Santrock essentials 3e_ppt_ch01

S
INTRODUCTION 
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1 
ESSENTIALS OF LIFE-SPAN 
DEVELOPMENT 
JOHN W. SANTROCK 
3e
CHAPTER OUTLINE 
• The life-span perspective 
• The nature of development 
• Theories of development 
• Research in life-span development 
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THE LIFE-SPAN PERSPECTIVE 
• The importance of studying life-span development 
• Characteristics of the life-span perspective 
• Contemporary concerns in life-span development 
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THE LIFE-SPAN PERSPECTIVE 
• Development: Pattern of movement or change that 
begins at conception and continues through the 
human life span 
• The importance of studying life-span development 
• Prepares us to take responsibility for children 
• Gives us insight about our own lives 
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THE LIFE-SPAN PERSPECTIVE 
• Characteristics of the life-span perspective 
• Life-span perspective: Views development as 
• Lifelong 
• Multidimensional 
• Multidirectional 
• Plastic 
• Multidisciplinary 
• Contextual 
• A process that involves growth, maintenance, and regulation of 
loss 
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TYPES OF CONTEXTUAL INFLUENCES 
• Normative age-graded influences: Similar for 
individuals in a particular age group 
• Normative history-graded influences: Common to 
people of a particular generation because of 
historical circumstances 
• Nonnormative life events: Unusual occurrences that 
have a major impact on an individual’s life 
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THE LIFE-SPAN PERSPECTIVE 
• Contemporary concerns in life-span development 
• Health and well-being 
• Parenting and education 
• Sociocultural contexts and diversity 
• Culture: Behavior patterns, beliefs, and all other products of a 
group that are passed on from generation to generation 
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THE LIFE-SPAN PERSPECTIVE 
• Cross- cultural studies: Comparison of one culture with one or 
more other cultures 
• Ethnicity: Based on cultural heritage, nationality characteristics, 
race, religion, and language 
• Socioeconomic status: Grouping of people with similar 
occupational, educational, and economic characteristics 
• Gender: Characteristics of people as males or females 
• Social policy: National government’s course of action 
designed to promote the welfare of its citizens 
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THE NATURE OF DEVELOPMENT 
• Biological, cognitive, and socioemotional processes 
• Periods of development 
• Conceptions of age 
• Developmental issues 
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BIOLOGICAL, COGNITIVE, AND 
SOCIOEMOTIONAL PROCESSES 
Biological processes 
•Changes in an individual’s physical nature 
Cognitive processes 
•Changes in an individual’s thought, intelligence, and 
language 
Socioemotional processes 
•Changes in an individual’s relationships with other people, 
emotions, and personality 
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BIOLOGICAL, COGNITIVE, AND 
SOCIOEMOTIONAL PROCESSES 
• Connecting biological, cognitive, and 
socioemotional processes 
• Connection is obvious in: 
• Developmental cognitive neuroscience - Explores links between 
development, cognitive processes, and the brain 
• Developmental social neuroscience - Examines connections 
between socioemotional processes, development, and the 
brain 
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FIGURE 1.4 - PROCESSES INVOLVED IN 
DEVELOPMENTAL CHANGES 
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PERIODS OF DEVELOPMENT 
• Conceptions of age 
• Four types of age 
• Chronological age 
• Biological age - Person’s age in terms of biological health 
• Psychological age - Individual’s adaptive capacities compared 
with those of other individuals of the same chronological age 
• Social age - Connectedness with others and the social roles 
individuals adopt 
• Age and happiness 
• Research revealed that happiness increased with age 
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PERIODS OF DEVELOPMENT 
• Developmental issues 
• Nature-nurture issue: Concerns the extent to which 
development is influenced by nature and by nurture 
• Nature - Organism’s biological inheritance 
• Nurture - Environmental experiences 
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DEVELOPMENTAL ISSUES 
• Stability-change issue: Involving the degree to which early 
traits and characteristics persist through life or change 
• Continuity-discontinuity issue: Focuses on the degree to 
which development involves either: 
• Gradual, cumulative change or distinct stages 
• Evaluating the developmental issues 
• Nature and nurture, stability and change, continuity and 
discontinuity characterize development throughout the human 
life span 
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THEORIES OF DEVELOPMENT 
• Psychoanalytic theories 
• Cognitive theories 
• Behavioral and social cognitive theories 
• Ethological theory 
• Ecological theory 
• An eclectic theoretical orientation 
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THEORIES OF DEVELOPMENT 
• Scientific method - A four-step process 
• Conceptualize a process or problem to be studied 
• Collect research information 
• Analyze data 
• Draw conclusions 
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THEORIES OF DEVELOPMENT 
• Theory: An interrelated, coherent set of ideas that 
helps to explain phenomena and facilitate 
predictions 
• Hypotheses: Specific assumptions and predictions 
that can be tested to determine their accuracy 
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THEORIES OF DEVELOPMENT 
• Psychoanalytic theories 
• Cognitive theories 
• Behavioral and social cognitive theories 
• Ethological theory 
• Ecological theory 
• An eclectic theoretical orientation 
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PSYCHOANALYTIC THEORIES 
• Describe development as primarily unconscious 
and heavily colored by emotion 
• Freud’s theory 
• Erikson’s psychosocial theory: Eight stages of development 
unfold as we go through life 
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FIGURE 1.6 - FREUDIAN STAGES 
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FIGURE 1.7 - ERIKSON’S EIGHT LIFE-SPAN 
STAGES 
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PSYCHOANALYTIC THEORIES 
• Evaluation 
• Emphasis on: 
• A developmental framework 
• Family relationships 
• Unconscious aspects of the mind 
• Criticisms 
• Lack of scientific support 
• Too much emphasis on sexual underpinnings 
• An image of people that is too negative 
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COGNITIVE THEORIES 
• Piaget’s cognitive developmental theory 
• Piaget’s theory: States that children go through four stages 
of cognitive development as they actively construct their 
understanding of the world 
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FIGURE 1.8 - PIAGET’S FOUR STAGES OF 
COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT 
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COGNITIVE THEORIES 
• Vygotsky’s sociocultural cognitive theory 
• Vygotsky’s theory: Emphasizes how culture and social 
interaction guide cognitive development 
• Information-processing theory: Emphasizes that 
individuals: 
• Manipulate information 
• Monitor it 
• Strategize about it 
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COGNITIVE THEORIES 
• Evaluation 
• Contributions 
• Positive view of development 
• Emphasis on the active construction of understanding 
• Criticisms 
• Skepticism about the pureness of Piaget’s stages 
• Little attention to individual variations 
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BEHAVIORAL AND SOCIAL COGNITIVE 
THEORIES 
• Development can be described in terms of 
behaviors learned through interactions with our 
surroundings 
• Skinner’s operant conditioning 
• Development consists of the pattern of behavioral changes that 
are brought about by rewards and punishments 
• Bandura’s social cognitive theory 
• Holds that behavior, environment, and person/cognitive factors 
are the key factors in development 
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FIGURE 1.9 - BANDURA’S SOCIAL 
COGNITIVE MODEL 
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BEHAVIORAL AND SOCIAL COGNITIVE 
THEORIES 
• Evaluation 
• Emphasis on: 
• Scientific research 
• Environmental determinants of behavior 
• Criticisms 
• Little emphasis on cognition in Skinner’s view 
• Inadequate attention paid to developmental changes 
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ETHOLOGICAL THEORY 
• Ethology: Study of the behavior of animals in their 
natural habitat 
• Theory stresses that behavior is: 
• Strongly influenced by biology 
• Tied to evolution 
• Characterized by critical or sensitive periods 
• Lorenz’s research with Greylag Geese 
• Konrad Lorenz helped bring ethology to prominence 
• John Bowlby - Attachment to a caregiver over the first year 
of life has important consequences throughout the life span 
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ETHOLOGICAL THEORY 
• Evaluation 
• Contributions include: 
• Focus on the biological and evolutionary basis of development 
• Use of careful observations in naturalistic settings 
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FIGURE 1.10 - BRONFENBRENNER’S 
ECOLOGICAL THEORY OF DEVELOPMENT 
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BRONFENBRENNER’S ECOLOGICAL 
THEORY 
• Evaluation 
• Contribustions include: 
• Systematic examination of macro and micro dimensions of 
environmental systems 
• Attention to connections between environmental systems 
• Emphasis on a range of social contexts beyond the family 
• Criticism 
• Giving inadequate attention to biological factors 
• Too little emphasis on cognitive factors 
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ECLECTIC THEORETICAL ORIENTATION 
• Does not follow any one theoretical approach 
• Selects from each theory whatever is considered the best in 
it 
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RESEARCH IN LIFE-SPAN 
DEVELOPMENT 
• Methods for collecting data 
• Research designs 
• Time span of research 
• Conducting ethical research 
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METHODS FOR COLLECTING DATA 
• Observation 
• Laboratory: Controlled setting in which many of the 
complex factors of the real world are removed 
• Naturalistic observation: Studies that involve observing 
behavior in real-world settings 
• Survey and interview 
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METHODS FOR COLLECTING DATA 
• Standardized test: Uniform procedures for 
administration and scoring 
• Case study: In-depth look at a single individual 
• Physiological measures 
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RESEARCH DESIGNS 
• Descriptive research: Designed to observe and 
record behavior 
• Correlational research: Describe the strength of the 
relationship between two or more events or 
characteristics 
• Correlation coefficient: A number based on statistical 
analysis that is used to describe the degree of association 
between two variables 
• Ranges from -1.00 to +1.00 
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RESEARCH DESIGNS 
• Experimental research 
• Experiment: One or more of the factors are manipulated 
while all other factors are held constant 
• Independent and dependent variables 
• Experimental and control groups 
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FIGURE 1.13 - PRINCIPLES OF 
EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH 
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TIME SPAN OF RESEARCH 
• Cross-sectional approach: Individuals of different 
ages are compared at one time 
• Longitudinal approach: Same individuals are 
studied over a period of time, usually several years 
or more 
• Cohort effects: Due to a person’s time of birth, era, 
or generation rather than the person’s actual age 
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CONDUCTING ETHICAL RESEARCH 
• American Psychological Association’s ethics 
guidelines that address: 
• Informed consent 
• Confidentiality 
• Debriefing 
• Deception 
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Santrock essentials 3e_ppt_ch01

  • 1. INTRODUCTION © 2014 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part. 1 ESSENTIALS OF LIFE-SPAN DEVELOPMENT JOHN W. SANTROCK 3e
  • 2. CHAPTER OUTLINE • The life-span perspective • The nature of development • Theories of development • Research in life-span development © 2014 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part. 1-2
  • 3. THE LIFE-SPAN PERSPECTIVE • The importance of studying life-span development • Characteristics of the life-span perspective • Contemporary concerns in life-span development © 2014 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part. 1-3
  • 4. THE LIFE-SPAN PERSPECTIVE • Development: Pattern of movement or change that begins at conception and continues through the human life span • The importance of studying life-span development • Prepares us to take responsibility for children • Gives us insight about our own lives © 2014 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part. 1-4
  • 5. THE LIFE-SPAN PERSPECTIVE • Characteristics of the life-span perspective • Life-span perspective: Views development as • Lifelong • Multidimensional • Multidirectional • Plastic • Multidisciplinary • Contextual • A process that involves growth, maintenance, and regulation of loss © 2014 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part. 1-5
  • 6. TYPES OF CONTEXTUAL INFLUENCES • Normative age-graded influences: Similar for individuals in a particular age group • Normative history-graded influences: Common to people of a particular generation because of historical circumstances • Nonnormative life events: Unusual occurrences that have a major impact on an individual’s life © 2014 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part. 1-6
  • 7. THE LIFE-SPAN PERSPECTIVE • Contemporary concerns in life-span development • Health and well-being • Parenting and education • Sociocultural contexts and diversity • Culture: Behavior patterns, beliefs, and all other products of a group that are passed on from generation to generation © 2014 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part. 1-7
  • 8. THE LIFE-SPAN PERSPECTIVE • Cross- cultural studies: Comparison of one culture with one or more other cultures • Ethnicity: Based on cultural heritage, nationality characteristics, race, religion, and language • Socioeconomic status: Grouping of people with similar occupational, educational, and economic characteristics • Gender: Characteristics of people as males or females • Social policy: National government’s course of action designed to promote the welfare of its citizens © 2014 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part. 1-8
  • 9. THE NATURE OF DEVELOPMENT • Biological, cognitive, and socioemotional processes • Periods of development • Conceptions of age • Developmental issues © 2014 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part. 1-9
  • 10. BIOLOGICAL, COGNITIVE, AND SOCIOEMOTIONAL PROCESSES Biological processes •Changes in an individual’s physical nature Cognitive processes •Changes in an individual’s thought, intelligence, and language Socioemotional processes •Changes in an individual’s relationships with other people, emotions, and personality © 2014 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part. 1-10
  • 11. BIOLOGICAL, COGNITIVE, AND SOCIOEMOTIONAL PROCESSES • Connecting biological, cognitive, and socioemotional processes • Connection is obvious in: • Developmental cognitive neuroscience - Explores links between development, cognitive processes, and the brain • Developmental social neuroscience - Examines connections between socioemotional processes, development, and the brain © 2014 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part. 1-11
  • 12. FIGURE 1.4 - PROCESSES INVOLVED IN DEVELOPMENTAL CHANGES © 2014 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part. 1-12
  • 13. PERIODS OF DEVELOPMENT • Conceptions of age • Four types of age • Chronological age • Biological age - Person’s age in terms of biological health • Psychological age - Individual’s adaptive capacities compared with those of other individuals of the same chronological age • Social age - Connectedness with others and the social roles individuals adopt • Age and happiness • Research revealed that happiness increased with age © 2014 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part. 1-13
  • 14. PERIODS OF DEVELOPMENT • Developmental issues • Nature-nurture issue: Concerns the extent to which development is influenced by nature and by nurture • Nature - Organism’s biological inheritance • Nurture - Environmental experiences © 2014 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part. 1-14
  • 15. DEVELOPMENTAL ISSUES • Stability-change issue: Involving the degree to which early traits and characteristics persist through life or change • Continuity-discontinuity issue: Focuses on the degree to which development involves either: • Gradual, cumulative change or distinct stages • Evaluating the developmental issues • Nature and nurture, stability and change, continuity and discontinuity characterize development throughout the human life span © 2014 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part. 1-15
  • 16. THEORIES OF DEVELOPMENT • Psychoanalytic theories • Cognitive theories • Behavioral and social cognitive theories • Ethological theory • Ecological theory • An eclectic theoretical orientation © 2014 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part. 1-16
  • 17. THEORIES OF DEVELOPMENT • Scientific method - A four-step process • Conceptualize a process or problem to be studied • Collect research information • Analyze data • Draw conclusions © 2014 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part. 1-17
  • 18. THEORIES OF DEVELOPMENT • Theory: An interrelated, coherent set of ideas that helps to explain phenomena and facilitate predictions • Hypotheses: Specific assumptions and predictions that can be tested to determine their accuracy © 2014 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part. 1-18
  • 19. THEORIES OF DEVELOPMENT • Psychoanalytic theories • Cognitive theories • Behavioral and social cognitive theories • Ethological theory • Ecological theory • An eclectic theoretical orientation © 2014 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part. 1-19
  • 20. PSYCHOANALYTIC THEORIES • Describe development as primarily unconscious and heavily colored by emotion • Freud’s theory • Erikson’s psychosocial theory: Eight stages of development unfold as we go through life © 2014 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part. 1-20
  • 21. FIGURE 1.6 - FREUDIAN STAGES © 2014 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part. 1-21
  • 22. FIGURE 1.7 - ERIKSON’S EIGHT LIFE-SPAN STAGES © 2014 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part. 1-22
  • 23. PSYCHOANALYTIC THEORIES • Evaluation • Emphasis on: • A developmental framework • Family relationships • Unconscious aspects of the mind • Criticisms • Lack of scientific support • Too much emphasis on sexual underpinnings • An image of people that is too negative © 2014 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part. 1-23
  • 24. COGNITIVE THEORIES • Piaget’s cognitive developmental theory • Piaget’s theory: States that children go through four stages of cognitive development as they actively construct their understanding of the world © 2014 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part. 1-24
  • 25. FIGURE 1.8 - PIAGET’S FOUR STAGES OF COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT © 2014 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part. 1-25
  • 26. COGNITIVE THEORIES • Vygotsky’s sociocultural cognitive theory • Vygotsky’s theory: Emphasizes how culture and social interaction guide cognitive development • Information-processing theory: Emphasizes that individuals: • Manipulate information • Monitor it • Strategize about it © 2014 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part. 1-26
  • 27. COGNITIVE THEORIES • Evaluation • Contributions • Positive view of development • Emphasis on the active construction of understanding • Criticisms • Skepticism about the pureness of Piaget’s stages • Little attention to individual variations © 2014 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part. 1-27
  • 28. BEHAVIORAL AND SOCIAL COGNITIVE THEORIES • Development can be described in terms of behaviors learned through interactions with our surroundings • Skinner’s operant conditioning • Development consists of the pattern of behavioral changes that are brought about by rewards and punishments • Bandura’s social cognitive theory • Holds that behavior, environment, and person/cognitive factors are the key factors in development © 2014 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part. 1-28
  • 29. FIGURE 1.9 - BANDURA’S SOCIAL COGNITIVE MODEL © 2014 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part. 1-29
  • 30. BEHAVIORAL AND SOCIAL COGNITIVE THEORIES • Evaluation • Emphasis on: • Scientific research • Environmental determinants of behavior • Criticisms • Little emphasis on cognition in Skinner’s view • Inadequate attention paid to developmental changes © 2014 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part. 1-30
  • 31. ETHOLOGICAL THEORY • Ethology: Study of the behavior of animals in their natural habitat • Theory stresses that behavior is: • Strongly influenced by biology • Tied to evolution • Characterized by critical or sensitive periods • Lorenz’s research with Greylag Geese • Konrad Lorenz helped bring ethology to prominence • John Bowlby - Attachment to a caregiver over the first year of life has important consequences throughout the life span © 2014 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part. 1-31
  • 32. ETHOLOGICAL THEORY • Evaluation • Contributions include: • Focus on the biological and evolutionary basis of development • Use of careful observations in naturalistic settings © 2014 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part. 1-32
  • 33. FIGURE 1.10 - BRONFENBRENNER’S ECOLOGICAL THEORY OF DEVELOPMENT © 2014 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part. 1-33
  • 34. BRONFENBRENNER’S ECOLOGICAL THEORY • Evaluation • Contribustions include: • Systematic examination of macro and micro dimensions of environmental systems • Attention to connections between environmental systems • Emphasis on a range of social contexts beyond the family • Criticism • Giving inadequate attention to biological factors • Too little emphasis on cognitive factors © 2014 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part. 1-34
  • 35. ECLECTIC THEORETICAL ORIENTATION • Does not follow any one theoretical approach • Selects from each theory whatever is considered the best in it © 2014 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part. 1-35
  • 36. RESEARCH IN LIFE-SPAN DEVELOPMENT • Methods for collecting data • Research designs • Time span of research • Conducting ethical research © 2014 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part. 1-36
  • 37. METHODS FOR COLLECTING DATA • Observation • Laboratory: Controlled setting in which many of the complex factors of the real world are removed • Naturalistic observation: Studies that involve observing behavior in real-world settings • Survey and interview © 2014 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part. 1-37
  • 38. METHODS FOR COLLECTING DATA • Standardized test: Uniform procedures for administration and scoring • Case study: In-depth look at a single individual • Physiological measures © 2014 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part. 1-38
  • 39. RESEARCH DESIGNS • Descriptive research: Designed to observe and record behavior • Correlational research: Describe the strength of the relationship between two or more events or characteristics • Correlation coefficient: A number based on statistical analysis that is used to describe the degree of association between two variables • Ranges from -1.00 to +1.00 © 2014 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part. 1-39
  • 40. RESEARCH DESIGNS • Experimental research • Experiment: One or more of the factors are manipulated while all other factors are held constant • Independent and dependent variables • Experimental and control groups © 2014 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part. 1-40
  • 41. FIGURE 1.13 - PRINCIPLES OF EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH © 2014 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part. 1-41
  • 42. TIME SPAN OF RESEARCH • Cross-sectional approach: Individuals of different ages are compared at one time • Longitudinal approach: Same individuals are studied over a period of time, usually several years or more • Cohort effects: Due to a person’s time of birth, era, or generation rather than the person’s actual age © 2014 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part. 1-42
  • 43. CONDUCTING ETHICAL RESEARCH • American Psychological Association’s ethics guidelines that address: • Informed consent • Confidentiality • Debriefing • Deception © 2014 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part. 1-43