3. FOREIGN EXCHANGE MARKETS
The market where the commodity traded is Currencies.
Price of each currency is determined in term of other currencies.
What is an Exchange Rate ?
Exchange Rate is the price of one country's currency expressed in
another country's currency. In other words, the rate at which one
currency can be exchanged for another.
e.g. Rs.67.954 per one USD
Major currencies of the World
5. PARTICIPANTS IN THE FOREIGN
All Scheduled Commercial Banks
Reserve Bank of India (RBI).
Inter Bank Brokerage Houses.
6. FACTORS INFLUENCING EXCHANGE RATES
As with any market, the forex market is driven by
supply and demand:
If buyers exceed sellers, prices go up
If sellers are less then the buyers, prices go down
7. TYPES OF EXCHANGE RATES
Fixed exchange rates
Floating exchange rates
Direct exchange rates
Indirect exchange rates
Spot and forward
Fixed and Floating Exchange Rate
Fixed exchange rate is the official rate set by the
monetary authorities of the Governance for one or more
Under floating exchange rate, the value of the currency
is decided by supply and demand factors
8. DIRECT AND INDIRECT EXCHANGE RATE
Direct method - Under this, a given number of units
of local currency per unit of foreign currency is
quoted. They are designated as direct/certain rates
because the rupee cost of single foreign currency
unit can be obtained directly. Direct quotation is
also called home currency quotation.
Indirect method – Under this, a given number of
units of foreign currency per unit of local currency is
quoted. Indirect quotation is also called foreign
9. SPOT AND FORWARD
The delivery under a foreign exchange transaction
can be settled in one of the following ways
Ready or cash – To be settled on the same day
Tom – To be settled on the day next to the date of
Spot – To be settled on the second working day
from the date of contract
Forward – To be settled at a date farther than the
10. FOREIGN EXCHANGE MARKET-WORLD VIEW
Globally, operations in the foreign exchange market
started in a major way after the breakdown of the
Bretton Woods system in 1971, which also marked
the beginning of floating exchange rate regimes in
Over the years, the foreign exchange market has
emerged as the largest market in the world.
The decade of the 1990s witnessed a perceptible policy
shift in many emerging markets towards reorientation of
their financial markets in terms of new products and
instruments, development of institutional and
market infrastructure and realignment of regulatory
structure consistent with the liberalised operational
11. FOREIGN EXCHANGE MARKET IN INDIA
The changing contours were mirrored in a rapid
expansion of foreign exchange market in terms of
participants, transaction volumes, decline in
transaction costs and more efficient mechanisms of
The origin of the foreign exchange market in India could
be traced to the year 1978 when banks in India were
permitted to undertake intra-day trade in foreign
However, it was in the 1990s that the Indian foreign
exchange market witnessed far reaching changes along
with the shifts in the currency regime in India.
12. STRUCTURE OF FOREX MARKET IN INDIA
Forex Market in India Management Act
R.B.I Central Govt.
Authorized Persons F.E.D.A.I.
Authorized Money Authorized Dealers
Full Fledged Restricted
Foreign Exchange Dealer's Association of India
(FEDAI) was set up in 1958 as an Association of
banks dealing in foreign exchange in India (typically
called Authorized Dealers - ADs) as a self
regulatory body and is incorporated under Section
25 of The Companies Act, 1956.
It's major activities include framing of rules
governing the conduct of inter-bank foreign
exchange business among banks and public and
liaison with RBI for reforms and development of
16. FUNCTIONS OF F.E.D.A.I
Guidelines and rules for the Forex business
Training of bank personnel in the areas of Forex business
Accreditation of brokers
Advising / Assisting member banks in settling issues, matters
in their dealings
Represent member banks on Govt, R.B.I. and other bodies
Announcement of daily and periodical rates to member
Prescribing margin for calculating exchange rates for various
Formulating code of conduct for dealers working in banks
exchange brokers for dealing between each other
17. FOREX MARKET - FEATURES
The Market Has No Physical Presence.
It Is The Largest Market On The Planet “ Earth ”.
It Is Mostly Speculative In Nature.
It Is A 24 – Hour Market.
According to the Bank for International Settlements,
the preliminary global results from the 2016
Triennial Central Bank Survey of Foreign Exchange
and OTC Derivatives Markets Activity show that
trading in foreign exchange markets averaged $5.1
trillion per day in April 2016.
18. FOREX MARKET - FEATURES
It Is A Market Connected By Advanced
Communication Channels Like S.W.I.F.T.
It Is An Extremely Active And Also An Unpredictable
The Market Is Truly Global As Trades Take Place
Most Deals Are On Spot Basis.
Deals Are Screen Based.
Market Is Volatile Because Of Floating Nature Of
19. SWIFT CODES
USD United States Dollar
INR Indian Rupee
JPY Japanese Yen
GBP Great Britain Pound
CHF Swiss Franc
20. FOREIGN CURRENCY ACCOUNTS
Nostro account is an account maintained by a bank
in India with a bank abroad i.e.S.B.I. may maintain
an account with Citi-Bank New York or with HSBC
in London ,for $ operations and £ operations
While corresponding with the Citi or HSBC SBI
would refer its account with former two as Nostro
account, means our account with you. All foreign
exchange transactions are routed through Nostro
21. FOREIGN CURRENCY ACCOUNTS
A foreign bank may open rupee account with an Indian
bank. while corresponding with the foreign bank
maintaining an account with it, the Indian bank would
refer to the account as Vostro account meaning your
account with us. Bank of Baharin and Kuwait may open
an account with State Bank of India and draw drafts on
On presentation of drafts, the Indian bank would pay to
the debit of the foreign bank’s account with it. For
exchange control purposes such accounts are known as
“nonresident bank accounts”
22. WHO DECIDES THE FOREIGN EXCHANGE RATE
A pegged, or fixed system, is one in which the exchange
rate is set and artificially maintained by the government.
The rate will be pegged to some other country's
currency, usually the U.S. dollar.
The rate will not fluctuate from day to day.A government
has to work to keep their pegged rate stable. Their
national bank must hold large reserves of foreign
currency to mitigate changes in supply and demand.
If a sudden demand for a currency were to drive up the
exchange rate, the national bank would have to release
enough of that currency into the market to meet the
demand. They can also buy up currency if low demand
is lowering exchange rates.
23. EXCHANGE RATES
Top 10 Jan 01, 2017 18:09
Indian Rupee 1.00 INR
US Dollar 67.954800
British Pound 83.837198
Australian Dollar 48.954638
Canadian Dollar 50.565446
Singapore Dollar 46.903121
Swiss Franc 66.663706
Malaysian Ringgit 15.153261
Japanese Yen 0.580232
Chinese Yuan Renminbi 9.785131