2. Social status
According to Horton and Hunt status is defined as the rank or position of a person in a
group, or of group in relation to other groups.
Certain people are ranked high in a society because they belong to royal family,
resoectable caste or occupation. All the people and groups of people are not equally
respected in a society. This position or ran is called status in terms of sociology.
Types of status
1. Ascribed status
2. Achieved status
Ascribed status is the position which is assigned to individual by culture and by birth,
without any reference. For example caste, age and sex. They do not change and
permanent by nature. They begin with the life and end with its end.
3. Determinants of Ascribed Status
The honor of a person’ ancestry rests on legitimacy or illegitimacy, respect of the family and
caste system. These are the factors of ascribed status. A child born in a royal family is called prince.
Biologically the sexes have different status in our society. The male is given higher position
in order of status as compare to female. This disparity of status is more wider in rural areas of Pakistan.
It is one important determinants of ascribed status. It has been observed that aged people are
given more respect and honor in our society. On the other hand youth are treated more lovingly and casually
in our society.
caste is an important element of status in Indo-Pakistan cultures. Especially in rural areas,
caste is even more important. Some castes are given higher status as Taga, Rajput, Pathan, Baloch, Syed, Jutt
and Mughal. Some are considered the lowest in rank as man, cobbler, carpenter etc.
4. Achieved Status
It requires specific qualities from the individual in role performance. These are not assigned by
birth but are left open for competition and individual efforts. For example doctor, engineer, MNA
Determinants of Achieved Status
1. Economic Resources
The economic resources of an individual can be measured and counted in easy terms and
guessed easily as what status he enjoys in society. More the economically resourceful is someone
greater the statues he occupies in society.
in our society, the type of occupation, by which one earns money, is an important question.
For example, the sweepers, barbers, cobblers and washer man how so rich can hardly be
equivalent to the status of poor small agriculturists, government empolyees and others. Exective,
education, judiciary, police, engineering and medical are the services awarded higher status on
5. 3. Education
Higher education is a mark of respect in society. The degrees and certificates held from
college and university are a symbol of status for the holder. Education itself is an end-value sometimes
and mean-value mostly higher social prestige in community.
Power is the ability to control or influence the behavior of others. Those who attain
more power in the society are treated more respectfully and their status is considered high. for
example a policeman is regarded more respectable comparing with a schoolteacher. It is just
because of the difference between power.
‘a role is the function of a status’(young and mack)
The individual in the society has been assigned certain rights and duties constituting
status. These rights and duties when performed is said to have performed roles or the
Pathan by caste teacher Sports club secretary
Shareholder in some
individual Religious practices
Father of 5 children Member of a voluntary Husband of a wife
6. Relationship of status and role
Status and role are the related concepts in such a way that one exists with
A professor enjoys this status in college due to his roles of teaching class
If he performs his role with full attention and deep study he is awarded higher
status in the people.
A judge is respected due to his judicious judgment. A lawyer is honored on
account of his legal practice. It means status depends upon role performance.
It means the function of status is role.
7. Role conflict
When two or more two different roles happen to occur in a social situation it
is called role conflict. It means different roles happen to come across at one
social situation and the actor is to act one role and reject the other.
Conflict in role is the situation produced in modern societies. The society in
which technology , education, industry and urbanization expand happen to
experience role conflict.
Role conflict increases as the number of roles increases. This happens mostly
with high class businessmen, high official diplomas of high rank and generally
those who keep themselves busy in their activities. In rural communities, the
people face little role conflict due to simple culture and simple social life.
8. Causes of Role Conflict
Extra busy life
Incomplete or weak socialization
New social values
Violation of religious values