2. UNIT III
INTER-RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN DISASTERS AND DEVELOPMENT
Factors affecting Vulnerabilities, differential impacts, impact of Development projects such as dams,
embankments, changes in Land-use etc.- Climate Change Adaptation- IPCC Scenario and Scenarios in the
context of India – Relevance of indigenous knowledge, appropriate technology and local resources.
6. Causes of Vulnerability:
Transitions in cultural practices
Lack of awareness and information
Wars and civil strife
9. Wealth is one of the most important human factors in vulnerability.
Wealth affects vulnerability in several ways:
1. The poor are less able to afford housing and other infrastructure that can withstand extreme events.
2. They are less able to purchase resources needed for disaster response and are less likely to have
insurance policies that can contribute.
3. They are also less likely to have access to medical care.
10. But there are exceptions. For example,
some coastal areas contain expensive beachside real estate populated mainly by the rich, leaving the rich
more vulnerable to tsunamis, storm surges, and other coastal hazards.
Also, the rich tend to lose more money from disasters, simply because they have more valuable property at
Eg. Hurricane Katrina (wealthier area, fewer deaths, higher monetary damage); Cyclone Nargis (poorer
area, more deaths, less monetary damage).
Education is another important factor in hazard impacts.
With education, we can learn how to avoid or reduce many impacts.
When populations are literate, then written messages can be used to spread word about
hazards in general or about specific disasters.
Even without literacy, it is possible to educate a population about hazards in order to help it
reduce its vulnerability.
When populations include professionals trained in hazards, then these people can help the
populations with their hazards preparations and responses.
The nature of both formal governments and informal governance in a population is another important
Governments can advance policies that reduce vulnerability.
They can establish agencies tasked with reducing vulnerability, such as NDMA.
They can support education and awareness efforts, as well as economic development to reduce poverty.
Finally, they can foster social networks and empower individuals and communities to help themselves to
prepare for and respond to hazards.
Likewise, even without governments, communities can informally engage in many of these governance
activities. Often the most vulnerable people are those who are politically marginalized, because these people
have less access to key resources and opportunities
13. Eg. Myanmar government during Cyclone Nargis. This government is isolated from the international
community and, thus, was not welcoming to international assistance in the aftermath of the cyclone.
Haiti after its 2010 earthquake. Haiti, like Myanmar, is a poor country, but it has positive and close
relationships with the international community and thus readily welcomed international assistance in the
aftermath of the earthquake. This assistance saved many lives and is helping Haiti rebuild.
The capabilities of the available technology can also play a large role in disasters.
Technology can improve our ability to forecast extreme events, withstand the impacts of the events, and
Technology is closely tied to wealth, education, and governance.
Wealthier, more educated society's are more likely to have more advanced technology.
A society's governance systems play a large role in how - and how effectively - the available technology is
used in a disaster situation.
Eg. All the preparations for facing the disaster and response activities in Disaster.
Children and the elderly tend to be more vulnerable.
They have less physical strength to survive disasters and are often more susceptible to certain diseases.
The elderly often also have declining vision and hearing.
Children, especially young children, have less education.
Finally, both children and the elderly have fewer financial resources and are frequently dependent on
others for survival.
In order for them to survive a disaster, it is necessary for both them and their caretakers to stay alive
and stay together.
Eg. 2003 European heat wave. About 40,000 people died in one of the hottest summers ever in Europe.
Many of the deaths were elderly people who were still capable of taking care of themselves. These people
were not able to adapt to the extreme heat and had no one helping them out.
Women are often more vulnerable to natural hazards than men.
This is in part because women are more likely to be poor, less educated, and politically marginalized.
Women often face additional burdens as caretakers of families.
When disaster strikes, women are often the ones tasked with protecting children and the elderly.
This leaves them less mobile and more likely to experience harm themselves.
19. Impact of disaster could be
Impact on Human Life
Impact on Economy
Impact on Ecology and Environment
Social Impacts & Health Impacts
20. Impact on Human Life
No activity of loss and damage can be termed as disaster unless it has a direct impact on humans.
The most fragile community on earth is man kind which is susceptible to all kinds of danger and hazards.
To off set and reduce the impact of these hazards, humans are evolving themselves.
Any loss whether it is of human life or of livestock, its loss of property it has direct bearing on humans.
Man is a social animal and can not live alone. Small groups joined together to form communities and
communities grew to form cosmopolitan cities.
Some of the impacts on human life can further be listed as follow:-
21. Loss of Human Life. The worst damage of a disaster is the loss of human life. All the property and
house holds can be recouped with passage of time or with assistance of other communities / donors but
life is such a precious thing that its replacement cannot be done. The loosing of a family member has far
more lasting bad memories and impacts as compare to any other loss. This leads to social and
psychological issues that affect the recovery phase and lengthens the rehabilitation phase.
Loss of Livelihood including Households and Property. One of the immediate impact indicators that
define the severity of a disaster is the loss of livelihoods of the inhabitants. The earnings of whole life is
just washed away in few moments and it affects badly on recovery phase too.
22. Displacement. Result of a disaster could be the temporary or permanent displacement from the
affected area to a new location where environment (socially and economically) are not so favorable.
Education. Disaster means the complete destruction of not only personal life routine but it al so affect
on the education badly. Either schools are destructed or if not, these are used to house displaced people.
In any case, continuity of education is not there.
34. Environmental Impacts 0f Dams
Terrestrial Ecosystems and Biodiversity
Greenhouse Gas Emissions
Downstream Aquatic Ecosystems and Biodiversity
Impacts of changes in flow regimes
Impacts of trapping sediments and nutrients behind a dam
Blocking migration of aquatic organisms
35. Non Reciprocal Effects of Dams on Society
Irrigation, Drainage & Flood control
Displacement of People and Livelihoods
Under-counting of the displaced
Physically displaced populations enumerated but not resettled
Socio-economic Impacts through the Planning and Project Cycle
38. What is the problem?
What is climate change?
Climate change and its relation to disaster
Climate change, vulnerability, adaptation
Community based adaptation (CBA)
- CBA and Flood
- CBA and Drought
- Success of CBA
Climate change and policy
39. What is the problem?
People are observing new trends in disaster impacts
Traditional weather prediction does not work
Traditional disaster planning and policy are not working
New development activities are going on, without further consideration of future climatic scenario
Thus, there is a lack of:
- Proper perception on climate change
- Proper understanding and correlation
- Proper inter-linkages, and
- Appropriate Actions
40. Due to increasing human activities at different levels, prominent changes occur in the climate and natural
Climate change is already happening:
- The global mean surface temperature in the 20th century has risen by about 0,6 °C.
Climate change is also projected:
- The average sea level is projected to rise by between 0.09 and 0.88 m
- The global mean surface temperature is projected to increase by 1.4-5.8°C by 2100
Climate change projections face some crucial issues:
- The projections are often very coarse, and lack local details
- The projections are often far into future, not immediate future
- Better in predicting average change than extreme climatic conditions
What is Climate Change?
41. Climate Change and Disasters
Climate change will have a variety of impacts in terms of natural disasters:
- More droughts, floods, heat waves, water shortages,
- Increasingly diversion of the typhoon path
Impacts will hit the poor hardest
- Climate Change impacts is multiplied with misguided development
42. Climate Change and Vulnerability
Climate change impacts are related to vulnerability of different types: social, cultural, economic etc.
Important issues are: where are the vulnerable areas, and who are the most vulnerable
Climate change impacts should be seen at different levels (like international, national and local), and
at different issues (like eco-system, settlements, food, health and water)
Climate change impact and capacity assessment
Climate change vulnerability can be assessed in different ways: through stakeholder, resource
mapping, and sustainable livelihood analysis
43. What is Climate Change Adaptation?
Implementation of climate change mitigation measures needs time
Applicability of climate change adaptation is increasingly recognized
Focus needs to be on community based adaptation, and local government policy options
A few steps on climate change adaptation include: 1) preliminary climate risk assessment, 2) assess
priorities and plan follow-up, 3) raise awareness, 4) establish and enhance partnership, 5) highlight climate
related vulnerability with other actors, 6) document and share experiences, and 7) promote advocacy for
44. Community based adaptation is getting increasing attention.
Adaptation responses to date have been largely reactive rather than proactive.
Proactive Micro-Adaptation (PMA) has a significant potential to be a crucial component of strategies
to address impacts of climate change.
Further, proactive adaptation has considerable policy potential at various levels.
What is Community Based Adaptation?
46. How CBA can be practiced? Coastal Zone
Climate change has affected the coastal zone of the Philippines
The worst sufferers are the fishing communities, due to change in the coastal eco-system
Adaptation measures include local government policies, awareness raising among different
sectors, and national government strategies and policies
47. How CBA can be practiced? Drought
A significant change of rainfall pattern is observed in Western India, resulting 2-3 consecutive drought
The worst effect is on livelihoods: agriculture, and animal husbandry
To cope with 3 consecutive years of drought is beyond community coping capacities
Tradition drought proofing needs consideration of climate change uncertainties
Collective efforts are being undertaken for drought proofing
These measures, while implemented at community level, should be part of the local development policies
48. How CBA can be practiced? Flood
Central Vietnam is experiencing large floods, often resulted due to catastrophic rain or rain due to
Agriculture, related livelihood options are deeply affected
In rural areas, the adaptation measures are more on participatory planning, awareness raising, and
In urban areas, CBA is more related to urban planning, local development planning and policy, and
establishing effective communication system.
49. Providing right climate information to farmers is one of key issue
A few steps are:
- Providing climate outlook
- Transferring global to local outlook
- Translating climate outlook to local scenario
- Communication to local farmers
How CBA can be practiced? Climate Information
50. The key issue of climate change community-based adaptation is the right information to the community
Involvement of the community in the process is critical, and is linked to the ownership of the adaptation
Institutionalization at local government development plan is a definite challenge
Coordination among NGO, local government, and academic is crucial
High demand for training/awareness raising activities among stakeholders
Issues of Community Based Adaptation
51. Climate Change Adaptation: local
Incorporate the recommended actions into local government policies
Special emphasis should be given on agriculture and livelihood support system, and health and education
services in the local governments
Training and awareness raising of local government managers is one of the important aspect of the policy
Resource commitment at local government is the key issue for the success of its adaptation actions
Multi-stakeholder cooperation is required at local level
52. National and international policies set the context for facilitating Proactive micro adaptation (or
community based adaptation).
Good policy coordination on a range of proactive adaptation measures and actions at various levels can
help avoid mal-adaptation.
Resource mobilization is essential.
Climate change impacts are cross-cutting in nature, and require synergies.
Climate Change Adaptation : National
53. Climate Change Adaptation: International
International climate negotiations to date, however, have paid inadequate attention to community based
climate change adaptation
Bilateral and multilateral development agency should have policy on climate change adaptation
Actions needs to be taken at international levels should have following emphasis:
- Efforts to link with other international initiatives
- Emphasis on near future scenario
- Risk management approach
57. LAND USE: “Land use is characterized by the arrangements, activities and inputs people
undertake in a certain land cover type to produce, change or maintain it”
LAND COVER: land cover is the physical material at the surface of the earth. Land cover
include grass, asphalt, trees, bare ground, water etc.
58. ZONING: Zoning is the term used for designating permitted uses of certain parcels of
land by local governments.
Generally, in urban areas, zoning will be divided five major categories: residential,
mixed residential-commercial, commercial, industrial, and special (e.g., power plants,
sports complexes, airports, shopping malls etc.).
60. NEED OF LAND USE ASSESSMENT
Land use information can be used to develop solutions for natural resource
management issues such as salinity and water quality.
More recent significant effects of land use include urban sprawl, soil erosion, soil
degradation, salinization and desertification.
The land use/land cover pattern of a region is an outcome of natural and socio –
economic factors and their utilization by man in time and space.
Information about land use change is necessary to update land cover maps and for
effective management and planning of the resources for sustainable development
61. Urban areas are changing due to various human activities, natural conditions and
developmental activities. According to the user requirements, updating of land
use maps are required to various departments and hence information of land
use/land cover in the form of maps and statistical data are very vital for spatial
planning, management and proper utilization of land.
66. The most serious threat observed is the occupation of hill slopes at an enormous phase
posing serious environmental impact in the form of destruction of the natural slope
morphology including natural drainage, soil cover, slope vegetation and slope stability.
The possible impacts include the depletion of groundwater, water logging in low laying
areas, gradual collapse of hill slopes resulting loss of human life and property. If this
continuous the natural land scape which is considered as most beautiful in this city, will be lost
PROBLEMS FACED BY VISAKHAPATNAM
67. The decrease in vegetation cover and forest cover may be an aspect of serious concern
and the planners and policy makers need to take necessary steps for conserving forest
The beach and coastal erosion by man made reasons should be closely monitored and
necessary scientific steps must be taken to stop the beach erosion to avoid further
In ordered to prevent inappropriate construction of building, the building code should be
Addressing the requirements after the flood has receded.
There should be a proper land use control and settlement policy in the state
Degradation of environment, disasters and poverty form a vicious cycle and this cycle can
be overcome only by a careful environment management planning and integrating it with
disaster management and poverty alleviation.
There should be a proper land use control and settlement policy in the state
87. Indira Paryavaran Bhawan
The Indira Paryavaran Bhawan is a project of MoEF&CC for Construction of New office Building at Aliganj,
Jor Bagh Road, New Delhi.
The basic design concept is to make a “net zero energy” green building.
The building is targeted to achieve LEED India Platinum Rating and GRIHA 5 star rating
Many energy conservation measures are adopted to optimize the overall design load:
- High Efficiency Solar Panels are planned to achieve Net Zero criteria.
- Energy efficient T-5 and LED fixtures innovative chilled beam system for cooling.
- Pre-cooling of fresh air from toilet exhaust using heat recovery wheel in order to reduce load on
88. Water cooled chillers
Double skin air handling units with variable frequency drives
Geo thermal heat exchange technology for heat rejection from Air-conditioning system
Innovative energy saving regenerative lifts
Water conservation measures like:
- Low discharge water fixtures
- Dual flushing cistern
- Low demand plants in landscaping
- Drip irrigation system for green areas
- Make up water tank for chiller plant, irrigation
- Rain water harvesting system
91. These characteristics of coastal zone Indigenous Knowledge included the following:
Relates to the water/ocean, its behavior as well as wind/weather conditions
Characteristic of social system, generally smaller, close-knit communities
Use of local materials (sand, thatch)
Involvement of ecological elements (mangroves, coral reefs, rocky shores)
Disseminated in small family groupings
Closely related to fishing and farming practices - livelihood of inhabitants
93. Water Resource Management
The basic principles of Indigenous Knowledge relating to water resource management include:
1. Diversity: fulfilling the needs of local people/ adapted to local culture, climate, environment,
2. Equality: common property, resource sharing, interest balancing
3. Environmentally friendly: multiple purpose, reuse, conservation
4. Economically sustainable: local materials, no need of extra energy for water transferring (use