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫م‬ ‫ا‬ ‫آ‬ ‫و‬١٢‫ا‬ ‫و‬ ‫ا‬. -‫م‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ع‬Bone marrow:‫ـ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫م‬ ‫ا‬ ‫آ‬ ‫و‬١٢‫ا‬ ‫ة‬ ‫ي‬ ‫وا‬. ‫ب‬-‫و‬ ‫ا‬ ‫أو‬ ‫ي‬ ‫آ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ز‬ ‫ا‬‫ا‬ ‫أو‬Maturation organs=Central=Primary: ‫أس‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ه‬ ‫أ‬Cranial organ‫ا‬ ‫أو‬ ‫ا‬ ‫أو‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ة‬ ‫ا‬ ‫وه‬Thymus ‫ا‬ ‫وا‬Caudal organ‫أو‬ ‫آ‬ ‫وه‬‫ا‬Bursa of Fabricius‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫أو‬ Cloacal bursa. ‫ن‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ه‬ ‫ا‬ ‫وه‬‫و‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ج‬ ‫أ‬"Lymphocytes..." ‫ا‬ ‫ل‬ ‫وا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ت‬ ‫ا‬ ‫رو‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫إ‬ ‫ي‬ ‫آ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ز‬ ‫وا‬ ‫آ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ن‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ه‬ ‫ا‬ ‫إ‬‫ا‬ ‫و‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ر‬ ‫ا‬ ‫أو‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ة‬ ‫ل‬. -‫ا‬ ‫ة‬ ‫ا‬Thymus gland: ‫ص‬ ‫ا‬ ‫أزواج‬ ‫ن‬ ‫ة‬ ‫ه‬‫ن‬ ‫ا‬‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬‫ر‬ ‫ا‬‫ة‬ ‫ا‬ ‫و‬ ‫أآ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫و‬ ‫ر‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬"٦-١٦"٣-٤‫أن‬ ‫إ‬ ‫ر‬ ‫ا‬ ‫غ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ل‬ ‫ا‬ ‫د‬ ‫و‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ر‬ ‫ا‬ ‫م‬ ‫ؤل‬ ‫ا‬. ‫س‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ة‬ ‫أ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫وا‬‫ا‬ ‫أ‬"Pre-thymic cells"‫ا‬‫ت‬ ‫ه‬ ‫أ‬ ‫س‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ة‬ ‫ا‬ ‫آ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ء‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ة‬ ‫ا‬"‫وا‬"‫و‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ج‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ه‬ ‫و‬-Thymic-derived or T- Lymphocytes‫و‬‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ه‬Cell-mediated Immunity. ‫اب‬ ‫أو‬ ‫آ‬Bursa of Fibricius: ‫ر‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫وي‬ ‫ه‬‫وأآ‬‫م‬١٥٦٥‫س‬ ‫و‬ ‫ه‬ ‫ا‬ ‫م‬ "١٥٣٧-١٦١٩‫م‬"‫م‬ ‫ا‬ ‫و‬ ‫و‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ت‬ ‫أ‬ ‫و‬١٩٥٦‫ا‬ ‫م‬ ‫ا‬‫وس‬‫ر‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ز‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ت‬ ‫أ‬. ‫و‬‫ه‬‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫أ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ف‬ ‫ا‬ ‫وي‬ ‫آ‬ ‫آ‬Cloacal bursa‫ت‬ ‫ا‬ ‫و‬ Plicae‫ده‬ ‫اوح‬ ‫وا‬٢٢"١٥‫و‬ ‫أو‬٧"‫ت‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ي‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ت‬ ‫ا‬‫ز‬ ‫و‬ ‫و‬ ‫و‬ ‫ا‬...‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ن‬ ‫و‬ ‫ا‬ ‫دس‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ع‬ ‫ا‬ ‫أ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫م‬ ‫د‬ ‫زد‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ه‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ؤل‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ذ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬‫ل‬ ‫ا‬ ‫د‬ ‫و‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ر‬ ‫ا‬ ‫م‬ ‫ا‬ ‫غ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬. ‫ا‬ ‫أ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫وا‬‫ا‬ ‫أ‬"Pre-bursal cells" ‫ا‬ ‫آ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ء‬ ‫ا‬‫ا‬‫أ‬‫ا‬ ‫ت‬ ‫ه‬ "‫ر‬ ‫ا‬urosopoetin"‫و‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ج‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ه‬ ‫و‬-Bursal-derived or B- Lymphocytes‫ا‬ ‫أو‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫وه‬Antibody-mediated Immunity. ‫ج‬-‫ي‬ ‫ا‬ ‫أو‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ز‬ ‫ا‬seeding organs=peripheral=Secondary: ‫ا‬ ‫رو‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ي‬ ‫آ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ز‬ ‫ا‬ ‫أن‬ ‫ذآ‬‫ت‬‫ا‬ ‫ل‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ه‬ ‫و‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ر‬ ‫ا‬ ‫أو‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ة‬ ‫ل‬ ‫آ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ن‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ه‬‫ة‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ء‬ ‫أ‬ ‫و‬ ‫ن‬ ‫ا‬‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ز‬ ‫ا‬ ‫إ‬ ‫ي‬ ‫آ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ز‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫و‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ة‬ ‫ـ‬Immune migration‫أو‬Peripheralization process‫ا‬ ‫ز‬ ‫ا‬ ‫أ‬ ‫و‬
  7. 7. ‫ا‬ ‫و‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫را‬ ‫أ‬ ً ‫ر‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬٦-٨‫ة‬ ‫ء‬ ‫أ‬ ‫و‬ ‫أ‬ ‫آ‬ ‫أ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫دور‬ ‫ي‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ي‬ ‫آ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ز‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ر‬ ‫ر‬ ‫و‬ ‫غ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ل‬ ‫و‬ ‫د‬ ‫و‬ ‫ن‬ ‫و‬ ‫ر‬ ‫ا‬ ‫س‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ة‬ ‫و‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬‫و‬‫ء‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ه‬: ١-‫ا‬ ‫ة‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫وا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫و‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ت‬:‫ت‬ ‫وه‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ز‬ ‫آ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ة‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫وا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ة‬ ‫و‬ ‫دة‬ ‫و‬ ‫وا‬ ‫وا‬ ‫وا‬‫ـ‬ ‫ف‬ ‫و‬Mucosal associated lymphoid tissues "MALT"..‫و‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ت‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ه‬: -‫ـ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫و‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ت‬ ‫ا‬Skin associated lymphoid tissue = SALT. -‫ا‬ ‫ز‬ ‫ـ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ء‬ ‫ا‬ ‫و‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ت‬ ‫ا‬Gut associated LT = GALT. -‫ا‬ ‫ز‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ء‬ ‫ا‬ ‫و‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ت‬ ‫ا‬Bronchial associated LT = BALT. -‫أس‬ ‫ا‬ ‫و‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ت‬ ‫ا‬Head associated LT = HALT. ‫ت‬ ‫ا‬ ‫وه‬‫ا‬‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫م‬ ‫ا‬‫ا‬ ‫ه‬‫ة‬ ‫ه‬‫ا‬ ‫أو‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ Mucosal or Local Immunity‫اض‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫وا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫دة‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬. ٢-‫و‬ ‫ء‬ ‫أ‬Uncapsulated lymphoid organs‫ا‬ ‫و‬: -‫ردر‬ ‫ه‬ ‫ة‬Harderian gland:‫ا‬ ‫ا‬‫او‬‫ا‬‫ا‬‫ر‬ ‫ا‬Medial canthus of the eye ‫و‬‫أآ‬‫ول‬‫م‬ ‫ة‬١٦٩٤‫ا‬ ‫م‬‫ردر‬ ‫ه‬ ‫ب‬ ‫آ‬ ‫ن‬ ‫ه‬"١٦٥٦-١٧١١‫م‬"‫و‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ت‬ ‫أ‬ ‫و‬ ‫آ‬ ‫ا‬٥‫اء‬ ‫وإ‬ ‫و‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ة‬ ‫ت‬ ‫رة‬ ‫م‬١٠‫ة‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ن‬ ‫م‬‫ظ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫و‬ ‫د‬‫ا‬ ‫و‬ ‫ا‬ ‫و‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫آ‬- ٢٠%‫وا‬-٨٠%‫ج‬ ‫و‬ ‫آ‬ ‫وا‬ ‫ز‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫و‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ء‬ ‫ا‬ ‫وا‬‫ا‬ ‫و‬‫ا‬ ‫ء‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬‫ي‬ ‫آ‬‫د‬ ‫و‬ ‫دا‬ ‫وأ‬‫ه‬‫ت‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ء‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ر‬ ‫ي‬ ‫وا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬‫ا‬‫ا‬ ‫أو‬ ‫ا‬. -‫ج‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ز‬ ‫ا‬Esophageal tonsils:‫ة‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ج‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ن‬ ‫و‬ ‫ا‬٦-٨‫و‬‫ا‬ ‫و‬ ‫ات‬‫ا‬-‫و‬ ‫ا‬ ‫وا‬ ‫ج‬ ‫و‬ ‫آ‬ ‫وا‬ ‫ز‬ ‫ا‬ ‫و‬ ‫ا‬-‫ـ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫آ‬MHC-2‫ا‬ ‫ت‬ ‫و‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ه‬ ‫و‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫رو‬ ‫ا‬ ‫وس‬ ‫ث‬ ‫و‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ز‬ ‫ا‬. -‫ز‬ ‫ا‬‫ر‬ ‫ا‬Cecal tonsils:‫ا‬ ‫ء‬ ‫ر‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ء‬ ‫أ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ت‬ ‫أ‬Ilieocecal junction‫ن‬ ‫و‬‫ر‬ ‫ا‬ ‫و‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫وي‬‫ا‬ ‫و‬‫آ‬
  8. 8. ‫و‬ ‫ا‬ ‫و‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ن‬ ‫ا‬"‫ا‬-٥٠%‫وا‬-٥٠%‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫و‬ ‫ا‬". -‫و‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ت‬ ‫ا‬Lymphoid follicles:‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫و‬ ‫آ‬ ‫ه‬ ‫أه‬ ‫و‬ ‫ء‬ ‫وا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫وا‬‫أ‬‫ـ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫أو‬Payer's Patches‫و‬‫ء‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬. -‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫أو‬ ‫و‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ت‬ ‫ا‬Lymphoid or annular rings:‫آ‬ ‫دا‬ ‫أ‬ ‫أر‬ ‫ه‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫و‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ر‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ء‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫و‬ ‫وا‬. -iclums divert'Mickel:‫ه‬‫وا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬‫ن‬ ‫ا‬ ‫وه‬ ‫و‬ ‫ا‬ ‫أ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫وي‬ ‫ا‬ ‫اآ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫أ‬ ‫و‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ء‬ ‫ي‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ء‬ ‫ي‬ ‫ا‬٢-٥ ‫و‬ ‫و‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ت‬ ‫ن‬ ‫ا‬ ‫أ‬٥-٧‫اآ‬ ‫ن‬ ‫ا‬ ‫أ‬ ‫وي‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫و‬ ‫از‬ ‫أ‬ ‫د‬١٠‫و‬ ‫أه‬ ‫و‬ ‫و‬ ‫أ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫اء‬ ‫أ‬-‫رد‬ ‫ه‬ ‫ة‬ ‫ا‬ ‫رب‬ ‫ز‬ ‫ا‬ ‫و‬. -‫ا‬ ‫ة‬ ‫ا‬ ‫و‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ت‬ ‫ا‬‫س‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ة‬ ‫و‬:‫ة‬ ‫ا‬ ‫أ‬ ‫و‬ ‫آ‬ ‫ه‬ ‫ا‬Proventriculus‫س‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ة‬ ‫و‬Pancreas. -‫م‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ع‬Bone marrow:‫ا‬ ‫ء‬ ‫ا‬ ‫أ‬ ‫آ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ي‬ ‫آ‬ ‫ا‬. ٣-‫ا‬ ‫و‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ء‬ ‫ا‬psulated lymphoid organsCa‫ا‬ ‫و‬:: -‫ل‬ ‫ا‬Spleen:‫ا‬ ‫ة‬ ‫و‬ ‫ا‬ ‫و‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ء‬ ‫ا‬ ‫أه‬ ‫ه‬Graveyard or burial ground ‫ج‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫وي‬ ‫وه‬"‫ج‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ر‬ ‫ا‬ ‫أ‬"‫ا‬ ‫ة‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫و‬ ‫دة‬ ‫و‬ ‫وا‬‫ل‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ن‬ ‫و‬ ‫ج‬ ‫ا‬ ‫و‬ ‫أ‬ ‫ل‬ ‫أآ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫و‬ ‫وا‬ ‫ل‬: -‫ا‬ ‫ب‬ ‫ا‬Red pulp:‫و‬٤٠%‫ا‬ ‫اء‬ ‫د‬ ‫ن‬ ‫و‬ ‫و‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫أي‬ ‫ا‬ ‫و‬ ‫ء‬ ‫ا‬ ‫م‬ ‫ا‬ ‫و‬ ‫ج‬ ‫و‬ ‫آ‬ ‫ا‬. -‫ا‬ ‫ب‬ ‫ا‬White pulp:‫ا‬٥٠%‫و‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫آ‬ ‫اد‬ ‫أ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫و‬‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫و‬ ‫ا‬ ‫آ‬)(٧٠%‫ا‬)(٣٠%‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫و‬ ‫ا‬. ‫ل‬ ‫ا‬ ‫و‬: -‫ا‬ ‫ل‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ه‬ ‫ل‬ ‫ا‬‫ا‬ ‫أو‬ ‫ا‬ ‫اء‬ ‫ا‬ ‫م‬ ‫ا‬. -‫ا‬‫ل‬‫وا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ج‬ ‫و‬ ‫آ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ة‬ ‫آ‬ ‫اد‬ ‫أ‬-‫ا‬ ‫ء‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬‫ض‬ ‫و‬ ‫ت‬ ‫ا‬Antigen presenting and processing. -‫ا‬ ‫ة‬ ‫آ‬ ‫اد‬ ‫أ‬ ‫ا‬-‫وا‬-‫دة‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫م‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ج‬ ‫م‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ء‬ ‫ا‬. -‫ا‬‫ء‬ ‫ا‬ ‫م‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ج‬ ‫ل‬ ‫ا‬ ‫م‬Granulopioeosis‫و‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ه‬ ‫ا‬ ‫و‬ ‫و‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ج‬ ‫ا‬Lymphopioeosis." -‫رال‬Mural Body:‫ه‬‫ر‬‫آ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫وي‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ء‬ ‫ا‬Large lymphatic duct‫ذ‬ ‫و‬ ‫ر‬ ‫ا‬ ‫و‬ ‫أن‬ ‫و‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ذ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ف‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ر‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ي‬ ‫ا‬. -‫ي‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬Pineal body:‫أس‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ة‬‫ء‬ ‫و‬ ‫ر‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ي‬ ‫ا‬‫م‬ ‫و‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ء‬ ‫ا‬ ‫آ‬ ‫س‬ ‫وه‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ق‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ات‬ ‫ا‬‫ج‬ ‫أ‬ ‫ي‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ء‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ت‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ر‬ ‫ا‬ ‫أن‬ ‫و‬ ‫و‬ ‫روآ‬ ‫ه‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ط‬ ‫ء‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬-‫ول‬ ‫ا‬-‫ا‬ ‫او‬‫از‬Hydroxyindole-O-methyl
  9. 9. transferase‫ت‬ ‫ا‬ ‫م‬ ‫ا‬ ‫و‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ج‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ل‬ ‫ا‬‫ء‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ن‬ ‫و‬ ‫ة‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ج‬ ‫أ‬‫ت‬ ‫آ‬ ‫از‬ ‫إ‬ ‫إ‬ ‫ة‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫و‬ ‫م‬ ‫وا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬‫را‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ة‬ ‫آ‬ ‫أ‬ ‫ت‬ ‫وآ‬....‫ت‬ ‫أ‬ ‫و‬ ‫ر‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ط‬ ‫وا‬ ‫ة‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ه‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ث‬ ‫ا‬ ‫أ‬ ‫و‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ه‬. -‫و‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬Lymph nodes:‫و‬ ‫أو‬ ‫ج‬ ‫و‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ء‬ ‫أ‬"‫در‬Afferent ‫ووارد‬Efferent"‫ة‬ ‫آ‬ ‫آ‬ ‫أ‬ ‫و‬‫و‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ن‬ ‫م‬ ‫ا‬ ‫و‬ ‫و‬ ‫ا‬‫ر‬ ‫دة‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ر‬ ‫ا‬ ‫أ‬ ‫ده‬ ‫و‬ ‫وا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫و‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫د‬ ‫و‬ ‫ء‬...‫ا‬ ‫ق‬ ‫وا‬ ‫و‬ ‫ا‬ ‫أن‬ ‫ت‬ ‫دة‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫و‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫و‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫و‬ ‫ا‬‫أو‬ ‫درة‬ ‫و‬ ‫أو‬ ‫واردة‬. ‫ا‬-‫وا‬-‫ا‬ ‫ء‬ ‫ا‬: ‫آ‬ ‫ي‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ز‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ن‬ ‫ذآ‬ ‫آ‬)(‫و‬)(‫ل‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬)(٧٠%‫و‬)(٣٠...%‫ردر‬ ‫ه‬ ‫ة‬ ‫و‬‫ن‬)(٨٠%‫و‬ )(٢٠.. %‫ا‬ ‫ن‬ ‫ن‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ن‬ ‫ر‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ز‬ ‫ا‬ ‫و‬)(٥٠%‫و‬)( ٥٠.% ‫ا‬‫ا‬-‫ا‬-‫ا‬‫ا‬-‫ا‬- ‫ل‬ ‫ا‬٣٠%٧٠%‫ا‬ ‫ز‬ ‫ا‬٥٠%٥٠% ‫ردر‬ ‫ه‬ ‫ة‬٨٠%٢٠%‫ر‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ز‬ ‫ا‬٥٠%٥٠% ‫ا‬٨٠%‫ا‬٢٠% ‫ر‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ء‬ ‫ر‬
  10. 10. -‫ا‬ ‫ا‬: ‫وه‬ ‫ا‬ ‫وا‬ ‫م‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ع‬ ‫و‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ز‬ ‫ا‬ ‫أه‬ ‫وا‬ ‫ه‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬‫ة‬ ‫آ‬ ‫اع‬ ‫أ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫وا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫و‬ ‫و‬ ‫ا‬. ‫وه‬ ‫ر‬ ‫اع‬ ‫أ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ر‬ ‫ا‬ ‫م‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬: ‫أو‬-‫اء‬ ‫ا‬ ‫م‬ ‫ا‬Avian red blood cells: ‫ا‬ ‫ع‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ي‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ع‬ ‫ا‬‫اة‬ ‫ي‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ع‬ ‫ا‬ ‫أن‬Nucleated‫ا‬ ‫ع‬ ‫اة‬ ‫ر‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ده‬ ‫اوح‬ ‫و‬٢ ٥-٣‫ـ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫أو‬ ‫آ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫م‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ن‬ Packed cell volume‫ا‬٣٠-٤٠‫ه‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫أ‬ ‫وأ‬٣٥‫ج‬ ‫ا‬‫و‬٣٥-٤٥ ‫و‬ ‫م‬ ‫ا‬٤٢‫و‬ ‫ا‬١٢٠‫ة‬ ‫ا‬ ‫آ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫و‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ورة‬ ‫ا‬ ‫و‬ ‫ن‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ل‬. ‫ـ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫اءه‬ ‫أ‬ ‫ر‬ ‫اء‬ ‫ا‬ ‫م‬ ‫ا‬ ‫اة‬ ‫د‬ ‫ا‬ ‫و‬Major histocompatibility complex- I‫أ‬ ‫و‬‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ن‬. -‫و‬ ‫ا‬Thrombocytes:‫ه‬‫ن‬ ‫آ‬ ‫و‬ ‫ت‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ر‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ده‬ ‫اوح‬ ‫و‬ ‫ذ‬ ‫ت‬ ‫ا‬ ‫أ‬ ‫اة‬ ‫و‬ ‫ا‬٢٥-٣٠‫أ‬ ‫وه‬ ‫م‬ ‫ا‬ ‫وا‬‫م‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ق‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬‫ر‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫و‬ ‫و‬ ‫و‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬‫أ‬‫أ‬ ‫آ‬‫زم‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ن‬‫ن‬ ‫ا‬ ‫زرق‬ ‫ر‬ ‫ن‬ ‫ا‬ ‫دي‬ ‫ر‬ ‫و‬ ‫ن‬ ‫م‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫و‬ ‫و‬ ‫و‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬‫ا‬Phagocytosis ‫ا‬ ‫ت‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫رك‬ ‫و‬...‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫أن‬ ‫و‬. -‫ء‬ ‫ا‬ ‫م‬ ‫ا‬Avian leucocytes: ‫م‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ع‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬‫ا‬ ‫د‬ ‫وا‬Total leucocytic count‫اوح‬١٦-٣٠ ‫م‬ ‫ا‬ ‫وا‬ ‫أ‬‫وه‬ ‫ر‬ ‫ء‬ ‫ا‬ ‫م‬ ‫ا‬ ‫و‬: ‫أ‬-‫ا‬ ‫ء‬ ‫ا‬ ‫م‬ ‫ا‬Granulocytic leucocytes: ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫و‬ ‫زم‬ ‫ان‬ ‫وأ‬ ‫ل‬ ‫أ‬ ‫ذات‬ ‫ت‬ ‫د‬‫و‬ ‫م‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ع‬ ‫ا‬ ‫د‬ ‫ا‬ ‫اوح‬ ‫و‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ورة‬Total granulocytic count٥-٧‫وا‬ ‫ف‬ ‫أ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫اع‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ه‬ ‫و‬ ‫وا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫و‬ ‫اة‬ ‫ا‬ ‫اع‬ ‫أ‬ ‫ة‬ ‫و‬:
  11. 11. ١-‫و‬ ‫ا‬Microphages=Heterophils: ‫ه‬‫ء‬‫ا‬ ‫دة‬‫ي‬Polymorphnuclear heterophilic granulocyte ‫ا‬ ‫و‬ ‫ت‬ ‫ا‬ ‫و‬ ‫ا‬‫م‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ي‬ ‫إ‬ ‫و‬ ‫م‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ع‬ ‫ن‬ ‫و‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ز‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫و‬١٢‫ه‬ ‫ل‬ ‫ة‬ ‫اوح‬ ‫و‬ ‫ا‬ ‫إ‬ ‫م‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ي‬ ‫در‬‫ة‬ ‫أآ‬‫م‬ ‫أ‬. ‫دا‬ ‫آ‬ ‫م‬ ‫ا‬ ‫و‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ن‬‫ا‬‫ه‬١٢-١٥‫زم‬ ‫وا‬ ‫و‬ ‫و‬ ‫ا‬ ‫و‬ ‫وآ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫و‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ن‬ ‫و‬ ‫ن‬ ‫ذات‬ ‫ت‬ ‫اءه‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬‫ذات‬ ‫اة‬ ‫آ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫و‬ ‫أزرق‬ ‫ن‬ ‫ذو‬ ‫زم‬ ‫و‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬...‫ر‬ ‫آ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫و‬ ‫م‬ ‫أ‬ ‫ي‬ ‫ا‬ ‫و‬ ‫وا‬ ‫آ‬ ‫د‬ ً‫ا‬ ‫وآ‬‫ت‬ ‫ا‬Ribosomes‫ز‬ ‫و‬ ‫وا‬Rough endoplasmic reticulum. ‫زم‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ت‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ن‬ ‫ه‬ ‫ا‬ ‫و‬: -‫ت‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ول‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ت‬ ‫ا‬Primary granules‫ة‬ ‫ت‬ ‫أ‬ ‫ي‬ ‫آ‬ ‫ت‬ ‫وه‬ bactericidal‫ا‬ ‫وآ‬ ‫ا‬Myeloproxidase. -‫ا‬ ‫ت‬ ‫ا‬Secondary granules‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫و‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ي‬‫آ‬Lactoferrin. ‫و‬ ‫وا‬‫ا‬‫ر‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ده‬ ‫اوح‬ ‫و‬ ‫ت‬ ‫ا‬ ‫و‬٤-٥‫ف‬ ‫أ‬‫أي‬ ‫ا‬٢٠-٣٠%‫وو‬ ‫ا‬ ‫أ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ع‬ ‫أ‬ ‫وه‬ ‫ء‬ ‫ا‬ ‫م‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ت‬ ‫آ‬ ‫أ‬ ‫م‬ ‫ا‬ ‫أو‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ه‬ ‫ا‬Phagocytosis. ‫ر‬ ‫ن‬ ‫ا‬ ‫دا‬ ‫دة‬ ‫ا‬ ‫درة‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ود‬ ‫ون‬ ‫و‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ع‬ ‫در‬‫ت‬ ‫ود‬ ‫د‬ ‫م‬ ‫ا‬ ‫درة‬ ‫ن‬ ‫و‬ ‫ودة‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫و‬ ‫م‬ ‫م‬ ‫وا‬ ‫ت‬ ‫و‬ ‫ا‬ ‫و‬ ‫و‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ع‬ ‫ا‬ ‫و‬ ‫ا‬‫ن‬ ‫آ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ز‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫م‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ي‬ ‫ظ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫درة‬ ‫و‬ ً‫ا‬‫ر‬ ‫و‬ ‫ا‬ ‫م‬ ‫ا‬ ‫د‬ ‫و‬ ‫و‬‫ا‬ ‫ز‬ ‫ا‬ ‫أو‬ ‫آ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫اة‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ة‬ ‫و‬ ‫ا‬ ‫م‬‫اة‬ ‫ا‬ ‫دى‬ ‫أ‬(Mononuclear-phagocytic system) ‫ات‬ ‫ا‬ ‫اد‬ ‫م‬ ‫وب‬ ‫ا‬ ‫أو‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫آ‬ ‫و‬ ‫ا‬ ‫أن‬ ‫إ‬ ً‫ا‬ ‫و‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ع‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ت‬ ‫ا‬(Antigen-sensitive cells). ‫ا‬ ‫ت‬ ‫و‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫و‬ ‫وا‬‫و‬‫ـ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ت‬Cluster of differentiation = CD‫ا‬ ‫أه‬CD11a/CD18‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫وا‬ ‫اة‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ات‬ ‫وو‬ ‫و‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫أ‬ ‫ي‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ى‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ء‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ت‬ ‫وا‬‫و‬‫ـ‬ ‫ا‬CD11b/CD18‫ـ‬ ‫وا‬CD11c/CD18‫إ‬ ‫إ‬CD32‫ا‬ ‫ا‬‫ص‬Fc‫ا‬‫ـ‬ ‫وا‬ ‫د‬ ‫ا‬CD35‫ص‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬C3b. ‫و‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ت‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ه‬ ‫ت‬ ‫ا‬ ‫و‬ ‫ا‬ ‫و‬ ‫ا‬ ‫و‬Proteolytic enzymes ‫ء‬ ‫و‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫وب‬ ‫ا‬ ‫و‬‫ر‬ ‫ا‬ ‫أو‬ ‫ت‬. ٢-‫ا‬Eosinophils:‫اة‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ة‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ء‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ه‬Polymorphnuclear eosinophilic granulocyte‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫و‬‫ن‬‫ا‬ ‫آ‬ ‫زم‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫اء‬ ‫ا‬Eosin‫ة‬ ‫وه‬‫و‬ ‫ا‬ ‫وأآ‬ ‫اة‬ ‫ا‬‫و‬‫اوح‬١٢-١٧‫و‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ن‬ ‫دة‬ ‫و‬‫ا‬...‫ل‬ ‫ذات‬ ‫ا‬ ‫و‬ ‫آ‬ ‫ت‬ ‫زم‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ي‬ ‫و‬ ‫ر‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ر‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ر‬ ‫ا‬ ‫اع‬ ‫أ‬ ‫ن‬ ‫ا‬Psittacine birds‫ا‬ ‫ه‬ ‫ن‬‫ت‬ ‫م‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ده‬ ‫اوح‬ ‫و‬ ‫أزرق‬ ‫ن‬ ‫ذات‬ ‫ز‬ ‫ا‬٠ ٥-١‫و‬ ‫وا‬ ‫أ‬ ١-٥%‫م‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ء‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ت‬ ‫ا‬ ‫أ‬. ‫و‬ ‫ل‬ ‫اآ‬ ‫ل‬ ‫ا‬ ‫إ‬ ‫و‬ ً ‫ر‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ع‬ ‫در‬ ‫ا‬ ‫وا‬ ‫ة‬ ‫ة‬ ‫م‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ي‬٤-٥‫داد‬ ‫و‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫وه‬ ‫ج‬ ‫أن‬ ‫ت‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫وو‬ ‫ء‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ان‬ ‫ا‬ ‫و‬ ‫ت‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ب‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ده‬ Phagocytosis.
  12. 12. ‫و‬ ‫ودة‬ ‫رة‬ ‫و‬‫اة‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ات‬ ‫وو‬ ‫و‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ات‬ ‫ت‬ ‫و‬ ‫ا‬ ‫و‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ة‬ ‫آ‬ ‫آ‬ ‫ي‬ ‫و‬ ‫زوم‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ي‬ ‫و‬ ‫ا‬Acid phosphatase‫وآ‬ ‫وا‬Peroxidase‫أآ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫وآ‬ ‫و‬‫وآ‬ ‫ب‬ ‫ا‬ ‫وث‬ ‫ن‬ ‫ـ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫إزا‬ ‫ـ‬ ‫دور‬ ‫أن‬ ‫آ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ء‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ة‬ ‫اع‬ ‫أ‬ ‫و‬ ‫ا‬. ٣-‫زو‬ ‫ا‬Basophils:‫اة‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ة‬ ‫ء‬Polymorphnuclear basophilic granulocyte cell‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫و‬‫ن‬‫ا‬‫ا‬ ‫آ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫آ‬ ‫زم‬ ‫م‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ده‬ ‫اوح‬ ‫و‬ ‫ن‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ت‬ ‫زم‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ي‬ ‫و‬٠ ٥-١‫أ‬ ‫و‬ ‫وا‬-٢%‫آ‬ ‫أ‬‫م‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ات‬‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫وه‬ ‫ء‬ ‫ا‬‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫و‬ ‫ن‬ ‫و‬Phagocytosis. ‫ب‬-‫ا‬ ‫ء‬ ‫ا‬ ‫م‬ ‫ا‬Agranulocytic leucocytes: ‫ء‬ ‫دم‬ ‫ه‬‫ي‬‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫و‬ ‫ز‬ ‫ت‬ ‫زم‬ ‫ا‬‫ع‬ ‫ا‬ ‫و‬ ‫ا‬ ‫وا‬ ‫م‬ ‫ا‬‫ا‬ ‫ء‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫د‬ ‫ا‬ ‫وح‬Total agranulocytic count١١- ٢٣‫ا‬ ‫اع‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ه‬ ‫و‬ ‫وا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫اع‬ ‫أ‬ ‫ة‬ ‫و‬ ‫وا‬ ‫أ‬: ١-‫ا‬Monocytes‫ج‬ ‫و‬ ‫آ‬ ‫وا‬"‫ة‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ه‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬"Macrophages: ‫م‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ع‬‫و‬‫ر‬ ‫م‬ ‫ده‬ ‫وو‬ ‫م‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬‫أ‬‫ا‬‫و‬ ‫م‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫و‬ ‫ا‬ ‫أ‬ ‫إ‬‫ل‬‫ات‬ ‫و‬‫اة‬ ‫ا‬‫ا‬‫أآ‬)‫اة‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ات‬ ‫و‬ ‫ا‬ ‫إ‬ ‫م‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫أآ‬(‫و‬‫آ‬‫ة‬ ‫ا‬ ‫و‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ء‬ ‫أ‬ ‫دة‬ ‫ء‬ ‫أ‬‫ه‬Langerhan's cell‫و‬‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬Histocyte‫ي‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫و‬Microglia‫و‬‫ــــ‬‫ا‬‫ن‬‫آ‬ Von Kupffer cells‫و‬‫ـــ‬‫ا‬‫ـــ‬‫ا‬ ‫ا‬‫ا‬ ‫أو‬Alveolar macrophage or septal cell‫و‬‫ا‬ ‫ج‬ ‫و‬ ‫آ‬ ‫وا‬ ‫ي‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ات‬ ‫و‬‫آ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ات‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ز‬Monocyte- macrophage system‫ا‬ ‫ز‬ ‫ف‬ ‫ن‬ ‫وآ‬‫ا‬Reticuloendothelial system. ‫اوح‬ ‫و‬٢٥-٥٠‫ون‬‫د‬ ‫و‬‫ه‬‫ا‬ ‫م‬ ‫ا‬١ ٥‫أ‬ ‫وا‬ ‫أ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬٥%‫ي‬ ‫و‬ ‫ا‬ ‫أن‬ ‫ج‬ ‫و‬ ‫آ‬ ‫وا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ر‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ق‬ ‫وا‬ Smooth contour‫آ‬ ‫اءات‬ ‫ي‬ ‫ا‬ ‫أ‬‫ا‬ ‫ت‬ ‫و‬ ‫ا‬ ‫آ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ه‬ ‫ة‬ ‫ة‬ ‫آ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ط‬ ‫ارا‬ ‫ر‬ ‫ج‬ ‫و‬ ‫آ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫و‬‫ا‬ ‫م‬ ‫ا‬ ‫و‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ة‬ ‫وا‬ ‫ة‬. ‫وه‬‫ا‬ ‫ة‬‫و‬‫ا‬ ‫و‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ر‬‫أ‬ ‫رة‬ ‫ا‬‫أو‬ ‫أي‬ ‫ل‬ ‫واد‬ ‫م‬ ‫وآ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫و‬ ‫ت‬ ‫و‬‫ا‬ ‫ـ‬‫ا‬ ‫ت‬ ‫و‬ ‫ا‬ ‫أو‬ ‫ا‬ ‫م‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫أ‬ ‫ة‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ء‬ ‫وأ‬ ‫ت‬ ‫أي‬ ‫ة‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ت‬ ‫ه‬ ‫وا‬ ‫و‬ ‫ت‬ ‫و‬ ‫ت‬ ‫آ‬‫زا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫م‬ ‫ه‬ ‫ء‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ت‬. ‫ات‬ ‫و‬ ‫ا‬ ‫و‬‫د‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫رة‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ت‬ ‫ت‬ ‫وا‬ ‫اة‬ ‫ا‬Fc‫رة‬ ‫و‬ ‫ع‬ ‫ا‬IgY‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫وآ‬C3b‫ا‬ ‫ع‬ ‫وا‬‫آ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬(MCH class II). ‫و‬ ‫أه‬ ‫و‬‫ه‬‫ا‬: -‫ا‬ ‫أو‬ ‫ا‬ ‫وا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫وإزا‬ ‫ه‬ ‫و‬ ‫ا‬ ‫وا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫م‬ ‫ا‬‫ت‬. -‫ا‬ ‫ت‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ده‬ ‫و‬ ‫و‬ ‫أ‬ ‫آ‬Chronic inflammations. -‫ا‬ ‫ض‬ ‫و‬Ag presenting & processing‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫اث‬. -‫ا‬ ‫ا‬‫ت‬ ‫آ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫از‬ ‫ا‬‫آ‬ ‫ا‬-١Interleukin-1‫ي‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬-‫آ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ز‬-٢‫ون‬ ‫ا‬ ‫از‬ ‫م‬ ‫آ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫آ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ء‬ ‫ل‬ ‫ا‬.
  13. 13. ٢-‫و‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬tesLymphocy: ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ء‬ ‫ه‬‫أ‬ ‫و‬ ‫ا‬ ‫وآ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫وا‬ ‫م‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ع‬ ‫رة‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ز‬ ‫ا‬ ‫و‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫آ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ه‬ ‫و‬ ‫آ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ء‬ ‫ات‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬Self‫ات‬ ‫ا‬ ‫و‬Non-self‫ا‬ ‫آ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫وآ‬Immune memory‫دم‬ ‫ده‬ ‫اوح‬ ‫و‬ ‫ر‬ ‫ا‬١٠-١٢‫ا‬ ‫ة‬ ‫ه‬ ‫و‬ ‫م‬ ‫ا‬ ‫و‬ ‫أ‬٢٠-٤٥%‫أ‬ ‫ء‬ ‫ا‬ ‫م‬ ‫ا‬. ‫آ‬ ‫أ‬ ‫و‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫د‬ ‫وو‬)‫ا‬ ‫م‬ ‫وا‬ ‫وا‬ ‫ا‬‫ر‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ز‬ ‫وا‬ ‫ل‬ ‫وا‬ ‫ه‬ ‫و‬‫وا‬ ‫ء‬ ‫ا‬(‫و‬ ‫أ‬ ‫و‬ ‫و‬ ‫د‬ ‫و‬ ‫إ‬ ‫دي‬ ‫ا‬ ‫رات‬ ‫أ‬ ‫ر‬ ‫أن‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ة‬ ‫وا‬ ‫أ‬ ‫ر‬ ‫وأ‬ ‫و‬ ‫ت‬ ‫ا‬ ‫إ‬ ‫دي‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬‫وو‬ ‫آ‬. ‫و‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ه‬ ‫ن‬ ‫و‬-T-Lymphocytes‫و‬ ‫ا‬ ‫وا‬-B-Lymphocytes‫ا‬ ‫وه‬ ‫ره‬ ‫ا‬ ‫و‬ ‫دة‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ت‬ ‫وا‬ ‫ت‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬‫أ‬ ‫إ‬ ‫إ‬ ‫وا‬ ‫ات‬ ‫وا‬‫آ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫و‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫اع‬ ‫أ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ض‬ ‫و‬: i-‫و‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬)(Lymphocytes-T: ‫س‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ة‬ ‫أ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫وآ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫وا‬ ‫م‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ع‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ت‬ ‫ه‬"‫وا‬"‫و‬٧٠-٨٠%‫دا‬ ‫وه‬ ‫م‬ ‫ا‬ ‫و‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫أ‬ ‫وا‬ ‫م‬ ‫ا‬ ‫وران‬ ‫ا‬‫وه‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ر‬ ‫ـ‬‫ـ‬ ‫ـ‬ ‫ة‬ ‫ـ‬ ‫ـ‬ ‫ـ‬‫وه‬ ‫ت‬ ‫أ‬ ‫أي‬ ‫ــ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ــ‬ ‫ا‬‫ـــ‬‫ـ‬ ‫ا‬‫ــ‬‫ا‬‫ـ‬‫ـ‬Cell-mediated Immunity‫ه‬ ‫و‬‫ا‬ ‫و‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ه‬ ‫ادا‬ ‫أ‬ ‫و‬ ‫و‬-‫ا‬Sensitized T-cells‫دل‬ ‫ور‬ ‫ة‬ ‫ذاآ‬ ‫آ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫د‬ ‫و‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫دور‬ ‫م‬ ‫وا‬ ‫ا‬. ‫ا‬ ‫و‬-‫ا‬ ‫ف‬ ‫ا‬ ‫إ‬Subpopulation‫ا‬ ‫ت‬ ‫وا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫دا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫دة‬ ‫ا‬‫ا‬ ‫م‬ ‫و‬-‫و‬ ‫ا‬ ‫أ‬ ‫و‬‫أو‬ ‫و‬ ‫و‬ ‫ى‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ة‬ ‫ا‬ ‫و‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬B and T cellRegulatory Function‫وا‬‫ة‬ ‫و‬Effector Function‫و‬‫آ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ج‬ ‫إ‬ ‫وآ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫وا‬ ‫ت‬ ‫و‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ي‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ Lymphokines‫و‬‫ا‬-‫ت‬ ‫ا‬ ‫وه‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ت‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ف‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫اع‬ ‫أ‬ ‫ة‬ ‫إ‬ ‫ه‬: -CD2‫م‬ ‫اء‬ ‫ا‬ ‫م‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ت‬ ‫ص‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬Sheep red blood cell = SRBC‫و‬‫ه‬ ‫ا‬ ‫اع‬ ‫أ‬-‫ا‬ ‫و‬-‫و‬ ‫ت‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ن‬ ‫م‬ ‫اء‬ ‫ا‬ ‫م‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ت‬ ‫آ‬ ‫ي‬ ‫ه‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬Rosettes. -CD3‫ا‬ ‫ت‬ ‫ء‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ه‬-. CD4-‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ه‬‫ا‬(MHC class-II)‫آ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫آ‬. CD8-‫ول‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ه‬(MHC class-I)‫آ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫آ‬. ‫ف‬ ‫أ‬ ‫و‬‫ا‬-‫اع‬ ‫وا‬ ‫ت‬ ‫ا‬ ‫اع‬ ‫أ‬ ‫د‬‫ا‬-‫ه‬: -‫ا‬-‫ة‬ ‫ا‬Helper Cells-T:‫ف‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ورآ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫د‬ ‫ي‬ ‫ا‬ ‫و‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ه‬‫أو‬ ‫ء‬ ‫آ‬ ‫أو‬ ‫ا‬ ‫اء‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ر‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ز‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫د‬ ‫ي‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ي‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ر‬ ‫ا‬ ‫وس‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬‫ل‬ ‫أ‬ ‫آ‬ ‫ا‬‫ا‬ ‫ز‬ ‫ا‬. ‫ا‬ ‫د‬ ‫ا‬ ‫د‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ه‬ ‫و‬CD2, CD3, CD4‫ا‬ ‫ن‬ ‫أي‬ ‫أ‬CD4 ‫و‬‫ا‬ ‫دات‬ ‫ا‬Epitopes‫ت‬ ‫و‬‫ت‬ ‫ا‬ ‫أو‬‫ر‬ ‫ا‬Exogenous Antigens‫ون‬ ‫ـ‬ ‫ا‬MHC-II. ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫وه‬‫وه‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ج‬ ‫إ‬ ‫و‬:
  14. 14. -‫آ‬ ‫ا‬-٢‫ا‬ ‫ور‬ ‫م‬ ‫ي‬ ‫ا‬‫ل‬ ‫ا‬‫ا‬-‫م‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ج‬ ‫إ‬‫و‬ ‫دة‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬-‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫اث‬ ‫أ‬ ‫ة‬ ‫ا‬‫ت‬ ‫ا‬ ‫م‬ ‫وأ‬ ‫ا‬. -‫وه‬ ‫ون‬ ‫ا‬‫ي‬ ‫و‬Glycoprotein‫رض‬‫و‬‫ا‬ ‫دا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ر‬ ‫و‬ ‫وس‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ورة‬ ‫ا‬‫ا‬‫آ‬‫ت‬ ‫و‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ي‬ ‫ا‬ ‫و‬ ‫ج‬ ‫و‬ ‫آ‬ ‫ا‬. -‫ا‬-‫ا‬Cytotoxic Cells-T:‫و‬‫ا‬ ‫دورا‬‫ا‬ ‫ا‬‫ت‬ ‫و‬ ‫و‬ ‫ا‬ ‫وا‬‫آ‬‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ر‬‫رو‬‫ت‬ ‫د‬ ‫و‬ ‫ا‬CD2 CD3 CD8 ‫ا‬ ‫ن‬ ‫أي‬ ‫أ‬CD8‫و‬‫ا‬ ‫دات‬ ‫ا‬Epitopes‫ت‬‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ Endogenous Antigens‫ـ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ون‬MHC-I. -‫ا‬-‫ا‬ ‫أو‬ ‫ا‬Suppressor Cells-T:‫آ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ج‬ ‫م‬-٢‫ا‬ ‫وه‬‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ط‬ ‫آ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ة‬ ‫ه‬-‫ج‬ ‫إ‬‫ا‬‫م‬‫ا‬ ‫ط‬ ‫وآ‬ ‫دة‬ ‫ا‬-‫ة‬ ‫ه‬ ‫و‬ ‫ة‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ت‬ ‫د‬ ‫ا‬CD2 CD3 CD8‫ن‬ ‫أي‬‫ا‬CD8‫ا‬ ‫و‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ة‬ ‫ه‬ ‫وث‬ ‫ا‬ ‫أ‬ ‫ا‬Immunological Tolerance ‫ت‬ ‫ا‬. -‫ا‬-‫ة‬ ‫ا‬Cell-Delayed T:‫د‬ ‫ا‬ ‫و‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ز‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫أه‬4-CD‫درا‬ ‫و‬ ‫د‬ ‫ا‬CD-8‫ا‬ ‫دات‬ ‫ا‬ ‫و‬Epitopes‫ـ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ون‬MHC-2‫ـ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫أ‬ ‫أ‬ ‫و‬ MHC-1‫و‬‫ت‬ ‫آ‬Lymphokines‫ا‬ ‫ب‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ت‬ ‫ج‬ ‫و‬ ‫آ‬. -‫ا‬-‫ة‬ ‫اآ‬ ‫ا‬cells-Memory T:‫د‬ ‫ا‬4-CD‫و‬‫آ‬8-CD‫و‬‫اآ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ه‬‫ة‬ ‫ي‬ ‫أ‬ ‫ات‬ ‫أو‬ ‫ة‬ ‫ا‬ ‫و‬ ‫وب‬ ‫أي‬ ‫ا‬. ii-‫و‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬)(Lymphocytes-B:‫ع‬ ‫ع‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ه‬ ‫ر‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ن‬ ‫ه‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ه‬ ‫و‬ ‫أ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫وآ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫وا‬ ‫م‬ ‫ا‬ urosopoetin‫آ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ز‬ ‫ا‬-٤‫آ‬ ‫وا‬-٥‫ز‬ ‫ي‬ ‫ا‬‫ا‬- ‫ا‬ ‫ة‬ ‫ا‬Activated T-helper‫ا‬ ‫ة‬ ‫ه‬ ‫و‬‫وا‬ ‫ل‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ر‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ز‬ ‫وا‬ ‫ردر‬ ‫ه‬ ‫ة‬ ‫ر‬ ‫ا‬. ‫ا‬ ‫ة‬ ‫ه‬ ‫و‬١٥-٢٠%‫ر‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ة‬ ‫آ‬ ‫وه‬ ‫م‬ ‫ا‬ ‫و‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬- ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ه‬ ‫و‬"٥-٧‫م‬ ‫أ‬"‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫رن‬ ‫اذا‬-"‫ا‬ ‫ر‬." ‫ا‬-‫ت‬ ‫د‬‫وه‬‫ت‬‫د‬ ‫ع‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬Primitive IgD‫ـ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ت‬ ‫ا‬Cluster of differentiation = CD‫وه‬ ‫دة‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ي‬ ‫و‬Glycoprotein‫ا‬-‫ت‬ ‫ا‬ ‫و‬CD19 + CD20 + CD21‫وآ‬ ‫وا‬ ‫دة‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ت‬‫آ‬ ‫ا‬‫وأ‬ ‫آ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ت‬C4b+C3b+C1q‫ـ‬ ‫ص‬ ‫ا‬ ‫وا‬Fc‫ا‬IgG. ‫ا‬ ‫أن‬ ‫و‬-‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫آ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫وا‬ ‫ات‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬‫دا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫إ‬ ‫ا‬‫ا‬Ig‫ك‬ ‫و‬ ‫ز‬ ‫ي‬ ‫ا‬Bα‫ز‬ ‫ا‬IgG‫و‬Bγ‫ا‬ ‫ز‬IgM‫و‬Bµ‫ز‬ ‫ا‬IgE‫و‬Bε‫ز‬ ‫ا‬IgD‫و‬Bδ‫ز‬ ‫ا‬IgA ‫و‬‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫أن‬ ‫م‬ ‫ا‬-IgG‫و‬IgM‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬-IgA.. ‫وه‬‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫أي‬ ‫دة‬ ‫ا‬ ‫م‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ج‬ ‫إ‬Antibody-mediated Immunity ‫إ‬ ‫و‬ ‫و‬ ‫ا‬‫ز‬ ‫ا‬plasma cells‫ا‬‫دة‬ ‫ا‬ ‫م‬
  15. 15. ‫ه‬ ‫ة‬ ‫ذاآ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ء‬ ‫ل‬ ‫و‬‫و‬‫ر‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ث‬‫و‬‫ض‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ل‬ ‫ى‬ ‫أ‬ ‫ة‬ ‫ا‬. ‫ث‬ ‫واذا‬-‫آ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫أو‬ ‫ت‬ ‫ا‬-٢‫م‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ز‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ل‬ ‫م‬ ‫دة‬ ‫ا‬‫ا‬ ‫و‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ة‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ز‬ ‫و‬ ‫وي‬ ‫ا‬ ‫وا‬ ١٣ ١٠B-cell clones‫و‬ ‫ت‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ع‬ ‫دة‬ ‫ا‬ ‫م‬ ‫ا‬ ‫وآ‬ ‫ت‬Fc receptor‫د‬ ‫ع‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫د‬ ‫رة‬Primitive IgD‫ا‬ ‫ه‬ ‫ف‬ ‫و‬ ‫أ‬ ‫أي‬ ‫ا‬‫ا‬ ‫ا‬Clone selection‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ه‬ Clone proliferation or expansion‫ز‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ل‬Clone transformation‫م‬ ‫ا‬ ‫م‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ج‬ ‫ز‬ ‫ا‬‫و‬ ‫ا‬‫ا‬-‫وا‬ ‫ج‬ ‫و‬ ‫آ‬ ‫آ‬ ‫آ‬ ‫أ‬ ‫و‬ ‫ا‬C3 receptor‫أي‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ة‬ ‫اآ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ة‬ ‫ذاآ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ل‬ ‫و‬ ‫ي‬ ‫أ‬ ‫ات‬ ‫أو‬ ‫ة‬ ‫ا‬ ‫و‬ ‫وب‬. iii-‫ز‬ ‫ا‬Plasma Cells:‫ا‬-‫ا‬‫أو‬ ‫ة‬‫ة‬ ‫آ‬-٢‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ن‬ ‫و‬morphology‫ا‬- ‫ز‬ ‫و‬ ‫ز‬ ‫ا‬ ‫وا‬plasmablasts‫ا‬‫و‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ء‬ ‫ا‬‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ون‬ ‫ا‬-‫وا‬-‫ء‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ز‬ ‫ـ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫و‬mantle zone‫أن‬ ‫و‬ ‫ل‬ ‫ا‬ ‫إ‬ ‫ر‬‫د‬ ‫آ‬ ‫ز‬‫ة‬‫ء‬ ‫أ‬ ‫زع‬ ‫ا‬‫أآ‬ ‫و‬ ‫ا‬ ‫و‬ ‫ل‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ز‬ ‫ا‬ ‫د‬‫ر‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ز‬ ‫وا‬ ‫ردر‬ ‫ه‬ ‫ة‬. ‫ز‬ ‫ا‬ ‫و‬‫ا‬ ‫و‬Ovoid cells‫ه‬٨-٩‫ي‬ ‫آ‬ ‫دا‬ ‫اة‬ ‫و‬ ‫و‬ ‫و‬ ‫آ‬‫م‬ ‫ا‬ ‫زع‬Unevenly distributed chromatin‫ز‬ ‫و‬ ‫ا‬ ‫آ‬ Rough endoplasmic reticulum‫ا‬ ‫ت‬ ‫ة‬basic dyes‫و‬ ‫وا‬Pyronin‫و‬ ‫ر‬ ‫ة‬ ‫ز‬ ‫ا‬‫وا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ع‬ ‫أي‬ ‫ن‬ ‫أ‬ ‫أي‬ ‫آ‬ ‫اوح‬ ‫ة‬ ‫ات‬ ‫ز‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬٣-٤‫ا‬ ‫و‬ ‫م‬ ‫أ‬‫ة‬ ٣-٤‫أ‬. ‫و‬‫ه‬‫درة‬٣٠٠‫يء‬‫دة‬ ‫ا‬ ‫م‬ ‫وا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫وا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫دة‬ ‫ا‬ ‫م‬ ‫ا‬ ‫د‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ت‬ ‫ا‬Polyribosomes‫ا‬ ‫ز‬ ‫و‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ز‬‫ا‬‫ن‬ ‫آ‬ ‫د‬ ‫ن‬ ‫ا‬. ‫ت‬ ‫ز‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫د‬ ‫ا‬ ‫وا‬-‫ذات‬-‫و‬ ‫م‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫رة‬ ‫أ‬ ‫ز‬ ‫ا‬ ‫أن‬-‫ي‬ ‫و‬‫ي‬ ‫أ‬ ‫أ‬ ‫دة‬ ‫م‬ ‫أ‬ ‫دة‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ت‬ ‫وا‬ ‫ت‬ ‫ا‬‫ا‬-‫ة‬ ‫وذاآ‬ ‫ز‬ ‫إ‬ ‫ره‬. iv-‫ا‬ ‫ا‬Killer cells:‫و‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ه‬‫ا‬ ‫اث‬ ‫أ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ي‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫م‬ ‫و‬ ‫وا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ك‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫دة‬ ‫ا‬ ‫م‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ة‬ ‫ا‬Antibodies-Dependent Cell-Mediated Cytotoxcity (ADCC). v-‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬=Natural killer cells:‫أآ‬ ‫ة‬ ‫آ‬ ‫و‬ ‫ه‬٣-٥% ‫و‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ع‬‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ورة‬ ‫ا‬‫ع‬ ‫د‬ ‫آ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫و‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ء‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ة‬ ‫وه‬ ‫م‬ ‫ا‬‫ر‬‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫و‬-‫ا‬ ‫و‬-Non-B-Non-T Cells‫ـ‬ ‫ة‬ ‫ه‬ ‫آ‬ ‫ت‬ ‫ي‬Null Cells‫أ‬ ‫آ‬‫إ‬ ‫ج‬ ‫و‬ ‫رة‬ ‫ن‬‫ط‬ ‫ار‬ ‫د‬ ‫و‬MHC class-I‫أو‬MHC class-II‫م‬.
  16. 16. ‫ذات‬ ‫وه‬‫ا‬ ‫و‬-‫ا‬T-cytotoxic cells‫ا‬ ‫و‬ ‫ا‬ ‫وا‬ ‫ت‬ ‫و‬ ‫ا‬‫ي‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫أ‬ ‫م‬ ‫آ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫و‬ ‫ا‬ ‫وا‬ ‫دة‬ ‫ا‬ ‫م‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ة‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬(ADCC)‫ا‬ ‫اع‬ ‫أ‬ ‫د‬ ‫ط‬ ‫أن‬ ‫و‬ Staphylococcus aureus‫و‬Salmonella typhimurium‫أ‬ ‫وأ‬ ‫ت‬ ‫ا‬ ‫و‬‫اث‬ ‫ي‬Perforation‫و‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ار‬‫ر‬ ‫ا‬"‫ا‬ ‫و‬ ‫ا‬" Perforin‫و‬‫ون‬ ‫و‬ ‫م‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬Interferon-α ‫آ‬ ‫أ‬ ‫ون‬-٢‫ون‬ ‫ا‬ ‫و‬Interferon-α‫ن‬ ‫ز‬ ‫ا‬ ‫وا‬Tumor necrosis factor =. vi-‫ة‬ ‫اآ‬ ‫ا‬Memory Cells:‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ن‬ ‫ك‬ ‫ه‬-‫ع‬ ‫ا‬ ‫وا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ة‬ ‫وا‬ ‫ة‬ ‫اآ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ه‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ع‬ ‫وا‬ ‫ز‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ه‬ ‫ول‬ ‫ا‬‫إ‬ ‫و‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬‫ا‬ ‫ي‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ذات‬ ‫إ‬ ‫ض‬ ‫ا‬-‫و‬ ‫إ‬ ‫ا‬‫ة‬ ‫اآ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫إ‬-‫ا‬ ‫ى‬ ‫أ‬ ‫اع‬ ‫أ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫إ‬ ‫أو‬ ‫ز‬ ‫ا‬ ‫أ‬ ‫ا‬-‫ة‬ ‫اآ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫و‬ ‫ز‬ ‫ا‬‫ة‬ ‫و‬ ‫و‬...‫وي‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ار‬ ‫و‬ ‫و‬ ‫أ‬ ‫اث‬ ‫وأ‬ ‫م‬ ‫ا‬ ‫اء‬ ‫ة‬ ‫اآ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ن‬ ‫د‬ ‫و‬ ‫و‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ات‬ ‫د‬ ‫و‬ ‫إ‬ ‫ه‬ ‫ج‬ ‫و‬ ‫و‬‫آ‬ ‫ا‬-١‫آ‬ ‫وا‬-٥‫ا‬ ‫وآ‬‫ا‬ ‫ن‬. ‫آ‬ ‫ة‬ ‫اآ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ت‬ ‫و‬-‫ا‬ ‫وه‬ ‫داد‬ ‫اه‬ ‫و‬ ‫م‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ة‬ ‫ن‬Somatic mutation‫اد‬ ‫وأ‬‫ء‬ ‫وا‬ ‫ل‬ ‫ا‬ ‫در‬ ‫ة‬ ‫اآ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ة‬ ‫آ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫و‬ ‫م‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ع‬ ‫إ‬ ‫ا‬‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫دة‬ ‫ا‬ ‫م‬ ‫ر‬ ‫أه‬ ‫م‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ع‬. ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬Immunocompetence:‫ا‬ ‫أ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫أن‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫و‬ ‫ات‬ ‫أ‬ ‫و‬ ‫ل‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ي‬ ‫ه‬ ‫ذ‬‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ Immuneocompetent cells‫ا‬ ‫و‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫اث‬ ‫أ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ه‬: ‫ول‬ ‫ا‬-‫ا‬ ‫ا‬:‫ا‬ ‫ء‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫وه‬"‫زو‬ ‫وا‬ ‫وا‬ ‫و‬ ‫ا‬"‫ج‬ ‫و‬ ‫آ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫وآ‬. ‫ا‬-‫و‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬:‫ا‬ ‫و‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫و‬‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫وا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫وا‬ ‫ع‬ ‫وا‬ ‫ع‬. ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫أ‬: -‫آ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬:‫ا‬ ‫ء‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫وه‬"‫زو‬ ‫وا‬ ‫وا‬ ‫و‬ ‫ا‬"‫وا‬ ‫ج‬ ‫و‬ ‫آ‬ ‫وا‬ ‫ا‬. -‫ا‬ ‫ا‬Antigen processing:‫وا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫وا‬ ‫ج‬ ‫و‬ ‫آ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫وه‬-. -‫ا‬ ‫ا‬Regulator cells:‫ا‬-‫ة‬ ‫ا‬Helper T-cells‫ا‬ ‫و‬Suppressor T- cells. -‫ا‬ ‫ا‬Effector cells:‫ا‬-‫ا‬Cytotoxic T-cells‫و‬‫ة‬ ‫ا‬Delayed T-cells. -‫ا‬ ‫م‬ ‫زة‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬:‫ا‬-B-Lymphocytes‫ز‬ ‫ا‬ ‫و‬. -‫ا‬ ‫ا‬Avian Cytokines: ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬‫ز‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ت‬ ‫و‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ع‬ ‫ه‬‫ا‬-‫وا‬-‫وا‬ ‫ج‬ ‫و‬ ‫آ‬ ‫وا‬ ‫ا‬‫آ‬ ‫آ‬ ‫و‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫وا‬Chemical messengers‫آ‬ ‫رات‬ ‫أ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫و‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ت‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ه‬ ‫و‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫رة‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬‫ا‬ ‫و‬٩٠‫ا‬ ‫ن‬ ‫ا‬ ‫وف‬ ‫ع‬ ‫ا‬ ‫وأه‬ ‫ا‬:
  17. 17. -‫ون‬ ‫ا‬Interferon-α:‫ي‬ ‫و‬Glycoprotein‫أي‬ ‫أ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫أ‬ ‫رض‬ ‫رض‬‫و‬‫ا‬ ‫ر‬ ‫و‬ ‫وس‬ ‫ا‬‫ا‬ ‫ورة‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫دا‬ ‫و‬ ‫و‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫و‬ ‫و‬ ‫وا‬ ‫و‬ ‫ا‬ ‫وا‬ ‫ج‬ ‫و‬ ‫آ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ز‬ ‫و‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ز‬ ‫ا‬ ‫وس‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ات‬ ‫ا‬ ‫وس‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ورة‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬)‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫أي‬ (‫ا‬ ‫ل‬‫ا‬ ‫دا‬ ‫وس‬ ‫ا‬ ‫خ‬)‫و‬ ‫ا‬ ‫وي‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫أي‬(‫رة‬ ‫و‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ت‬ ‫ا‬Intercellular parasites‫ا‬ ‫أو‬‫ـ‬ ‫ا‬Chlamydiae‫و‬‫ـ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫أ‬Rickettsiae ‫ـ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫زوا‬ ‫و‬ ‫وا‬Toxoplasma‫ا‬ ‫وا‬‫ـ‬ ‫ا‬Streptococci‫و‬‫آ‬Staphylococci‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ت‬ ‫و‬ ‫ا‬endotoxins‫و‬‫ا‬ ‫د‬ ‫آ‬ ‫ز‬ ‫وإ‬ ‫وس‬. ‫وس‬ ‫و‬ ‫أ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫و‬Species specific and not virus specific. ‫ا‬ ‫آ‬ ‫و‬ ‫ا‬ ‫أ‬ ‫و‬-)Inhibition of B-cell activation(‫رة‬ ‫ا‬ ‫و‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬)Enhancement of the cytotoxic activity of natural Killer cells(‫و‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ف‬ ‫ا‬ ‫و‬ ‫ا‬ ‫أو‬ ‫ارة‬"‫و‬ ‫و‬ ‫أ‬"‫ه‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫وأه‬ ‫ا‬‫ا‬ ‫ز‬ ‫ي‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ون‬-‫ي‬ ‫ا‬ ‫و‬ ‫ج‬ ‫و‬ ‫آ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫و‬ ‫ة‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ت‬ ‫و‬ ‫ا‬. -‫آ‬ ‫ا‬-١Interleukin-1:‫ا‬ ‫ج‬ ‫و‬ ‫آ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ز‬-‫ة‬ ‫ا‬‫و‬‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ Fever‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫و‬ ‫ا‬‫آ‬. -‫آ‬ ‫ا‬-٢Interleukin-2:‫ا‬ ‫ز‬-‫ا‬ ‫و‬ ‫أ‬ ‫و‬ ‫ة‬ ‫ا‬-‫ا‬ ‫وا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫وا‬. -‫آ‬ ‫ا‬-٣Interleukin-3:‫ا‬ ‫ز‬-‫آ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫م‬ ‫أ‬ ‫و‬ ‫ة‬ ‫ا‬‫ج‬ ‫أ‬ ‫ء‬ ‫وا‬ ‫اء‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫و‬. -‫آ‬ ‫ا‬-٤‫و‬٥Interleukin-4 & 5:‫ا‬ ‫ز‬-‫ا‬ ‫و‬ ‫ة‬ ‫ا‬-‫م‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ج‬ ‫دة‬ ‫ا‬. -‫آ‬ ‫ا‬-٦Interleukin-6:‫ا‬ ‫ج‬ ‫و‬ ‫آ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ز‬-‫دة‬ ‫ا‬ ‫م‬ ‫ا‬ ‫از‬ ‫أ‬. -‫ا‬‫آ‬-٧Interleukin-7:‫ـ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ز‬Stroma‫ا‬-‫دة‬ ‫ا‬ ‫م‬ ‫ا‬ ‫از‬ ‫أ‬. -‫آ‬ ‫ا‬-٨Interleukin-8:‫ا‬ ‫ب‬ ‫ا‬ ‫و‬ ‫ج‬ ‫و‬ ‫آ‬ ‫وا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ز‬Chemotaxis ‫و‬. -‫آ‬ ‫ا‬-١٢‫و‬١٨Interleukin-12 & 18:‫و‬ ‫آ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ز‬‫ا‬ ‫وا‬ ‫ج‬‫وا‬-‫و‬ ‫ا‬-‫آ‬ ‫ة‬ ‫ا‬‫أن‬‫آ‬ ‫ا‬-١٨‫ون‬ ‫ا‬ ‫از‬ ‫أ‬. -‫ن‬ ‫ز‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬Tumor necrosis factor:‫ه‬ ‫أ‬ ‫و‬ ‫ة‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ز‬ ‫وا‬-‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫وا‬ ‫ا‬‫وا‬-.
  18. 18. ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫أه‬ ‫ول‬: ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬‫از‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ر‬‫ا‬ ‫ف‬ ‫ون‬ ‫ا‬Interferon-α‫ا‬-‫ة‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫آ‬-‫ا‬ ‫رة‬ ‫ا‬ ‫و‬ ‫و‬ ‫ج‬ ‫و‬ ‫آ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫و‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬‫ت‬ ‫و‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ي‬. ‫آ‬ ‫ا‬-١Interleukin-1‫ج‬ ‫و‬ ‫آ‬ ‫ا‬‫ا‬-‫ة‬ ‫ا‬. ‫آ‬ ‫ا‬-٢Interleukin-2‫ا‬-‫ة‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫م‬ ‫أ‬-‫وا‬ ‫ة‬ ‫ا‬- ‫وا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫وا‬ ‫ا‬. ‫آ‬ ‫ا‬-٣Interleukin-3 ‫ا‬-‫ة‬ ‫ا‬‫و‬ ‫ج‬ ‫أ‬ ‫آ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫م‬ ‫أ‬ ‫ء‬ ‫وا‬ ‫اء‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬. ‫آ‬ ‫ا‬-٤‫و‬٥Interleukin-4 & 5 ‫ا‬-‫ة‬ ‫ا‬‫ا‬-‫دة‬ ‫ا‬ ‫م‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ج‬. ‫آ‬ ‫ا‬-٦Interleukin-6‫ج‬ ‫و‬ ‫آ‬ ‫ا‬‫ا‬-‫دة‬ ‫ا‬ ‫م‬ ‫ا‬ ‫از‬ ‫أ‬. ‫آ‬ ‫ا‬-٧Interleukin-7‫ـ‬ ‫ا‬Stroma‫ا‬-‫دة‬ ‫ا‬ ‫م‬ ‫ا‬ ‫از‬ ‫أ‬. ‫آ‬ ‫ا‬-٨Interleukin-8 ‫ا‬- ‫ج‬ ‫و‬ ‫آ‬ ‫وا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ب‬ ‫ا‬Chemotaxis‫و‬. ‫آ‬ ‫ا‬-١٢‫و‬١٨Interleukin-12 & 18 ‫ا‬‫وا‬ ‫ج‬ ‫و‬ ‫آ‬ ‫ا‬‫وا‬-. ‫ا‬-‫ون‬ ‫ا‬ ‫از‬ ‫أ‬ ‫و‬ ‫ة‬ ‫ا‬ . ‫ن‬ ‫ز‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬Tumor necrosis factor ‫ة‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫وا‬ ‫ة‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫م‬ ‫أ‬- ‫وا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫وا‬ ‫ا‬-.
  19. 19. ‫ر‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ز‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ر‬ ‫و‬ ‫ة‬:
  20. 20. ‫ا‬ ‫اع‬ ‫أ‬ Types of Immunity ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ة‬ ‫وآ‬ ‫أ‬ ‫رة‬ ‫ه‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ت‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ى‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ع‬ ‫ا‬ ‫و‬ ‫إن‬ ‫وا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫وا‬ ‫ت‬ ‫و‬ ‫ا‬ ‫اع‬ ‫أ‬ ‫وي‬ ‫ا‬ ‫و‬ ‫أ‬‫ء‬. ‫ر‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ت‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ى‬ ‫ر‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ه‬ ‫ر‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ت‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ى‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫أن‬ ‫و‬ ‫ن‬ ‫وا‬ ‫ت‬ ‫وا‬ ‫ر‬ ‫ا‬.....‫ه‬ ‫أ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫و‬: -‫رو‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬:‫ا‬ ‫أو‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ت‬ ‫ا‬ ‫و‬ ‫ا‬ ‫و‬ ‫اث‬ ‫أ‬ ‫دا‬ ‫وا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ذن‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫وه‬ ‫ء‬ ‫أ‬ ‫و‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ل‬ ‫د‬ ‫ول‬ ‫أي‬ ‫أو‬ ‫وب‬ ‫أي‬ ‫و‬ ‫و‬ ‫رب‬ ‫و‬ ‫وم‬ ‫ا‬ ‫اض‬ ‫ث‬ ‫و‬ ‫دا‬‫داء‬...‫د‬ ‫و‬ ‫وا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ع‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫وه‬‫ع‬ ‫ت‬ ‫ا‬ ‫أو‬ ‫ت‬ ‫و‬ ‫ا‬. -‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬:‫ض‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ء‬ ‫ا‬ ‫اء‬ ‫ء‬ ‫أ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ت‬ ‫ا‬ ‫و‬ ‫آ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫وي‬‫ض‬ ‫د‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ح‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ء‬ ‫أ‬ ‫أو‬...‫و‬‫ا‬ ‫رو‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ت‬ ‫وا‬ ‫ق‬ ‫ا‬ ‫أن‬ ‫إ‬ ‫ت‬ ‫أ‬ ‫ر‬ ‫ا‬ ‫رأ‬ ‫و‬ ‫ت‬ ‫ر‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫آ‬ ‫ة‬ ‫ا‬ ‫أه‬ ‫ل‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ن‬ ‫وه‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ت‬ ‫ا‬ ‫و‬ ‫ل‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ت‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ع‬ ‫آ‬ ‫وم‬ ‫ه‬ ‫ا‬ ‫و‬. ‫رو‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬Innate Immunity ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫وه‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫أو‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫أ‬ ‫و‬‫ا‬ ‫ذن‬ ‫ا‬‫وم‬ ‫و‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ل‬ ‫د‬ ‫ول‬ ‫أي‬ ‫أو‬ ‫وب‬ ‫أي‬ ‫و‬ ‫و‬ ‫رب‬ ‫و‬‫ث‬ ‫و‬ ‫دا‬‫داء‬...‫ا‬ ‫وه‬ ‫د‬ ‫و‬ ‫وا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ع‬ ‫ا‬‫ت‬ ‫ا‬ ‫أو‬ ‫ت‬ ‫و‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ع‬. ‫ر‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ه‬ ‫آ‬ ‫و‬‫ا‬ ‫أ‬ ‫رة‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ت‬ ‫ا‬ ‫آ‬ ‫أن‬ ‫و‬ ‫ت‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫و‬ ‫و‬ ‫و‬ ‫رو‬ ‫ت‬ ‫وأ‬ ‫أ‬ ‫دا‬ ‫أ‬ ‫وذ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ت‬ ‫و‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ت‬ ‫و‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ض‬ ‫ا‬ ‫و‬ ‫ده‬. ‫ا‬ ‫وا‬‫ا‬ ‫و‬ ‫ع‬ ‫ا‬ ‫م‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ع‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ت‬ ‫وأ‬ ‫و‬ ‫أن‬ ‫ا‬ ‫إ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ه‬ ‫و‬‫ا‬‫ا‬ ‫وا‬ ‫وا‬ ‫ا‬skin and mucus membranes‫وا‬ phagocytosis‫وا‬Complement‫ب‬ ‫وا‬Inflammation. ‫ة‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬‫رو‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬:‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ه‬ ‫و‬: ١-‫را‬ ‫ا‬ ‫آ‬ ‫ا‬Genetic constitution:‫آ‬ ‫ا‬‫ا‬‫ل‬ ‫رو‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫در‬ ‫آ‬: ‫أ‬-‫اع‬ ‫ا‬Species Immunity:‫اض‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ن‬ ‫ر‬ ‫ا‬ ‫اع‬ ‫أ‬ ‫ك‬ ‫ه‬ ‫آ‬ ‫اض‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ه‬ ‫ي‬ ‫أ‬ ‫اع‬ ‫أ‬ ‫وم‬: ‫ج‬ ‫ا‬‫ا‬ ‫اض‬ ‫ا‬ ‫أ‬ ‫ع‬ ‫ب‬ ‫ا‬ ‫درا‬ ‫و‬ ‫اض‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ع‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ه‬: -‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ر‬ ‫ا‬Infectious coryza.-‫ي‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ب‬ ‫ا‬Infectious bronchitis. -‫ي‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ب‬ ‫أ‬Infectious bursal disease.-‫ا‬ ‫ش‬ ‫ر‬ ‫ا‬Avian encephalomyelitis. -‫زس‬ ‫آ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ورام‬ ‫ا‬Avian leucosis.-‫ر‬ ‫ض‬Marek's disease.
  21. 21. ‫ا‬‫ا‬ ‫اض‬ ‫ا‬ ‫أ‬ ‫ع‬ ‫ب‬ ‫ا‬ ‫درا‬ ‫و‬ ‫اض‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ع‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ه‬: -‫ا‬ ‫ب‬ ‫أ‬‫ا‬ ‫ء‬=‫ا‬ ‫ن‬Duck virus enteritis = Duck plague. -‫زي‬ ‫د‬ ‫ض‬Derszy's disease"‫وز‬ ‫وا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬." -‫ا‬‫و‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ي‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ب‬Duck virus hepatitis‫وز‬ ‫وا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫اع‬ ‫أ‬ ‫آ‬ ‫ي‬ ‫وا‬. ‫و‬ ‫ا‬‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ع‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ه‬‫ا‬ ‫اض‬ ‫ا‬ ‫أ‬ ‫ع‬ ‫ب‬ ‫ا‬ ‫درا‬ ‫و‬ ‫اض‬ ‫ا‬: -‫ا‬ ‫ي‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ب‬ ‫ا‬Transmissible enteritis. -‫ا‬Histomoniasis‫د‬ ‫ا‬ ‫أس‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ض‬ ‫أو‬Black head disease. -‫ا‬Hexamitiasis. -‫رد‬ ‫ا‬ ‫أو‬ ‫و‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ر‬ ‫آ‬ ‫ض‬‫زس‬Bordetellosis. ‫م‬ ‫ا‬‫ا‬ ‫اض‬ ‫ا‬ ‫أ‬ ‫ع‬ ‫ب‬ ‫ا‬ ‫درا‬ ‫و‬ ‫اض‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ع‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ه‬: -‫ا‬ ‫آ‬ ‫ا‬Trichomoniasis.-‫م‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ر‬Hemoproteus infection. ‫ن‬ ‫ا‬‫اض‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ع‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ه‬‫وأه‬‫ن‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ب‬ ‫ا‬Quail bronchitis. ‫ب‬-‫ت‬ ‫ا‬Race Immunity:‫أو‬ ‫ن‬ ‫ر‬ ‫ا‬ ‫اع‬ ‫أ‬ ‫ت‬ ‫ك‬ ‫ه‬ ‫اض‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ه‬ ‫ي‬ ‫أ‬ ‫ت‬ ‫وم‬ ‫اض‬ ‫ا‬ ‫أآ‬: -‫و‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ي‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ب‬ ‫ا‬Duck virus hepatitis‫وز‬ ‫وا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ت‬ ‫آ‬. -‫زي‬ ‫د‬ ‫ض‬ ‫و‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ت‬Derszy's disease‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬. -‫ي‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ب‬ ‫أآ‬ ‫ض‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ج‬ ‫ا‬Infectious bursal disease‫ري‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ج‬ ‫د‬. -‫آ‬‫وي‬ ‫ا‬ ‫زس‬ ‫ا‬ ‫و‬ ‫رو‬ ‫رة‬ ‫ج‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ت‬ ‫أن‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ت‬ ‫را‬ ‫ا‬. -‫ر‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ي‬ ‫و‬ ‫ا‬ ‫و‬ ‫ا‬Bronze-broad breasted turkey‫ا‬ ‫ة‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ه‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ض‬Round heart‫ا‬ ‫ر‬ ‫أ‬ ‫ض‬ ‫و‬Ruptured aorta. ‫ج‬-‫د‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ت‬ ‫ا‬ ‫أو‬ ‫اد‬ ‫ا‬Individual variation:‫أآ‬ ‫ن‬ ‫ر‬ ‫ا‬ ‫اد‬ ‫أ‬ ‫ك‬ ‫ه‬ ‫ا‬ ‫أو‬ ‫ع‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ي‬ ‫أ‬ ‫اد‬ ‫أ‬ ‫اض‬ ‫ا‬‫أن‬‫أآ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ض‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ت‬ ‫ي‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ب‬"‫ي‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ع‬ ‫ا‬"Renal form of IB‫ن‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ء‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ض‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ت‬. ٢-‫ا‬Age:‫ن‬‫ا‬ ‫ر‬ ‫وآ‬ ‫ر‬ ‫و‬ ‫أآ‬ ‫اض‬ ‫ا‬"‫م‬ ‫ا‬"‫ج‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ر‬ ‫أ‬ ‫و‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ن‬ ‫آ‬ ‫ج‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ر‬ ‫أ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ر‬ ‫وآ‬ ‫ر‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ذ‬ ‫و‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ب‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ذ‬‫ا‬ ‫ن‬ ‫و‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ر‬ ‫ه‬ ‫ا‬ ‫د‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ازات‬ ‫أ‬ ‫ازات‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫أو‬ ‫م‬ ‫أي‬ ‫اد‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫دي‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ر‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ر‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ه‬ ‫أ‬ ‫ذ‬ ‫ازات‬ ‫أ‬. -‫و‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ي‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ب‬ ‫ا‬Duck virus hepatitis‫ا‬٤٠‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ه‬ ‫و‬ ‫م‬. -‫زي‬ ‫د‬ ‫ض‬Derszy's disease‫وز‬ ‫وا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬٤‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ه‬ ‫و‬ ‫أ‬. -‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ر‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬. -‫آ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫آ‬ ‫ا‬‫ا‬ ‫ج‬ ‫ا‬٥٠‫وذ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫م‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ت‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫وا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫زوال‬. ٣-‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬Nutritional factors:‫ا‬ ‫ن‬ ‫و‬ ‫اض‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ء‬ ‫ا‬ ‫م‬ ‫ا‬ ‫د‬ ‫ا‬ ‫دي‬ ‫أ‬‫ء‬Leucopenia‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ط‬ ‫وا‬ ‫رة‬ ‫ا‬ ‫أو‬ Decreased phagocytic activities‫ا‬ ‫ج‬ ‫و‬ ‫آ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ب‬ ‫و‬ ‫أ‬ ‫ت‬ ‫أن‬ ‫وف‬ ‫ا‬ ‫و‬ ‫اض‬ ‫ا‬ ‫و‬ ‫و‬ ‫ة‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫وا‬..‫أ‬ ‫آ‬‫ن‬ ‫ر‬ ‫ا‬ ‫رة‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ت‬ ‫وا‬ ‫و‬ ‫ا‬. ٤-‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬Hormonal factors:‫اض‬ ‫ا‬ ‫و‬ ‫ت‬ ‫ا‬ ‫رة‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ازن‬ ‫ا‬ ‫م‬ ‫د‬ ‫ب‬ ‫ا‬ ‫دات‬ ‫ام‬ ‫ا‬ ‫أن‬ ‫آ‬ ‫أ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ت‬ ‫و‬ ‫ر‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫و‬‫م‬ ‫ا‬
  22. 22. ‫ء‬ ‫ا‬Leucopenia‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫رة‬ ‫و‬Decreased phagocytic activities‫ا‬ ‫ر‬ ‫ا‬ ‫رة‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ه‬. ٥-‫د‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬Stress factors:‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ع‬ ‫وأر‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ء‬ ‫و‬ ‫ا‬ ‫م‬ ‫آ‬ ‫د‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫و‬‫رة‬ ‫ض‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫دي‬ ‫ا‬ ‫وا‬ ‫ة‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ارة‬ ‫ا‬ ‫أو‬ ‫ا‬ ‫د‬ ‫ض‬ ‫وا‬ ‫ن‬ ‫ر‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ة‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ط‬ ‫دة‬ ‫ز‬ ‫ا‬ ‫دي‬ ‫د‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫أن‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ذ‬ ‫د‬ ‫و‬ ‫ا‬ ‫اض‬ ‫ا‬ ‫و‬ ‫ت‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ون‬ ‫ر‬ ‫ا‬‫ء‬ ‫ا‬ ‫م‬ ‫ا‬ ‫د‬Leucopenia‫ا‬ ‫أو‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ط‬ ‫وا‬ ‫رة‬ ‫ا‬Decreased phagocytic activities. ٦-‫را‬ ‫و‬ ‫ا‬:‫ا‬ ‫ت‬ ‫ا‬ ‫أ‬ ‫ر‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ة‬ ‫ا‬ ‫دا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫را‬ ‫و‬ ‫ا‬ ‫دا‬ ‫م‬ ‫آ‬‫إن‬ ‫ء‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬‫دات‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ل‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ء‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ت‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫م‬ ‫أو‬ ‫ا‬‫ا‬ ‫را‬ ‫و‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ازن‬. ٧-‫ي‬ ‫أ‬ ‫ا‬Other Factors:‫و‬ ‫ا‬ ‫و‬ ‫ا‬ ‫رة‬ ‫ي‬ ‫أ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ك‬ ‫ه‬: -‫ا‬ ‫دات‬‫دو‬ ‫وا‬:‫ا‬ ‫آ‬ ‫و‬ ‫ا‬ ‫وآ‬ ‫وا‬ ‫ل‬ ‫را‬ ‫ا‬‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ت‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫در‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ز‬ ‫ا‬ ‫و‬ ‫اض‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ض‬ ‫و‬ ‫و‬ ‫ا‬. -‫ا‬ ‫م‬ ‫ا‬:‫ل‬ ‫اآ‬ ‫م‬ ‫و‬ ‫ء‬ ‫أ‬ ‫ر‬‫آ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫وا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ج‬ ‫ا‬ ‫و‬ ‫ه‬. -‫ت‬ ‫وا‬ ‫ز‬ ‫وا‬ ‫ا‬:‫ا‬ ‫ز‬ ‫ا‬‫م‬ ‫و‬ ‫ا‬‫رة‬ ‫ا‬‫ع‬ ‫ا‬ ‫م‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬. -‫ت‬ ‫و‬ ‫ا‬:‫وا‬ ‫زس‬ ‫وا‬ ‫ر‬ ‫وا‬ ‫رو‬ ‫ا‬ ‫وس‬ ‫آ‬ ‫ر‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ز‬ ‫دور‬‫آ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ء‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ة‬ ‫ت‬ ‫و‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ه‬ ‫و‬. ‫رو‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ت‬ ‫ا‬:‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫رو‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ت‬ ‫ا‬: ١-‫ا‬Skin:‫وا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ر‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ول‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ع‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ه‬ ‫وا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫آ‬ ‫ذ‬ ‫و‬ ‫ذ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫أو‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫و‬ ً ً ًً‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫وا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ذات‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ت‬ ‫ا‬)‫ت‬ ‫و‬ ‫ت‬ ‫و‬ ‫ت‬ ‫و‬ ‫و‬(‫ذ‬ ‫و‬ ‫ا‬ ‫دا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ه‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ن‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬‫وا‬ ‫ا‬‫ت‬ ‫و‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ر‬ ‫ا‬ ‫رة‬ ‫ض‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ذ‬ ‫دي‬ ‫ق‬ ‫أ‬ ‫أو‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ح‬ ‫و‬ ‫ا‬ ‫وث‬ ‫اء‬ ‫و‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ت‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ذ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫اض‬ ‫ا‬. ٢-‫ا‬ ‫رات‬ ‫ا‬Digestive juices:‫و‬ ‫ت‬ ‫و‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ء‬ ‫أ‬ ‫ز‬: -‫ب‬ ‫ا‬:‫ت‬ ‫و‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ت‬ ‫وا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫اد‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ي‬. -‫ة‬ ‫ا‬ ‫از‬ ‫أ‬:‫ا‬ ‫و‬ ‫ا‬ ‫اع‬ ‫أ‬ ‫ر‬ ‫روآ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫از‬ ‫ا‬‫ا‬)pH‫أ‬ ٢(‫و‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ت‬ ‫و‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ه‬ ‫ت‬ ‫و‬ ‫وا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ت‬ ‫ا‬ ‫إ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ه‬ ‫ء‬ ‫اض‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ت‬ ًً‫ا‬ ‫آ‬ ‫ن‬. -‫اء‬ ‫ا‬ ‫رة‬:‫اء‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ح‬ ‫أ‬‫ا‬‫ا‬ ‫م‬ ‫وا‬‫ام‬ ‫ا‬ ‫رة‬ ‫ا‬. ٣-‫ا‬ ‫ازات‬ ‫وا‬ ‫اب‬ ‫ه‬ ‫ا‬cillary system-Muco:‫ي‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫إن‬ ‫اب‬ ‫ه‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ر‬ ‫ءات‬‫ة‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫وذ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫م‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ل‬ ‫و‬ ‫وا‬ ‫ة‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫اج‬ ‫وا‬‫و‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ة‬ ‫ا‬ ‫رج‬ ‫ا‬ ‫م‬‫اء‬ ‫ا‬ ‫أه‬ ‫و‬ ‫م‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ه‬ ‫ور‬ ‫ن‬ ‫ا‬ ‫اب‬ ‫ه‬ ‫ا‬ ‫و‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ز‬ ‫و‬ ‫ر‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ارع‬ ‫ا‬‫ة‬ ‫آ‬ ‫ر‬ ‫ا‬ ‫و‬ ‫ه‬. ‫ا‬ ‫أو‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ازات‬ ‫ا‬ ‫أ‬‫ة‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ار‬ ‫ي‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ج‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬‫ي‬ ‫آ‬ ‫أه‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ه‬ ‫د‬ ‫و‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ة‬ ‫ا‬ ‫دة‬ ‫ا‬ ‫اب‬ ‫ه‬ ‫ا‬ ‫م‬ ‫اء‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫م‬ ‫وا‬ ‫ت‬ ‫و‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫أو‬ ‫ل‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫رج‬ ‫ا‬ ‫م‬ ‫ا‬‫ا‬ ‫د‬ ‫و‬ ‫ا‬‫م‬ ‫و‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ت‬ ‫و‬ ‫ت‬.
  23. 23. ٤-‫ا‬ ‫ازات‬ ‫ا‬Liquid secretions:‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ي‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ة‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ز‬ ‫و‬ ‫ا‬ ‫أو‬ ‫ي‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ث‬ ‫ن‬ ‫ا‬ ‫إ‬ ‫ت‬ ‫ا‬ ‫داد‬ ‫ا‬ ‫أ‬ ‫و‬ ‫ا‬ ‫إ‬. ٥-‫ا‬ ‫ت‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬Liquid excretions:‫ز‬ ‫ا‬ ‫إ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ت‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ل‬ ‫ا‬ ‫اج‬ ‫ا‬ ‫أو‬ ‫ي‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ث‬ ‫وا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ز‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ء‬ ‫أ‬ ‫إ‬ ‫ت‬ ‫ا‬ ‫داد‬ ‫ل‬ ‫ا‬ ‫أ‬ ‫و‬ ‫ا‬ ‫و‬ ‫ا‬. ٦-‫ب‬ ‫ا‬:‫ر‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ه‬ ‫ب‬ ‫ا‬Immediate Response‫وه‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ة‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ت‬ ‫وا‬ ‫آ‬ ‫أو‬ ‫ة‬ ‫إ‬ ‫و‬ ‫أو‬ ‫ح‬ ‫أو‬ ‫ذ‬ ‫آ‬ ‫دة‬ ‫ض‬ ‫ا‬ ‫أو‬ ‫ت‬ ‫و‬ ‫وا‬ ‫آ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ان‬ ‫و‬ ‫وا‬ ‫رم‬ ‫وا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫و‬ ‫ار‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ه‬ ‫ب‬. ‫ا‬ ‫ن‬ ‫و‬ ‫ي‬ ‫ث‬ ‫ب‬ ‫ــ‬ ‫د‬ ‫وآ‬‫و‬‫ى‬ ‫ا‬ ‫و‬ ‫ا‬ ‫د‬‫از‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ت‬ ‫آ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫أه‬ ‫و‬ ‫ا‬ ‫و‬ ‫و‬ ‫ب‬ ‫ة‬ ‫اد‬ ‫ت‬ ‫آ‬Interleukins‫ه‬ ‫و‬ ‫وا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫اع‬ ‫أ‬ ‫زه‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ب‬ ‫ة‬ ‫ا‬ ‫اد‬ ‫ا‬-‫اد‬ ‫ا‬ ‫وه‬‫أ‬ ‫ورة‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ذ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ات‬ ‫وا‬ ‫ة‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫و‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ذ‬‫ا‬Capillary Permeability‫ا‬ ‫رم‬ ‫ا‬ ‫دي‬ ‫وذ‬ ‫ا‬Edema‫ا‬ ‫اد‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ذ‬ ‫آ‬ ‫ب‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ن‬ ‫وا‬ ‫م‬ ‫ا‬‫ن‬‫و‬ ‫ا‬‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫و‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ران‬ ‫ذ‬ ‫دة‬ ‫وز‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬Phagocytic Cells‫ل‬ ‫ا‬ ‫أو‬ ‫ي‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ب‬Infiltration‫آ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ه‬ ‫و‬ ‫م‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ل‬ ‫إد‬‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫وه‬ ‫ا‬ ‫دا‬ ‫ت‬ ‫و‬ ‫وا‬ ‫ا‬‫ءا‬ ‫وا‬ ‫ت‬ ‫و‬ ‫أو‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ل‬ ‫وا‬ ‫م‬ ‫أي‬ ‫وا‬ ‫ا‬‫ه‬ ‫و‬ ‫ز‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ره‬ ‫وا‬‫ه‬ ‫اع‬ ‫أ‬ ‫وه‬: ١-‫و‬ ‫ا‬‫ا‬ ‫ن‬ ‫ا‬ ‫و‬ ‫دة‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ت‬ ‫ا‬ ‫آ‬ ‫ده‬ ‫داد‬ ‫و‬‫ر‬ ‫و‬. ٢-‫ا‬Monocytes‫ا‬ ‫و‬ ‫أ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫و‬ ‫و‬ ‫ا‬ ‫و‬‫م‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ده‬ ‫داد‬ ‫ا‬ ‫أ‬ ‫ل‬ ‫ا‬ ‫و‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ت‬ ‫ا‬ ‫د‬ ‫و‬. ٣-‫ج‬ ‫و‬ ‫ا‬Macrophages‫ا‬ ‫وه‬‫ه‬: -‫ة‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ت‬ ‫ه‬ ‫ا‬‫ا‬Tissue Macrophages‫ا‬ ‫و‬ ‫دة‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫و‬‫ا‬ ‫أ‬ ‫ب‬ ‫دا‬ ‫و‬ ‫ه‬. -‫وارة‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ة‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ت‬ ‫ه‬ ‫ا‬Circulating or Mobile Macrophages‫ا‬ ‫ت‬ ‫ا‬ ‫و‬ ‫وا‬ ‫ت‬ ‫و‬ ‫ا‬‫ة‬ ‫وا‬ ‫و‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫دة‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫م‬ ‫ت‬ ‫و‬ ‫وا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫م‬ ‫ا‬ ‫وا‬ ‫ت‬ ‫ل‬ ‫ا‬ ‫وا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫أدواره‬ ‫وا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫آ‬ ‫ات‬ ‫و‬ ‫أ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬‫آ‬‫ا‬ ‫وا‬ ‫دة‬ ‫ا‬ ‫م‬. -‫ع‬ ‫و‬‫ا‬ ‫ار‬ ‫ة‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬‫وه‬‫ا‬‫ا‬ ‫ا‬Natural Killers‫ا‬ ‫و‬ ‫وه‬‫وه‬ ‫ز‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ت‬ ‫و‬ ‫ا‬ ‫و‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬‫وا‬ ‫آ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ف‬ ‫و‬ ‫أ‬ ‫دا‬ ‫ت‬ ‫و‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ى‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ه‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ت‬ ‫و‬ ‫وا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫م‬ ‫ا‬ ‫م‬ ‫أ‬ ‫أ‬. ٧-‫ر‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ارة‬ ‫در‬:‫أر‬ ‫ر‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ارة‬ ‫در‬"٤٢ ‫در‬"‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫اع‬ ‫أ‬ ‫رأ‬ ‫و‬ ‫ا‬ ‫اع‬ ‫أ‬ ‫در‬ ‫ا‬ ‫وه‬ Spore-forming bacteria‫أن‬ ‫آ‬ ‫د‬ ‫ا‬ ‫اع‬ ‫أ‬ ‫وآ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫أ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫و‬‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ Pyogenic bacteria‫ر‬ ‫ا‬ ‫دا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫أ‬‫ر‬ ‫ا‬ ‫اع‬ ‫أ‬. ٨-‫ا‬ ‫م‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬Alternative pathway of complement activation:‫اد‬ ‫ه‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫و‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ت‬ ‫و‬ ‫و‬ ‫م‬ ‫ا‬ ‫آ‬"‫و‬ ‫آ‬." ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬‫ـ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫وه‬ ‫ا‬ ‫دة‬ ‫ا‬ ‫م‬ ‫ا‬ ‫اع‬ ‫أ‬ ‫د‬ ‫و‬IgM & IgG ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ت‬ ‫ا‬ ‫وأ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫رو‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ت‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ه‬.
  24. 24. ‫و‬ ‫أي‬ ‫وث‬ ‫د‬ ‫وب‬ ‫ا‬ ‫م‬ ‫و‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫أ‬‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫دون‬ ‫و‬ ‫رو‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫دة‬ ‫م‬ ‫أ‬. ٩-‫ت‬ ‫و‬ ‫ا‬Interferons:‫ا‬ ‫ت‬ ‫و‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ه‬Glycoproteins‫آ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫وأ‬ ‫أ‬-‫ا‬ ‫رض‬-‫ا‬ ‫ر‬ ‫و‬ ‫وس‬ ‫ا‬ ‫رض‬ ‫أ‬‫ا‬ ‫و‬ ‫و‬ ‫و‬ ‫و‬ ‫وا‬ ‫و‬ ‫ا‬ ‫وا‬ ‫ج‬ ‫آ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ت‬ ‫و‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ز‬ ‫و‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ز‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ورة‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬)‫وس‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫أي‬(‫ل‬ ‫ا‬ ‫دا‬ ‫وس‬ ‫ا‬ ‫خ‬ ‫ا‬)‫و‬ ‫ا‬ ‫وي‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬(‫وإ‬ ‫وس‬ ‫ون‬ ‫وا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫د‬ ‫آ‬ ‫ز‬"‫وس‬ ‫و‬ ‫أ‬ ‫ت‬ ‫و‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ Species specific and not virus specific"‫و‬ ‫ا‬ ‫اع‬ ‫أ‬ ‫أن‬ ‫آ‬‫ت‬‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫دور‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ت‬ ‫و‬ ‫ا‬ ‫آ‬)Inhibition of B-cell activation(‫ا‬ ‫ي‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ط‬ ‫ا‬ ‫و‬ ‫ا‬)enhancement of the cytotoxic activity of natural Killer cells(‫رة‬ ‫ا‬ ‫و‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ت‬ ‫ا‬intercellular parasites‫ـ‬ ‫ا‬chlamydiae‫ـ‬ ‫وا‬rickettsiae‫ـ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫زوا‬ ‫و‬ ‫وا‬ Toxoplasma‫ـ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫وا‬streptococci‫ـ‬ ‫وا‬staphylococci‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ت‬ ‫و‬endotoxins ‫ا‬ ‫وأه‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ف‬ ‫ا‬ ‫و‬ ‫ا‬ ‫أو‬ ‫ارة‬ ‫ت‬ ‫و‬ ‫ا‬ ‫و‬: ‫أ‬-‫ا‬ ‫ون‬ ‫ا‬:‫و‬ ‫ا‬ ‫اض‬ ‫ا‬ ‫م‬ ‫و‬: ١-‫ون‬ ‫ا‬)IFN-α(‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫وا‬ ‫ت‬ ‫و‬ ‫ا‬ ‫دات‬ ‫و‬ ‫ج‬ ‫و‬ ‫آ‬ ‫وا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ز‬ ‫و‬ )NK(‫ء‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ون‬ ‫ا‬ ‫و‬Leucocyte interferon. ٢-‫ون‬ ‫ا‬)IFN-β(‫ز‬ ‫و‬‫و‬ ‫ا‬fibroblast‫ا‬ ‫وا‬epithelial cells ‫ا‬ ‫ـ‬ ‫و‬ ‫ت‬ ‫و‬ ‫د‬ ‫ـ‬ ‫ه‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ودور‬ ‫ج‬ ‫و‬ ‫آ‬ ‫وا‬Fibroepithilial interferon. ‫ب‬-‫ا‬ ‫ون‬ ‫ا‬:‫و‬ ‫ا‬ ‫اض‬ ‫ا‬ ‫م‬‫ون‬ ‫ا‬IFNγ‫ا‬ ‫ز‬ ‫و‬- ‫ا‬‫ا‬ ‫ون‬ ‫ا‬ ‫و‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ودور‬ ‫ج‬ ‫و‬ ‫آ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫و‬ ‫ة‬Immune interferon‫رو‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫د‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ع‬ ‫ا‬ ‫وه‬. ١٠-‫آ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬Phagocytic cells:‫ا‬ ‫و‬‫ا‬ ‫و‬‫ا‬ ‫وا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ورة‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ة‬ ‫و‬ ‫آ‬ ‫ة‬ ‫ا‬Macrophages‫ا‬‫ف‬ ‫ا‬ ‫م‬ ‫ا‬ ‫و‬ ‫ع‬ ‫م‬ ‫ه‬ ‫وآ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ة‬ ‫و‬ Phagocytosis‫أآ‬ ‫ا‬١٨٨٢‫ف‬ ‫ا‬ ‫و‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫م‬"١٨٤٥-١٩١٦"‫م‬. ‫و‬‫ا‬ ‫رو‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫أ‬ ‫آ‬‫و‬ ‫وس‬ ‫أو‬ ‫ى‬ ‫وأ‬ ‫وا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ه‬ ‫ور‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ع‬ ‫أي‬ ‫ون‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ت‬ ‫ا‬ ‫اع‬ ‫أ‬ ‫آ‬ ‫وم‬ ‫وإ‬ ‫أو‬ ‫ا‬ ‫وق‬ ‫ا‬ ‫أو‬ ‫وح‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ل‬ ‫ذ‬ ‫و‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ل‬ ‫ا‬ ‫اض‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ت‬ ‫ن‬ ‫رو‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ط‬ ‫ر‬ ‫ا‬‫ا‬)‫وا‬ ‫وا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬(‫ل‬ ‫ا‬ ‫و‬ ‫ا‬ ‫وا‬ ‫اع‬ ‫أ‬ ‫ن‬E.Coli‫ل‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ض‬ ‫ا‬ ‫و‬. ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬munityAcquired Im ‫ا‬ ‫آ‬ ‫ة‬ ‫ا‬ ‫أه‬ ‫ا‬ ‫و‬ ‫آ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫رو‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ت‬ ‫وا‬ ‫ق‬ ‫ا‬ ‫إن‬ ‫رج‬ ‫إ‬ ‫ت‬ ‫أ‬ ‫ر‬ ‫ا‬ ‫رأ‬ ‫و‬ ‫ت‬ ‫ر‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ذآ‬ ‫آ‬ ‫رت‬ ‫و‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ن‬ ‫وه‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬‫و‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ت‬ ‫ا‬ ‫و‬ ‫ل‬ ‫ل‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ت‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ع‬ ‫آ‬ ‫وم‬ ‫ه‬ ‫ا‬. ‫و‬‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ك‬)‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ء‬ ‫ا‬ ‫م‬ ‫ا‬ ‫آ‬ ‫وا‬‫ا‬ ‫و‬ ‫ا‬ ‫وا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫وا‬ ‫ج‬ ‫و‬(‫ء‬ ‫وأ‬)‫وا‬ ‫وا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ة‬ ‫ا‬‫ل‬ ‫ردر‬ ‫ه‬ ‫ة‬ ‫و‬ ‫ر‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ز‬ ‫وا‬(‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬‫و‬‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ه‬ ًً ‫ا‬ ‫وا‬ ‫ء‬ ‫وا‬"‫ز‬ ‫ا‬‫ا‬"Immune system).(
  25. 25. ‫رو‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫و‬: ١-‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫اد‬ ‫ا‬ ‫أو‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ت‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ل‬ ‫د‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫دور‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ز‬ ‫ا‬ ‫وم‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫اذا‬ ‫ه‬ ‫رد‬ ‫ي‬ ‫م‬‫ا‬ ‫وأ‬ ‫آ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫اض‬ ‫أ‬ ‫ت‬ ‫و‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ل‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ت‬ ‫و‬ ‫ا‬ ‫إذا‬ ‫ه‬ ‫و‬ ‫ي‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ب‬ ‫وا‬ ‫ر‬ ‫ا‬. ٢-‫ا‬ ‫ب‬ ‫وا‬ ‫ر‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫وأ‬ ‫آ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫اض‬ ‫أ‬ ‫ت‬ ‫و‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ر‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ه‬ ‫و‬ ‫ي‬ ‫ا‬‫ي‬ ‫ت‬ ‫و‬. ٣-‫ا‬"‫ة‬ ‫ذاآ‬"‫ة‬ ‫و‬ ‫ة‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫أي‬ ‫د‬ ‫إذا‬ ‫أ‬ ‫أي‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ز‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ن‬ ‫ا‬"‫ف‬"‫و‬ ‫و‬ ‫ءة‬ ‫و‬ ‫و‬. ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬Immune response: ‫ا‬‫ا‬ ‫م‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ج‬ ‫أ‬ ‫ة‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ه‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫دة‬ ‫ا‬Antibody-mediated immune responses‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫وا‬Cell-mediated immune Response‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫اع‬ ‫أ‬ ‫ة‬ ‫وا‬Activated Immune cells. ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ة‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬: ‫أو‬-‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬:‫ا‬ ‫أو‬ ‫ا‬Antigen‫ا‬ ‫ز‬ ‫آ‬ ‫دة‬ ‫آ‬ ‫ه‬ ‫أو‬ ‫ت‬ ‫و‬ ‫ا‬ ‫أو‬ ‫ى‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ت‬ ‫ا‬ ‫م‬ ‫أ‬ ‫و‬ ‫ه‬ ‫م‬ ‫ا‬‫ت‬ ‫ا‬ ‫و‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ت‬ ‫ا‬ ‫آ‬ ‫اد‬ ‫ا‬ ‫وه‬ ‫ه‬ ‫و‬ ‫و‬ ‫را‬ ‫ه‬ ‫آ‬ ‫أو‬ ‫و‬ ‫ء‬ ‫إ‬ ‫أو‬ ‫و‬ ‫أو‬ ‫أو‬ ‫دة‬ ‫أ‬ ‫و‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫رة‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ره‬‫ا‬ ‫ت‬‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ز‬‫و‬‫و‬ ‫ت‬ ‫و‬ ‫وا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ت‬ ‫آ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ة‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫وا‬ ‫ت‬ ‫أ‬ ‫ه‬ ‫اد‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ه‬ ‫و‬ ‫ب‬ ‫ا‬ ‫أو‬ ‫ن‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬: ١-‫ا‬ ‫ا‬Foreignness:‫ا‬ ‫اد‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ز‬ ‫ا‬Non-self‫أ‬‫ا‬ Self‫ذا‬ ‫اف‬ ‫أ‬ ‫ث‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ت‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ه‬ ‫أ‬ ‫ث‬ Autoimmune diseases. ٢-‫ا‬ ‫زن‬ ‫ا‬Molecular weight:‫وا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫زن‬ ‫ا‬ ‫زاد‬ ‫آ‬ ‫زن‬ ‫د‬ ‫ا‬‫ه‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ز‬ ‫ي‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬١٠٠٠٠‫ن‬ ‫دا‬. ٣-‫ا‬ ‫آ‬ ‫ا‬Chemical composition:‫رة‬ ‫أآ‬ ‫ه‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫آ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ت‬ ‫آ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫و‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ت‬ ‫آ‬ ‫و‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫و‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬‫و‬ ‫أ‬ ‫اد‬ ‫ا‬ ‫أآ‬ ‫ق‬ ‫ا‬ ‫أ‬ ‫رة‬ ‫ن‬ ‫ه‬ ‫ا‬ ‫أ‬ ‫ه‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ة‬ ‫ت‬ ‫آ‬ ‫وا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ة‬ ‫ت‬ ‫آ‬ ‫ا‬. ٤-‫ا‬ ‫ا‬Physical nature:‫ا‬ ‫رة‬ ‫ا‬ ‫أآ‬ ‫ذا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ة‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ت‬ ‫ا‬ ‫م‬ ‫ا‬ ‫و‬ ‫ة‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ت‬ ‫ا‬ ‫أن‬ ‫آ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬Denaturated‫ا‬ ‫أ‬ ‫أآ‬. ٥-‫ا‬Degradability:‫آ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ت‬ ‫ا‬ ‫أن‬ ‫و‬Phagocytosis‫أآ‬ ‫ن‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫أن‬ ‫ذ‬ ‫وا‬ ‫ه‬ ‫ا‬ ‫رة‬ ‫ا‬‫ا‬ ‫دات‬Epitopes ‫ت‬ ‫و‬. -‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬:‫و‬: -‫را‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬:‫ت‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ع‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ت‬ ‫ا‬ ‫اع‬ ‫أ‬ ‫ك‬ ‫ه‬Responders‫ا‬ ‫أ‬ ‫أن‬ ‫ت‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ه‬ ‫ي‬ ‫أ‬Non-responders‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ذ‬ ‫و‬‫را‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ف‬ ‫ا‬ ‫و‬ ‫و‬ ‫ا‬ ‫و‬ ‫ت‬ ‫د‬ ‫و‬ ‫ا‬ ‫دي‬ ‫ي‬ ‫وا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫و‬ ‫اع‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ه‬. -‫ا‬:‫ر‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ر‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫أ‬ ‫ن‬ ‫ة‬ ‫ا‬ ‫أو‬ ‫ة‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ر‬ ‫ا‬‫ا‬ ‫ن‬ ‫و‬ ‫ن‬ ‫ة‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ر‬ ‫ا‬ ‫أن‬ ‫ذ‬‫ز‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ن‬ ‫ة‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ر‬ ‫ا‬ ‫و‬ ‫ر‬ ‫وا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫زه‬ ‫زال‬ ‫و‬ ‫ر‬ ‫و‬ ‫ا‬ ‫زه‬ ‫ن‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ر‬ ‫ا‬ ‫أ‬ ‫م‬ ‫ا‬ ‫أ‬ ‫ا‬ . -‫ول‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬:‫و‬:

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