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Eng 1060 week 2

ENG

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Eng 1060 week 2

  1. 1. ENG 1060 English Composition (ADN) Session Two “The Research Paper” Longman P 465-541
  2. 2. Plan the Research Locating, Evaluating and Integrating Research Sources Longman - Chapter 19
  3. 3. Plan the Research Locating, Evaluating and Integrating Research Sources • Understand the Paper’s Boundaries – Identify the complete nature of the assignment • Clarify the paper’s requirements • Understand the paper’s overall purpose and audience Longman p 466-467
  4. 4. Plan the Research Locating, Evaluating and Integrating Research Sources • Understand Primary vs Secondary Research – Students conduct “secondary research” • Present a summary or opinion of facts that have already been documented – Research scientists conduct “primary research” • Present findings that are the result of clinical experimentation or that which is discovered by original investigation Longman p 467
  5. 5. Plan the Research Locating, Evaluating and Integrating Research Sources • Choose a General Subject – Remembering the restrictions of the assignment, identify the topic (or list of possible topics) for your research • Always take into consideration that selecting a topic is making a commitment to a topic for many hours and selecting a topic that does not completely interest you or one for which there is insufficient data, is a ticket to disaster. Longman p 467-468
  6. 6. Plan the Research Locating, Evaluating and Integrating Research Sources • Narrowing your topic is a crucial step: Longman p 468 Broad Topic Refined Topic Final Topic
  7. 7. Plan the Research Locating, Evaluating and Integrating Research Sources • Narrowing your topic is a crucial step: • “Physical Therapy” • “Pediatric Physical Therapy” • “Modalities within Pediatric Physical Therapy” • “Aquatic Pediatric Physical Therapy” • “Use of Aquatic Pediatric Physical Therapy in Treating Children with Integumentary (skin) Diseases” Longman p 468 Broad Topic Refined Topic Final Topic
  8. 8. Plan the Research Locating, Evaluating and Integrating Research Sources • Conduct Preliminary Research – Initial research to determine if the topic is: • Too broad – too much information • Too narrow – in sufficient information • On point with the direction that you envision Longman p 468-469
  9. 9. Plan the Research Locating, Evaluating and Integrating Research Sources • Identifying a Working Thesis – May offer your personal interpretation of research already conducted – May refine or extend other people’s theories or interpretations – May offer a viewpoint contrary to those expressed in most of your sources. Longman p 468-469
  10. 10. Plan the Research Locating, Evaluating and Integrating Research Sources May offer your personal interpretation of research already conducted “The purpose of this paper is to identify how effective aquatic therapy is when applied to infants with skin damaged by fire.” May refine or extend other people’s theories or interpretations “The purpose of this paper is to explore Dr. James Smith’s research in the use of aquatic therapy as a treatment for infants with skin damaged by fire.” May offer a viewpoint contrary to those expressed in most of your sources. “The purpose of this paper is to question the effectiveness of the use of aquatic therapy as a treatment for infants with skin damaged by fire.” Longman p 469-470 Identifying a Working Thesis
  11. 11. Plan the Research Locating, Evaluating and Integrating Research Sources • Committing to the Project – Before you begin the research project, make & commit to a schedule • Locate relevant resources • Gather data • Develop an outline • Write the first draft – get a “second opinion” • Revise the draft • Edit, print & proofread the paper • Submit your work Longman p 470
  12. 12. “Research Made Simple” A technique for collecting your information Outside Source
  13. 13. Beginning Your Research • The first step in researching a topic for a research paper is simple – Go to a store and buy a large pack of index cards!
  14. 14. Beginning Your Research • The second step in your research is to begin to gather your information using both sides of your index cards … Side one is where you will put the information – remember if you are copying exact words to use quotation marks to note this. Side two is where you will put the source of the information – we will detail how to document these in our next slide.
  15. 15. Documenting Your Research When collecting information, it is essential that you document where you found the material – this will be crucial when compiling your works cited page. Material from a periodical Barbour, Steven. “History Always Repeats Itself, and so do I.” Long Winded Quarterly. 8 Oct. 2007: 167-901. Material from a book Edkins, Brian. I Love Being Principal. Fayetteville: South View Publishing, 2008. Material from a video Sweeny Todd. Dir. Tim Burton. DVD. Fox Home Video. 2007. Material from the web Meece, Dawn. “I Married Johnny Depp.” Johnny Depp Lunatic. 25 Aug. 2004. 10 Oct. 2008 <http://johnnydepplunatic.com/2004/cra zygirl/html.>
  16. 16. Working Bibliography • A complete list of every source that you make reference to in your research • Citations should contain the following basic information: – Author’s name – Title of work – Publication information • Sources should be listed in alphabetical order • Use proper APA format for the final “Works Cited Page”
  17. 17. Sources for Helping You Gather Resources Outside Source
  18. 18. Sources for Helping You Gather Resources • Student Textbook – Pages 473 thru 506 provide a step-by-step resources for researching information for your topic from a variety of sources including books, periodicals and internet source • Stanbridge Learning Resource Center – Contact Scott Johnson for instructions on how to utilize Stanbridge’s variety of available physical and online resources
  19. 19. Gathering Information Summarizing , Paraphrasing, Direct Quotations and Plagiarism Outside Source
  20. 20. Summarizing • A Summary is a condensation of a larger work – You extract the essence of someone’s ideas and restate them in your own words. – Since a summary is in fact a “condensed version” of a longer work, the summary will be much shorter than the actual piece. – You must provide the source(s) for information you are summarizing. Longman p 502-504
  21. 21. Paraphrasing • A paraphrase is where you read someone’s words and capture the complete thought, but in your own words – Since in paraphrasing you express the complete thought, paraphrases should be roughly the same length as the original quote or idea. – You must provide the source(s) for information you are paraphrasing. Longman p 504-505
  22. 22. Direct Quotes • A direct quote is where you insert into your research someone’s exact words. – When stating something as a direct quote you may not alter the statement by any means. – You must provide the source(s) for information you are quoting directly. Longman p 501- 504
  23. 23. Plagiarism • Plagiarism occurs when a write borrows someone else’s ideas, facts or language but does not properly credit the source. • Not providing correct & detailed sources when summarizing or paraphrasing is plagiarism as is not providing sources for a direct quote • Not only is plagiarism unethical and possibly a violation of copyright laws, it also violates Stanbridge College’s policy on academic honesty. Longman p 500
  24. 24. Writing the Research Paper Longman Chapter 20
  25. 25. Initial Steps • Confirm your “Thesis” – Make sure that your thesis: • Answers the requirements of the assignment • Has been (is being) validated by your preliminary research • Can be supported by sufficient research Longman p 510 - 512
  26. 26. Organizing your Information • “Shuffle-up and Deal” • Simply this means organizing the cards containing your preliminary research by topic and noting where there are gaps that needed to be reinforced with additional information Longman p 512
  27. 27. Create a Preliminary (Rough) Outline I. Thesis Statement II. Main Topic a. Supporting information b. Supporting information III. Main Topic a. Supporting information b. Supporting information IV. Main Topic a. Supporting information b. Supporting information V. Conclusion An outline is a blueprint of the direction you want to take with your research assignment Note: you will probably have more instances of “main topics” & much more “supporting information” than is shown in this example Longman p 512-514
  28. 28. Write the First Draft • It is better to “over-write” the draft and then revise by elimination of redundant material • Remember to base your paper on the research you have found – the only place for original thought is is the conclusion. Longman p 514-515
  29. 29. A Statement of Form Understanding the MLA Style
  30. 30. A Statement of Style • For papers generated in all academic courses offered in degree programs, Stanbridge College has adopted the MLA Style as the guideline for all submissions. • The following information provides an introduction into this style • Additional resources may be found in pages 517-544 of the Longman Writer Longman p 517-544
  31. 31. Integrating Sources into Your Paper • As indicated previously, your paper will not contain an abundance of “original thoughts” – only during the introductions, transitions and conclusions will there be time for “original thoughts” – the rest of the paper will be from your research and therefore, must be accompanied by a reference to the source from which it was obtained. Longman p 516
  32. 32. What is MLA? MLA (Modern Language Association) style formatting is often used in various humanities disciplines.
  33. 33. What does MLA regulate? MLA regulates: •Document Format •In-text citations •Works Cited (a list of all sources used in the paper)
  34. 34. Format: General Guidelines • Type on white 8.5“ x 11“ paper • Double-space everything • Use 12 pt. Arial or Calibri font • Leave only one space after punctuation • Set all margins to 1 inch on all sides • Indent the first line of paragraphs one half-inch • Header with page numbers in the upper right corner • Use italics for titles • Endnotes go on a separate page before your Works Cited page
  35. 35. Formatting the 1st Page • No title page • Double space everything • In the upper left corner of the 1st page, list your • Name, your instructor's name, the course, and date • Center the paper title (use standard caps but no underlining, italics, quote, or bold) • Create a header in the upper right corner at half inch from the top and one inch from the right of the page (include your last name and page number)
  36. 36. Sample 1st Page
  37. 37. Formatting Section Headings • Headings are generally optional • Headings in essays should be numbered • Headings should be consistent in grammar and formatting but are otherwise up to you
  38. 38. In-Text Citations: the Basics • MLA uses parenthetical citations • Parenthetical citations depend on the medium (e.g. Print, Web, DVD) • Parenthetical citations also depend on the source’s entry on the Works Cited page • Signal word in the text is the first thing in the corresponding entry on the Works Cited page
  39. 39. Author-Page Style In-text Example: Romantic poetry is characterized by the “spontaneous overflow of powerful feelings” (Wordsworth 263). Wordsworth extensively explored the role of emotion in the creative process (263). Corresponding Works Cited Entry: Wordsworth, William. Lyrical Ballads. London: Oxford UP, 1967. Print.
  40. 40. Print Source with Author In-text Example: Human beings have been described by Kenneth Burke as “symbol-using animals” (3). Human beings have been described as “symbol-using animals” (Burke 3). Corresponding Works Cited Entry: Burke, Kenneth. Language as Symbolic Action: Essays on Life, Literature, and Method. Berkeley: U of California P, 1966. Print.
  41. 41. With Unknown Author In-text Example: We see so many global warming hotspots in North America likely because this region has “more readily accessible climatic data and more comprehensive programs to monitor and study environmental change . . .” (“Impact of Global Warming” 6). Corresponding Works Cited Entry: “The Impact of Global Warming in North America.” Global Warming: Early Signs. 1999. Web. 23 Mar. 2009.
  42. 42. Other In-Text Citations Classic & Literary Works with Multiple Editions - In-text Example: Marx and Engels described human history as marked by class struggles (79; ch. 1). Authors with Same Last Names - In-text Example: Although some medical ethicists claim that cloning will lead to designer children (R. Miller 12), others note that the advantages for medical research outweigh this consideration (A. Miller 46).
  43. 43. Other In-Text Citations Work by Multiple Authors In-text Examples: Smith, Yang, and Moore argue that tougher gun control is not needed in the United States (76). The authors state “Tighter gun control in the United States erodes Second Amendment rights“ (Smith, Yang, and Moore 76).
  44. 44. Other In-Text Citations Miscellaneous Non-Print Sources In-text Example: Werner Herzog's Fitzcarraldo stars Herzog's long-time film partner, Klaus Kinski. During the shooting of Fitzcarraldo, Herzog and Kinski were often at odds, but their explosive relationship fostered a memorable and influential film. Corresponding Works Cited Entry: Herzog, Werner, dir. Fitzcarraldo. Perf. Klaus Kinski. Filmverlag der Autoren, 1982. Film.
  45. 45. Other In-Text Citations Sources from the Internet In-text Example: One online film critic stated that Fitzcarraldo is “...a beautiful and terrifying critique of obsession and colonialism” (Garcia, “Herzog: a Life”). Corresponding Works Cited Entry: Garcia, Elizabeth. “Herzog: a Life.“ Online Film Critics Corner. The Film School of New Hampshire, 2 May 2002. Web. 8 Jan. 2009.
  46. 46. Formatting Short Quotations In-text Examples: According to some, dreams express “profound aspects of personality” (Foulkes 184), though others disagree. According to Foulkes's study, dreams may express “profound aspects of personality” (184). Is it possible that dreams may express “profound aspects of personality” (Foulkes 184)? Cullen concludes, “Of all the things that happened there / That's all I remember” (11- 12).
  47. 47. Formatting Long Quotations In-text Example: Nelly Dean treats Heathcliff poorly and dehumanizes him throughout her narration: They entirely refused to have it in bed with them, or even in their room, and I had no more sense, so, I put it on the landing of the stairs, hoping it would be gone on the morrow. By chance, or else attracted by hearing his voice, it crept to Mr. Earnshaw's door, and there he found it on quitting his chamber. Inquiries were made as to how it got there; I was obliged to confess, and in recompense for my cowardice and inhumanity was sent out of the house. (Bronte 78)
  48. 48. Works Cited Page: The Basics Sample Works Cited Page:
  49. 49. Works Cited Page: Books Basic Format: Lastname, Firstname. Title of Book. Place of Publication: Publisher, Year of Publication. Medium of Publication. Examples: Gleick, James. Chaos: Making a New Science. New York: Penguin, 1987. Print. Gillespie, Paula, and Neal Lerner. The Allyn and Bacon Guide to Peer Tutoring. Boston: Allyn, 2000. Print. Palmer, William J. Dickens and New Historicism. New York: St. Martin's, 1997. Print. ---. The Films of the Eighties: A Social History. Carbondale: Southern Illinois UP, 1993. Print.
  50. 50. Works Cited Page: Periodicals Article in Scholarly Journal Format Author(s). “Title of Article.” Title of Journal Volume. Issue (Year): pages. Medium of publication. Example: Duvall, John N. “The (Super)Marketplace of Images: Television as Unmediated Mediation in DeLillo's White Noise.” Arizona Quarterly 50.3 (1994): 127- 53. Print.
  51. 51. Works Cited Page: Periodicals Article in a Magazine Format Author(s). “Title of Article.” Title of Periodical Day Month Year: pages. Medium of publication. Example: Buchman, Dana. “A Special Education.” Good Housekeeping Mar. 2006: 143-8. Print.
  52. 52. Works Cited Page: Web Web Source Format: Editor, author, or compiler name (if available). “Article Name.” Name of Site. Version number. Name of institution/organization affiliated with the site (sponsor or publisher). Date of last update. Medium of publication. Date of access. Example: “How to Make Vegetarian Chili.” eHow.com. eHow. n.d. Web. 24 Feb. 2009.
  53. 53. Works Cited Page: Web Additional Examples: Bernstein, Mark. “10 Tips on Writing the Living Web.” A List Apart: For People Who Make Websites. A List Apart Mag., 16 Aug. 2002. Web. 4 May 2009. Felluga, Dino. Guide to Literary and Critical Theory. Purdue U, 28 Nov. 2003. Web. 10 May 2006.
  54. 54. Works Cited Page: Other Personal Interview Example: Purdue, Pete. Personal interview. 1 Dec. 2000. Speech Example: Stein, Bob. Computers and Writing Conference. Purdue University. Union Club Hotel, West Lafayette, IN. 23 May 2003. Keynote address.
  55. 55. Works Cited Page: Other Film Example: The Usual Suspects. Dir. Bryan Singer. Perf. Kevin Spacey, Gabriel Byrne, Chazz Palminteri, Stephen Baldwin, and Benecio del Toro. Polygram, 1995. Film.
  56. 56. Final Comments • Your textbook and the internet provide examples of complete term papers written in MLA style for your review • Your instructor and Scott Johnson (Stanbridge Librarian) are can be valuable resources while doing this project. • One final suggestion – most students who have difficulty writing a research do so because they procrastinated and fell behind their timeline – watch out for this pitfall.

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