Ce diaporama a bien été signalé.
Le téléchargement de votre SlideShare est en cours. ×

Chapter 5 2017 pwrpt.ppt

Chargement dans…3

Consultez-les par la suite

1 sur 91 Publicité

Plus De Contenu Connexe

Similaire à Chapter 5 2017 pwrpt.ppt (20)

Plus récents (20)


Chapter 5 2017 pwrpt.ppt

  1. 1.  Political parties elect members to public office and keep the public informed about political issues.  For almost all of its history, The United States has had a two-party system.  The two major parties are the Democrats and the Republicans.
  2. 2.  Students will understand what political parties do.  Students will understand that the United States has a two party system.  Students will understand that political parties have played a major role in American History.
  3. 3.  Students will understand that minor parties have an effect on elections in many ways.  Students will understand what the typical structure of a political party is like.  Students will understand that often third party ideas become adopted by the major parties and do become part of the fabric of our nation.
  4. 4.  Vetting – a part of the approval function of parties. Parties will make sure candidates are without blemish so as not to embarrass the party.  Coalition – a large group with varied interests that works together to achieve common goals.  Consensus – agreement  Electorate – voters  Constituents – those who are represented
  5. 5.  Realignment - when the party who has been in power loses the election and the power switches over to the rival party.  GOP – Grand Old Party, refers to the Republicans  Dems – refers to the Democrats  Bipartisan – composed or representative of the two major parties  Ideology – a belief system
  6. 6.  A group of persons who seek to control government through the winning of elections and the holding of public office.  Also, a group of persons joined together on the basis of common principals, who seek to control government in order to affect certain public policies and programs.
  7. 7.  A link between people and the government, it makes the will of people known and holds government accountable for its actions and policies.  Political Parties can be organizations that form coalitions and bring conflicting groups together.
  8. 8.  Major Parties Republican and Democrat
  9. 9.  1. Nominating Candidates  2.Informing and Activating Supporters  3. Bonding or Approval Agent  4. Governing  5. Acting as a “Watchdog”
  10. 10. 1. Nominating Candidates Political parties select candidates and help them win elections.
  11. 11. 2. Informing and Activating Supporters • Political parties inform and inspire voters as they campaign for candidates, take stands on issues, and criticize the candidates and positions of their opponents. • They promote their positions and candidates through pamphlets, buttons, stickers; advertising through advertisements in newspapers and magazines and on radio, television, and the Internet; and in speeches, rallies, and conventions.
  12. 12. 3. Acting as a “Bonding /Approval Agent” The party gives it’s Seal of Approval to candidates • Political parties nominate qualified candidates of ability and character to ensure that they will perform well when in office. • This process is known as VETTING. • When their candidates are in office, political parties ensure that they perform well. • Failure to perform well will damage the party’s relationship with the voters.
  13. 13. 4. Governing Government in the United States is governing by party in several ways: – Congress and State legislatures are organized along party lines, and much business is done on the basis of partisanship-the strong support of their party and its policy stands. – Appointments to executive offices at the federal and State levels are also made with party considerations in mind. – The separation of powers, in which the executive and legislative branches work together, is carried out through political parties. – The procedures followed in the Electoral College were shaped by political parties in its early years.
  14. 14.  5. Acting as a “Watchdog”  The party out of power criticizes the policies and officeholders in the majority power.  They serve as the “loyal opposition”-opposed to the party in power but loyal to the People and nation.
  15. 15.  Only Republican or Democrat Party candidates have a reasonable chance of winning public office.
  16. 16.  a political party that lacks wide voter support.
  17. 17.  HISTORICAL BASIS  The Founders were leery about political parties: ◦ James Madison Federalist No. 10: “By a faction, I understand a number of citizens, whether amounting to a majority or a minority of the whole, who are united and actuated by some common impulse of passion, or of interest, adversed to the rights of other citizens, or to the permanent and aggregate interests of the community.” (1787)
  18. 18. ◦ George Washington’s Farewell Address warns of “the baneful effects of the spirit of party.” (1796)  The Constitution contains no provisions for political parties.  Political parties ended up being moderate, advocating middle-of-the-road positions that united the country.
  19. 19.  THE FORCE OF TRADITION  Political parties emerged as the Constitution was first being put into effect, making them part of the “unwritten Constitution.”  Third parties have a hard time developing a following because America has always had a two-party system.  Americans accept this system as a given.
  20. 20.  THE ELECTORAL SYSTEM  The electoral system itself promotes a two- party system.  Nearly all elections are in the U.S. are in SINGLE-MEMBER DISTRICTS. Only one candidate is elected to each office on the ballot. ◦ The winning candidate is one who receives a plurality, or the largest number of votes cast. A plurality need not be a majority, which is more than half of all votes cast.
  21. 21.  Political parties act in a bipartisan way to shape the rules that determine who can make it onto the ballot. Nearly all State legislators are either Republican or Democrat.
  22. 22.  AMERICAN IDEOLOGICAL CONSENSUS  Americans are largely an ideologically homogeneous people, yet we are also pluralistic society-one consisting of several distinct cultures and groups.
  23. 23.  There is still consensus-general agreement on fundamental matters: ◦ Major parties are largely moderate, built on compromise, and occupy “the middle of the road.” ◦ Both parties also focus on attracting a majority of the electorate. ◦ Positions are largely alike.
  24. 24.  Differences: ◦ Democratic Party-favors social welfare programs, government regulation of business practices, efforts to improve the status of minorities. ◦ Republican Party-favors the free market, less extensive Federal Government.
  25. 25.  Multiparty system-several major and many lesser parties exist, seriously compete for, and actually win public offices.
  26. 26.  Mostly European democracies.  Political parties are based on a particular interest: economic class, religious belief, sectional attachment, or political ideology.
  27. 27.  Strengths: It provides for a broader representation of the electorate and more responsive to the will of the people.  Weaknesses: It leads to political instability because one party cannot win the support of the majority of the voters. This leads to a Coalition government-a temporary alliance of several groups who come together to form a working majority and so to control a government.
  28. 28.  One-party systems-only one party is allowed to exist, in nearly all dictatorships today.
  29. 29.  This country has had several States and many local areas that can be described as one- party systems. Until the 1950’s, the Democrats ruled the South and the Republicans dominated New England and the upper Midwest.  One-third of American States can be said to be under one-party rule. In New York, for instance, Democrats outnumber Republicans 5 to 3.
  30. 30.  Party membership is voluntary.  Each party is made up of a cross-section of the American electorate.  Two out of three Americans follow the party loyalty of their parents.
  31. 31.  The Democratic Party tends to attract African Americans, Catholics and Jews, and union voters, and lower income groups.  The Republican Party attracts white males, Protestants, the business community, and higher income groups.
  32. 32.  Age, place of residence, level of education, and work environment may also influence party identification; however, these will often be in conflict.
  33. 33.  Traces back to the battle over the Constitution.  T. Jefferson VS. A. Hamilton
  34. 34.  Federalist Party-Alexander Hamilton ◦ Stronger national government. ◦ Strengthen the national economy. ◦ Supporters: financiers, manufacturers, commercial interests. ◦ Loose interpretation of the Constitution.
  35. 35.  Democratic-Republicans (After 1828-they’re the Democrats)  Limited role for the new national government.  Congress should dominate.  Supporters: small shopkeepers, laborers, farmers, planters.  Strict Interpretation of the Constitution.
  36. 36. In 1800-realignment-the Federalists lose the presidency and control of the Congress-the Democrats are in power until 1860.
  37. 37.  This is when the party who has been in power loses the election and the power switches over to the rival party.
  38. 38.  The Era of the Democrats (1800-1860)  The Era of the Republicans (1860-1932)  The Return of the Democrats (1932-1968)  The Start of a New Era (1968-Present)
  39. 39.  The Federalist Party disappears by 1816.  National Republican (Whig) Party-Emerges.  Issues: Second Bank of the United States, high tariffs, and slavery  Democrats-under Andrew Jackson- Supporters: small farmers, debtors, frontier pioneers, slaveholders-mostly South and West.
  40. 40.  Voting rights for all white males.  Huge increases in the number of elected offices around the country.  Spread of the “spoils system”-practice of awarding public offices, contracts, and other government favors to those who supported the party in power.
  41. 41.  Henry Clay and Daniel Webster  Loose coalition of eastern bankers, merchants, and industrialists.  Opposed to Jacksonian Democracy and strongly supported high tariffs.  Two Presidents of the United States William Henry Harrison (1840) and Zachary Taylor (1848). These 2 candidates won because they were famous Generals, not necessarily because of their political beliefs.
  42. 42.  Whigs and antislavery Democrats.  1856-John C. Fremont  1860-Abraham Lincoln  Only 3rd party to go major in U.S. History.
  43. 43.  -Republican supporters: business and financial interests, farmers, laborers, and newly freed African Americans  -The Democrats hold onto the “Solid South.” Their only President was Grover Cleveland (1884, 1892).
  44. 44.  The election of 1896 was a critical year in the development of the two-party system.  Small business owners, farmers, and emerging labor unions protested against big business, financial monopolies, and the railroads.
  45. 45.  Republicans nominated William McKinley who supported the gold standard, and the Democrats nominated William Jennings Bryan who supported the free coinage of silver.  The Republicans gained widespread support from the electorate (those able to vote), and became the dominant party for the next three decades.
  46. 46.  In 1912, the former Republican Theodore Roosevelt’s [splinter-party ] Progressive “Bull Moose” Party handed Democrat Woodrow Wilson a narrow victory. He was reelected by a narrow margin again in 1916.  For the rest of the 1920’s the GOP dominated national politics with three successive Presidents, Warren Harding (1920), Calvin Coolidge (1924), and Herbert Hoover (1928).
  47. 47.  The Great Depression not only brought the Democrats back to power, it also fundamentally shifted the public’s attitude toward the proper role of government.  Franklin Delano Roosevelt’s supporters were southerners, small farmers, organized labor, and big-city political organizations. He also attracted the attention of African Americans and other minorities to the Democrats.
  48. 48.  His Vice President, Harry Truman was reelected in 1948.  The next President, Dwight D. Eisenhower (1953-1961), was a Republican – a famous WW2 General.  The next two Presidents, Kennedy (1961-1963) and Johnson (1963- 1969) were Democrats.
  49. 49.  The Democratic Party was torn apart by the Vietnam Conflict, civil rights, and various social issues. Richard Nixon, Republican from California, was able to defeat Lyndon Baines Johnson’s VP Hubert Humphrey in 1968.  In 1968, George Wallace, running on a racist American Independent Party platform managed to win the deep South. Nixon won with a bare plurality.
  50. 50.  Nixon was reelected in 1972, but resigned in disgrace in 1974. His Vice President, Gerald R. Ford faced a worsening economy and lost to Democrat Georgia Governor James “Jimmy” Earl Carter in 1976.
  51. 51.  The economy worsened, and the political fallout from the Iranian hostage crisis led to a victorious Republican Governor of California Ronald Wilson Reagan to win in 1980.  President Regan was reelected in a landslide in 1984. His VP, George Herbert Walker Bush would only win a single term due to serious economic problems in the early 1990’s.
  52. 52.  Democrat Arkansas Governor William “Bill” Jefferson Clinton would go on to serve two terms as President.  His VP, Albert Gore, would lose a bid to win the presidency when he failed to earn enough electoral votes after winning the popular vote. This hadn’t happened since 1888.
  53. 53.  George Walker Bush would go on to serve two terms. In 2002, the GOP actually picked up seats in both houses of Congress. This hadn’t happened to Republican president in 100 years.  In 2008, Democrat Barack Obama was elected President of the United States.
  54. 54.  Obama was re-elected in 2012.  In the 2016 election there was another realignment when Republican Donald Trump wins the electoral college and the presidency, despite Democrat Hillary Clinton winning the popular vote.
  55. 55. MINOR PARTIES IN THE U.S.  Ideological Parties  Single-Issue Parties  Economic Protest Parties  Splinter Parties
  56. 56.  Focus on a particular set of beliefs-social, economic, political  Mostly Marxist-Socialist, Socialist Labor, Socialist Workers, Communist Party.
  57. 57.  Also, Libertarian Party-individualism, calls for the elimination of most government functions and programs.  The Libertarians grew out of a ultra conservative arm of the Republican Party.  Long-lived but with few voters.
  58. 58.  Focus on only one public policy matter.  Free Soil, American (“Know-Nothing”), Right- to-Life  Most fade away because the events pass or the theme fails to attract voters  Frequently major parties adopt their platform.
  59. 59.  Formed during economic downturns.  Sectional parties:  Greenback Party (1876-1894)  Appealed to struggling farmers.  Called for: free coinage of silver, federal regulation of the railroads, federal income tax, labor legislation.
  60. 60.  Populist Party (1890’s)  Demanded public ownership of railroad, telephone, and telegraph companies, lower tariffs, adoption of the initiative and referendum.
  61. 61.  Split away from major parties.  Most important minor parties.  Form around strong personalities and fall apart when those individuals leave politics.
  62. 62.  Republican Party splinters: Progressive “Bull Moose” (1912), Robert LaFollette’s Progressive Policy (1924)  Democratic Party splinters: Henry Wallace’s Progressive Party, State’s Rights (Dixiecrat) Party (1948), American Independence Party (1968)
  63. 63.  Greens (Ralph Nader)-Environmental protection, universal healthcare, gay and lesbian rights, restraints on corporate power, campaign finance reform, opposition to global free trade.
  64. 64.  Contributions:  Anti-Masons-first to use a national convention to nominate a presidential candidate (1831)  “Spoiler Role”-minor parties can pull votes away from major parties-“Bull Moose” Party pulled voters away from the Republicans in 1912 and the Green Party pulled away voters in 2000.
  65. 65.  Critic and Motivator-they take stands on controversial issues that major parties find too difficult to handle like the progressive federal income tax, woman’s suffrage, railroad and banking legislation, old age pensions.  Often their ideas become adopted by the major parties and do become part of the fabric of our nation {examples: Amendments 16-19}.
  66. 66. THE DECENTRALIZED NATURE OF THE PARTIES  Political parties are highly decentralized, fragmented, disjointed, and beset by factions and internal squabbling.  There is no chance chain of command from national to State or State to local levels.
  67. 67.  The president’s party is usually solidly united and more cohesively organized than the opposition party.  The president serves as party leader, has media access, popularity, power to make appointments to federal office, and can dispense favors.  The party out of power has no recognized leader, although there are individuals regarded as future leaders.
  68. 68.  The system of government in which we operate is also highly decentralized, with thousands of elective offices at the national and State and local levels.
  69. 69.  Candidate selection is an intraparty process where nominations are made within a party.  The nominating process is often divisive, pitting Republican versus Republican and Democrat versus Democrat.  This is a very fragmenting process.
  70. 70.  There are four basic elements: national convention, national committee, national chairperson, congressional campaign committees.
  71. 71.  The party’s national voice.  It meets the summer of every presidential election year to nominate the party’s presidential and vice presidential nominees.  The party also adopts its rules and platform.  Apart from the above, the convention holds very little additional authority.
  72. 72.  Operates between conventions.  Republican National Committee (RNC) seats several of the party’s chairpersons in each State, D.C., Guam, American Samoa, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands.  Democratic National Committee (DNC) is even larger, including several members of Congress, governors, mayors (SUPER DELEGATES), and Young Democrats.  The committees have very little clout.
  73. 73.  Leads the national committee.  Holds a four-year term that begins after the national convention. The choice of chairperson is made by the just-nominated presidential candidate and is the ratified by the national committee. Steele
  74. 74.  The chairperson directs the work of the party’s headquarters and its small staff in Washington, D.C..  His or her focus is on organizing the convention and then the campaign.  In between, the chairperson works to strengthen the party by raising money and recruiting new voters.
  75. 75.  Each party has a campaign committee in each house of Congress.  They work to reelect incumbents and to make sure that seats given up by retiring party members remain in the party.  In competitive Congressional districts, they work to unseat the opposition party’s candidate.
  76. 76.  Party structure is set by State law.
  77. 77.  THE STATE ORGANIZATION  Party machinery is built around a State central committee, headed by a State chairperson.  The chairperson is usually a person of importance in political circles.  Their role: build an effective organization, find candidates, and campaign funds
  78. 78.  Usually party structure follows the electoral map of the State, by Congressional districts.  Cities can also be broken down into WARDS.  The smallest unit is called a PRECINCT. The voters in each precinct report to one polling place.
  79. 79.  Party Organization  The Party in the Electorate  The Party in Government
  80. 80.  All those who give their time, money, and skills to the party whether as leaders or followers.
  81. 81.  Party loyalists who vote the straight ticket, who call themselves party members and who usually vote for its candidates.
  82. 82.  The party’s officeholders, those who hold elective and appointive offices in the executive, legislative, and judicial branches at the federal, State, and local levels of government.
  83. 83.  Political parties have never been popular in this country.  They have been in a decline since the 1960’s.
  84. 84.  There has been a growing number of independent voters.  A big increase in SPLIT-TICKET VOTING- voting for candidates of different parties for different offices in the same election.
  85. 85.  Changes and reforms have made the parties more open and this has led to more disorganization.  Changing technology-television, Internet, professional campaign managers, direct-mail advertising-make candidates less dependent on a political party.
  86. 86.  The growth of single-issue organizations who support a candidate based upon his or her own agreeing with their closely defined views like gun control or environmentalism.
  87. 87.  Are political parties necessary today?  What can be done to make political parties less divisive?  Why do you think that often third party ideas become adopted by the major parties?