Santrock essentials4e ppt_ch06

S
© 2015 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner.
This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.
SOCIOEMOTIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN EARLY CHILDHOOD
6
ESSENTIALS OF LIFE-SPAN
DEVELOPMENT
JOHN W. SANTROCK
4e
© 2015 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner.
This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.
6-2
CHAPTER OUTLINE
• Emotional and personality development
• Families
• Peer relations, play, and television
© 2015 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner.
This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.
6-3
EMOTIONAL AND PERSONALITY
DEVELOPMENT
• Initiative versus guilt
• Children use their perceptual, motor, cognitive, and language skills to
make things happen
• On their own initiative, children move out into a wider social world
• The great governor of initiative is conscience
• Initiative and enthusiasm may results in rewards or in guilt, which
lowers self-esteem
© 2015 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner.
This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.
6-4
EMOTIONAL AND PERSONALITY
DEVELOPMENT
• Self-understanding and understanding others
• Increased awareness reflects young children’s expanding psychological
sophistication
• Self-understanding: Substance and content of self-conceptions
• Involves self-recognition
• Physical and material attributes, physical activities are central components of
the self
• Unrealistically positive self-descriptions
© 2015 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner.
This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.
6-5
EMOTIONAL AND PERSONALITY
DEVELOPMENT
• Understanding others
• Theory of mind includes understanding that others have emotions and
desires
• Start perceiving others in terms of psychological traits
• Gain understanding that people don’t always give accurate reports of their
beliefs
• Young children are not as egocentric as depicted in Piaget’s theory
• Socially sensitive and perceptive
• Parents and teachers can help to understand and interact with social world
© 2015 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner.
This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.
6-6
EMOTIONAL AND PERSONALITY
DEVELOPMENT
• Expressing emotions
• Self-conscious emotions - Pride, shame, embarrassment, and guilt
• These emotions do not appear until self-awareness develops
• Emotions such as pride and guilt become more common
• Influenced by parents’ responses to children’s behavior
© 2015 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner.
This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.
6-7
EMOTIONAL AND PERSONALITY
DEVELOPMENT
• Understanding emotions
• Understanding emotion is linked to an increase in prosocial behavior
• Increase in number of terms used to describe emotions
• Increased ability to reflect on emotions
• Begin to understand that the same event can elicit different feelings in
different people
• By age 5, most children show growing awareness of need to manage
emotions according to social standards
© 2015 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner.
This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.
6-8
EMOTIONAL AND PERSONALITY
DEVELOPMENT
• Regulating emotions
• Growth of emotional regulation as central to social competence
• Parents play an important role in helping children regulate emotions
• Emotion-coaching approach: monitor emotions, negative emotions as a
teaching opportunity, coaching in how to deal effectively with emotions
• Emotion-dismissing approach: Deny, ignore, or change negative emotions
© 2015 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner.
This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.
6-9
EMOTIONAL AND PERSONALITY
DEVELOPMENT
• Moral development
• Thoughts, feelings, and behaviors regarding rules and conventions
about what people should do in their interactions with other people
• Moral feelings
• Feelings of anxiety and guilt are central to the account of moral
development
• Advancing children’s moral development:
• Learning how to identify a wide range of emotional states in others
• Anticipate what kinds of action will improve another person’s emotional
state
© 2015 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner.
This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.
6-10
EMOTIONAL AND PERSONALITY
DEVELOPMENT
• Moral reasoning
• Heteronomous morality: Think of justice and rules as unchangeable
properties, removed from the control of people
• Autonomous morality: Become aware that rules and laws are created
by people
• In judging an action, considers intentions as well as consequences
• Immanent justice: Concept that if a rule is broken, punishment will be
meted out immediately
• Parent-child relations, in which parents have the power, are less likely
to advance moral reasoning
• Rules are often handed down in an authoritarian manner
© 2015 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner.
This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.
6-11
EMOTIONAL AND PERSONALITY
DEVELOPMENT
• Moral behavior
• Processes of reinforcement, punishment, and imitation explain the
development of moral behavior
• Situation influences behavior
• Cognitive factors are important in the child’s development of self-
control
• Ability to resist temptation
• Learning to delay gratification
© 2015 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner.
This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.
6-12
EMOTIONAL AND PERSONALITY
DEVELOPMENT
• Gender
• Gender identity: Sense of being male or female
• Gender roles: Sets of expectations that prescribe how females or males
should think, act, and feel
• Children increasingly act in ways that match their culture’s gender roles
© 2015 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner.
This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.
6-13
EMOTIONAL AND PERSONALITY
DEVELOPMENT
• Social theories of gender
• Social role theory: Gender differences result from the contrasting roles
of women and men
• Psychoanalytic theory: Preschool child develops a sexual attraction to
the opposite-sex parent
• Social cognitive theory: Children’s gender development occurs through
observation and imitation of what other people say and do
© 2015 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner.
This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.
6-14
EMOTIONAL AND PERSONALITY
DEVELOPMENT
• Parental influences
• Mothers’ socialization strategies
• Socialize daughters to be more obedient and responsible than sons
• Place more restrictions on daughters’ autonomy
• Fathers’ socialization strategies
• Show more attention to sons than daughters
• Engage in more activities with sons
• Put forth more effort into sons’ intellectual development
© 2015 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner.
This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.
6-15
EMOTIONAL AND PERSONALITY
DEVELOPMENT
• Peer influences
• Peers respond to, model, reward and punish gender behavior
• Gender molds aspects of peer relations
• Composition of children’s groups
• Group size
• Interaction in same-sex groups
• Cognitive influences
• Gender schema theory: Gender typing emerges as children gradually
develop gender schemas of what is gender-appropriate and gender-
inappropriate in their culture
© 2015 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner.
This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.
6-16
FAMILIES
• Baumrind’s parenting styles
• Authoritarian parenting: Restrictive, punitive style in which parents
exhort the child to follow their directions and respect their work and
effort
• Authoritative parenting: Encourages children to be independent but
still places limits and controls on their actions
• Neglectful parenting: Parent is uninvolved in the child’s life
• Indulgent parenting: Parents are highly involved with their children
but place few demands or controls on them
© 2015 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner.
This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.
6-17
FIGURE 6.2 – CLASSIFICATION OF
PARENTING STYLES
© 2015 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner.
This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.
6-18
FAMILIES
• Parenting styles in context
• Authoritative parenting conveys the most benefits to the child and to the
family as a whole
• Punishment
• Corporal punishment linked to lower levels of moral internalization and
mental health
• Handle misbehavior by reasoning with the child, especially explaining
the consequences of the child’s actions for others
• Coparenting
• Support that parents give each other in raising a child
© 2015 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner.
This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.
6-19
FIGURE 6.3 – CORPORAL PUNISHMENT IN
DIFFERENT COUNTRIES
© 2015 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner.
This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.
6-20
FAMILIES
• Types of child maltreatment
• Physical abuse
• Child neglect
• Sexual abuse
• Emotional abuse
• Context of abuse
• No single factor causes child maltreatment
• About ⅓ of parents who were abused themselves go on to abuse their
own children
© 2015 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner.
This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.
6-21
FAMILIES
• Developmental consequences of abuse
• Poor emotional regulation
• Attachment problems
• Problems in peer relations
• Difficulty in adapting to school
• Other psychological problems (depression, delinquency, etc.)
© 2015 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner.
This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.
6-22
FAMILIES
• Sibling relationships
• Important characteristics:
• Emotional quality of the relationship
• Familiarity and intimacy of the relationship
• Variation in sibling relationships
• Birth order
• Whether a child has older or younger siblings has been linked to
development of certain personality characteristics
• Birth order has limited ability to predict behavior
© 2015 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner.
This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.
6-23
FAMILIES
• Working parents
• Maternal employment is part of modern life, but effects are debated
• Employment can have positive and negative effects on parenting
• Nature of parents’ work matters for child development
© 2015 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner.
This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.
6-24
FAMILIES
• Children in divorced families
• Children from divorced families show poorer adjustment than their
counterparts in never-divorced families
• Many of the problems experienced by children from divorced homes
begin during the predivorce period
• Frequent visits by the noncustodial parent usually benefit the child
• Children with a difficult temperament often have problems in coping
with their parents’ divorce
• Income loss for divorced mothers is accompanied by increased
workloads, high rates of job instability, and residential moves
© 2015 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner.
This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.
6-25
FAMILIES
• Gay male and lesbian parents
• Most children from gay or lesbian families have a heterosexual
orientation
• Few differences found between children raised with same-sex or
heterosexual parents
© 2015 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner.
This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.
6-26
FAMILIES
• Cultural, ethnic, and socioeconomic variations
• Trends toward greater family mobility, migration to urban areas, family
separation, smaller families, fewer extended families, increase in
maternal employment
• Large and extended families more common among minority groups
• Single-parent families more common among African American and
Latino families
• Limited resources of time, money, and energy
• Dramatic increase in immigration of Latino and Asian families into the
United States
© 2015 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner.
This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.
6-27
FAMILIES
• Lower-SES parents
• Less access to resources than higher-income families
• Nutrition, health care, protection from danger, enriching educational and
socialization opportunities
• Variation in child-rearing practices according to SES in United States
© 2015 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner.
This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.
6-28
PEER RELATIONS, PLAY, AND
MEDIA/SCREEN TIME
• Peer relations
• Peers – children of the same age or maturity level
• Provide a source of information and comparison about the world outside the
family
• With age, children spend an increasing amount of time with peers
• Good peer relations can be necessary for normal socioemotional
development
© 2015 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner.
This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.
6-29
PEER RELATIONS, PLAY, AND
MEDIA/SCREEN TIME
• Play
• Makes important contributions to children’s cognitive and
socioemotional development
• Play therapy used to allow the child to work off frustrations and to
analyze the child’s conflicts and ways of coping with them
• Play as exciting, pleasurable, satisfies exploratory drive
• Important context for the development of language and communication
skills
© 2015 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner.
This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.
6-30
PEER RELATIONS, PLAY, AND
MEDIA/SCREEN TIME
• Types of play
• Sensorimotor
• Practice
• Pretense/symbolic
• Social
• Constructive
• Games: Activities that are engaged in for pleasure and have rules
• Trends in play
• Decline in the amount of free play experienced by young children in recent
decades
• Restrictions at home and school
© 2015 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner.
This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.
6-31
PEER RELATIONS, PLAY, AND
MEDIA/SCREEN TIME
• Media/Screen Time
• Screen time – Time spent watching/using television, DVDs, computers,
video games, mobile media
• Special concerns for too much screen time
• Many children spend more time with various screen media than with parents
• Negative influences – creating passive learners, homework distractions,
violent models of aggression, unrealistic views of the world
• Screen time linked with decreased play, reduced physical activity,
overweight/obesity, poor sleep habits, higher rates of aggression
1 sur 31

Recommandé

Santrock essentials4e ppt_ch04 par
Santrock essentials4e ppt_ch04Santrock essentials4e ppt_ch04
Santrock essentials4e ppt_ch04stanbridge
497 vues32 diapositives
Santrock essentials4e ppt_ch09 par
Santrock essentials4e ppt_ch09Santrock essentials4e ppt_ch09
Santrock essentials4e ppt_ch09stanbridge
751 vues27 diapositives
Santrock essentials4e ppt_ch01 par
Santrock essentials4e ppt_ch01Santrock essentials4e ppt_ch01
Santrock essentials4e ppt_ch01stanbridge
501 vues36 diapositives
Santrock essentials 3e_ppt_ch06 par
Santrock essentials 3e_ppt_ch06Santrock essentials 3e_ppt_ch06
Santrock essentials 3e_ppt_ch06stanbridge
1K vues29 diapositives
Santrock essentials 3e_ppt_ch07 par
Santrock essentials 3e_ppt_ch07Santrock essentials 3e_ppt_ch07
Santrock essentials 3e_ppt_ch07stanbridge
801 vues41 diapositives
Santrock essentials4e ppt_ch07 par
Santrock essentials4e ppt_ch07Santrock essentials4e ppt_ch07
Santrock essentials4e ppt_ch07stanbridge
318 vues33 diapositives

Contenu connexe

Tendances

Santrock essentials4e ppt_ch03 par
Santrock essentials4e ppt_ch03Santrock essentials4e ppt_ch03
Santrock essentials4e ppt_ch03stanbridge
1.1K vues55 diapositives
Santrock essentials4e ppt_ch10 par
Santrock essentials4e ppt_ch10Santrock essentials4e ppt_ch10
Santrock essentials4e ppt_ch10stanbridge
452 vues24 diapositives
Santrock essentials4e ppt_ch08 par
Santrock essentials4e ppt_ch08Santrock essentials4e ppt_ch08
Santrock essentials4e ppt_ch08stanbridge
572 vues27 diapositives
Santrock essentials 3e_ppt_ch08 par
Santrock essentials 3e_ppt_ch08Santrock essentials 3e_ppt_ch08
Santrock essentials 3e_ppt_ch08stanbridge
634 vues35 diapositives
Santrock essentials 3e_ppt_ch15 par
Santrock essentials 3e_ppt_ch15Santrock essentials 3e_ppt_ch15
Santrock essentials 3e_ppt_ch15stanbridge
1.3K vues49 diapositives
Santrock essentials 3e_ppt_ch03 par
Santrock essentials 3e_ppt_ch03Santrock essentials 3e_ppt_ch03
Santrock essentials 3e_ppt_ch03stanbridge
1.7K vues65 diapositives

Tendances(19)

Santrock essentials4e ppt_ch03 par stanbridge
Santrock essentials4e ppt_ch03Santrock essentials4e ppt_ch03
Santrock essentials4e ppt_ch03
stanbridge1.1K vues
Santrock essentials4e ppt_ch10 par stanbridge
Santrock essentials4e ppt_ch10Santrock essentials4e ppt_ch10
Santrock essentials4e ppt_ch10
stanbridge452 vues
Santrock essentials4e ppt_ch08 par stanbridge
Santrock essentials4e ppt_ch08Santrock essentials4e ppt_ch08
Santrock essentials4e ppt_ch08
stanbridge572 vues
Santrock essentials 3e_ppt_ch08 par stanbridge
Santrock essentials 3e_ppt_ch08Santrock essentials 3e_ppt_ch08
Santrock essentials 3e_ppt_ch08
stanbridge634 vues
Santrock essentials 3e_ppt_ch15 par stanbridge
Santrock essentials 3e_ppt_ch15Santrock essentials 3e_ppt_ch15
Santrock essentials 3e_ppt_ch15
stanbridge1.3K vues
Santrock essentials 3e_ppt_ch03 par stanbridge
Santrock essentials 3e_ppt_ch03Santrock essentials 3e_ppt_ch03
Santrock essentials 3e_ppt_ch03
stanbridge1.7K vues
Santrock essentials4e ppt_ch16 par stanbridge
Santrock essentials4e ppt_ch16Santrock essentials4e ppt_ch16
Santrock essentials4e ppt_ch16
stanbridge551 vues
Santrock essentials4e ppt_ch11 par stanbridge
Santrock essentials4e ppt_ch11Santrock essentials4e ppt_ch11
Santrock essentials4e ppt_ch11
stanbridge267 vues
Santrock essentials 3e_ppt_ch02 par stanbridge
Santrock essentials 3e_ppt_ch02Santrock essentials 3e_ppt_ch02
Santrock essentials 3e_ppt_ch02
stanbridge2.1K vues
Santrock essentials4e ppt_ch02 (1) par stanbridge
Santrock essentials4e ppt_ch02 (1)Santrock essentials4e ppt_ch02 (1)
Santrock essentials4e ppt_ch02 (1)
stanbridge755 vues
Santrock essentials 3e_ppt_ch04 par stanbridge
Santrock essentials 3e_ppt_ch04Santrock essentials 3e_ppt_ch04
Santrock essentials 3e_ppt_ch04
stanbridge987 vues
Santrock essentials 3e_ppt_ch09 par stanbridge
Santrock essentials 3e_ppt_ch09Santrock essentials 3e_ppt_ch09
Santrock essentials 3e_ppt_ch09
stanbridge258 vues
Santrock essentials 3e_ppt_ch01 par stanbridge
Santrock essentials 3e_ppt_ch01Santrock essentials 3e_ppt_ch01
Santrock essentials 3e_ppt_ch01
stanbridge2.6K vues
Santrock essentials4e ppt_ch14 par stanbridge
Santrock essentials4e ppt_ch14Santrock essentials4e ppt_ch14
Santrock essentials4e ppt_ch14
stanbridge335 vues
Santrock essentials4e ppt_ch15 par stanbridge
Santrock essentials4e ppt_ch15Santrock essentials4e ppt_ch15
Santrock essentials4e ppt_ch15
stanbridge804 vues
Santrock essentials 3e_ppt_ch10 par stanbridge
Santrock essentials 3e_ppt_ch10Santrock essentials 3e_ppt_ch10
Santrock essentials 3e_ppt_ch10
stanbridge778 vues
Santrock essentials 3e_ppt_ch11 par stanbridge
Santrock essentials 3e_ppt_ch11Santrock essentials 3e_ppt_ch11
Santrock essentials 3e_ppt_ch11
stanbridge479 vues
Santrock essentials4e ppt_ch17 par stanbridge
Santrock essentials4e ppt_ch17Santrock essentials4e ppt_ch17
Santrock essentials4e ppt_ch17
stanbridge287 vues
Santrock essentials4e ppt_ch13 par stanbridge
Santrock essentials4e ppt_ch13Santrock essentials4e ppt_ch13
Santrock essentials4e ppt_ch13
stanbridge230 vues

En vedette

Santrock essentials 3e_ppt_ch04 par
Santrock essentials 3e_ppt_ch04Santrock essentials 3e_ppt_ch04
Santrock essentials 3e_ppt_ch04stanbridge
549 vues28 diapositives
Reflections on Adolescent Development par
Reflections on Adolescent DevelopmentReflections on Adolescent Development
Reflections on Adolescent DevelopmentNatalie Harvey
16.9K vues3 diapositives
Santrock lsd14e ppt_ch8 par
Santrock lsd14e ppt_ch8Santrock lsd14e ppt_ch8
Santrock lsd14e ppt_ch8TheSlaps
1.5K vues31 diapositives
Santrock essentials4e ppt_ch06 par
Santrock essentials4e ppt_ch06Santrock essentials4e ppt_ch06
Santrock essentials4e ppt_ch06stanbridge
323 vues31 diapositives
Chapters 7 and 8 life span development.pptx par
Chapters 7 and 8   life span development.pptxChapters 7 and 8   life span development.pptx
Chapters 7 and 8 life span development.pptxwindleh
17.2K vues44 diapositives
Chapter 7 outline par
Chapter 7 outlineChapter 7 outline
Chapter 7 outlinejhoegh
18.6K vues9 diapositives

En vedette(8)

Santrock essentials 3e_ppt_ch04 par stanbridge
Santrock essentials 3e_ppt_ch04Santrock essentials 3e_ppt_ch04
Santrock essentials 3e_ppt_ch04
stanbridge549 vues
Reflections on Adolescent Development par Natalie Harvey
Reflections on Adolescent DevelopmentReflections on Adolescent Development
Reflections on Adolescent Development
Natalie Harvey16.9K vues
Santrock lsd14e ppt_ch8 par TheSlaps
Santrock lsd14e ppt_ch8Santrock lsd14e ppt_ch8
Santrock lsd14e ppt_ch8
TheSlaps1.5K vues
Santrock essentials4e ppt_ch06 par stanbridge
Santrock essentials4e ppt_ch06Santrock essentials4e ppt_ch06
Santrock essentials4e ppt_ch06
stanbridge323 vues
Chapters 7 and 8 life span development.pptx par windleh
Chapters 7 and 8   life span development.pptxChapters 7 and 8   life span development.pptx
Chapters 7 and 8 life span development.pptx
windleh17.2K vues
Chapter 7 outline par jhoegh
Chapter 7 outlineChapter 7 outline
Chapter 7 outline
jhoegh18.6K vues
What is Occupational Therapy? Inservice par stanbridge
What is Occupational Therapy? InserviceWhat is Occupational Therapy? Inservice
What is Occupational Therapy? Inservice
stanbridge4.2K vues
Bowlby's theory of attachment par Preethi Balan
Bowlby's theory of attachmentBowlby's theory of attachment
Bowlby's theory of attachment
Preethi Balan476K vues

Similaire à Santrock essentials4e ppt_ch06

Santrock lsd14e ppt_ch10 par
Santrock lsd14e ppt_ch10Santrock lsd14e ppt_ch10
Santrock lsd14e ppt_ch10TheSlaps
1.4K vues37 diapositives
Santrock lsd14e ppt_ch6 par
Santrock lsd14e ppt_ch6Santrock lsd14e ppt_ch6
Santrock lsd14e ppt_ch6TheSlaps
1.4K vues36 diapositives
ch 10 par
ch 10ch 10
ch 10Rebecca Miller-McGrath
306 vues32 diapositives
Santrock essentials5e ppt_ch06 par
Santrock essentials5e ppt_ch06Santrock essentials5e ppt_ch06
Santrock essentials5e ppt_ch06watsonh
283 vues31 diapositives
Santrock lsd14e ppt_ch12 par
Santrock lsd14e ppt_ch12Santrock lsd14e ppt_ch12
Santrock lsd14e ppt_ch12TheSlaps
1.6K vues34 diapositives
Santrock essentials5e ppt_ch08 par
Santrock essentials5e ppt_ch08Santrock essentials5e ppt_ch08
Santrock essentials5e ppt_ch08watsonh
281 vues27 diapositives

Similaire à Santrock essentials4e ppt_ch06(19)

Santrock lsd14e ppt_ch10 par TheSlaps
Santrock lsd14e ppt_ch10Santrock lsd14e ppt_ch10
Santrock lsd14e ppt_ch10
TheSlaps1.4K vues
Santrock lsd14e ppt_ch6 par TheSlaps
Santrock lsd14e ppt_ch6Santrock lsd14e ppt_ch6
Santrock lsd14e ppt_ch6
TheSlaps1.4K vues
Santrock essentials5e ppt_ch06 par watsonh
Santrock essentials5e ppt_ch06Santrock essentials5e ppt_ch06
Santrock essentials5e ppt_ch06
watsonh283 vues
Santrock lsd14e ppt_ch12 par TheSlaps
Santrock lsd14e ppt_ch12Santrock lsd14e ppt_ch12
Santrock lsd14e ppt_ch12
TheSlaps1.6K vues
Santrock essentials5e ppt_ch08 par watsonh
Santrock essentials5e ppt_ch08Santrock essentials5e ppt_ch08
Santrock essentials5e ppt_ch08
watsonh281 vues
Santrock essentials 3e_ppt_ch16 par stanbridge
Santrock essentials 3e_ppt_ch16Santrock essentials 3e_ppt_ch16
Santrock essentials 3e_ppt_ch16
stanbridge451 vues
Santrock lsd14e ppt_ch1 par TheSlaps
Santrock lsd14e ppt_ch1Santrock lsd14e ppt_ch1
Santrock lsd14e ppt_ch1
TheSlaps2.8K vues
Santrock essentials 3e_ppt_ch01 par stanbridge
Santrock essentials 3e_ppt_ch01Santrock essentials 3e_ppt_ch01
Santrock essentials 3e_ppt_ch01
stanbridge937 vues
Santrock lsd14e ppt_ch5 par TheSlaps
Santrock lsd14e ppt_ch5Santrock lsd14e ppt_ch5
Santrock lsd14e ppt_ch5
TheSlaps6.1K vues
Santrock essentials5e ppt_ch04 par watsonh
Santrock essentials5e ppt_ch04Santrock essentials5e ppt_ch04
Santrock essentials5e ppt_ch04
watsonh236 vues
Topic 7 c4 leader as individual par LawrenceShia
Topic 7 c4 leader as individual Topic 7 c4 leader as individual
Topic 7 c4 leader as individual
LawrenceShia26 vues
Santrock essentials 3e_ppt_ch14 par stanbridge
Santrock essentials 3e_ppt_ch14Santrock essentials 3e_ppt_ch14
Santrock essentials 3e_ppt_ch14
stanbridge853 vues
Santrock lsd14e ppt_ch14 par TheSlaps
Santrock lsd14e ppt_ch14Santrock lsd14e ppt_ch14
Santrock lsd14e ppt_ch14
TheSlaps3.8K vues
Santrock essentials4e ppt_ch12 par stanbridge
Santrock essentials4e ppt_ch12Santrock essentials4e ppt_ch12
Santrock essentials4e ppt_ch12
stanbridge355 vues
Santrock 16e ch08_accessible par lightdark13
Santrock 16e ch08_accessibleSantrock 16e ch08_accessible
Santrock 16e ch08_accessible
lightdark1335 vues
Santrock essentials5e ppt_ch10 par watsonh
Santrock essentials5e ppt_ch10Santrock essentials5e ppt_ch10
Santrock essentials5e ppt_ch10
watsonh321 vues

Plus de stanbridge

Micro Lab 3 Lecture par
Micro Lab 3 LectureMicro Lab 3 Lecture
Micro Lab 3 Lecturestanbridge
5.8K vues43 diapositives
Creating a poster v2 par
Creating a poster v2Creating a poster v2
Creating a poster v2stanbridge
866 vues8 diapositives
Creating a poster par
Creating a posterCreating a poster
Creating a posterstanbridge
602 vues8 diapositives
Sample poster par
Sample posterSample poster
Sample posterstanbridge
484 vues1 diapositive
OT 5018 Thesis Dissemination par
OT 5018 Thesis DisseminationOT 5018 Thesis Dissemination
OT 5018 Thesis Disseminationstanbridge
383 vues6 diapositives
Ot5101 005 week 5 par
Ot5101 005 week 5Ot5101 005 week 5
Ot5101 005 week 5stanbridge
512 vues20 diapositives

Plus de stanbridge(20)

Micro Lab 3 Lecture par stanbridge
Micro Lab 3 LectureMicro Lab 3 Lecture
Micro Lab 3 Lecture
stanbridge5.8K vues
Creating a poster v2 par stanbridge
Creating a poster v2Creating a poster v2
Creating a poster v2
stanbridge866 vues
Creating a poster par stanbridge
Creating a posterCreating a poster
Creating a poster
stanbridge602 vues
OT 5018 Thesis Dissemination par stanbridge
OT 5018 Thesis DisseminationOT 5018 Thesis Dissemination
OT 5018 Thesis Dissemination
stanbridge383 vues
Ot5101 005 week 5 par stanbridge
Ot5101 005 week 5Ot5101 005 week 5
Ot5101 005 week 5
stanbridge512 vues
Compliance, motivation, and health behaviors par stanbridge
Compliance, motivation, and health behaviors Compliance, motivation, and health behaviors
Compliance, motivation, and health behaviors
stanbridge4.4K vues
Ch 5 developmental stages of the learner par stanbridge
Ch 5   developmental stages of the learnerCh 5   developmental stages of the learner
Ch 5 developmental stages of the learner
stanbridge13.5K vues
OT 5101 week2 theory policy par stanbridge
OT 5101 week2 theory policyOT 5101 week2 theory policy
OT 5101 week2 theory policy
stanbridge188 vues
OT 5101 week3 planning needs assessment par stanbridge
OT 5101 week3 planning needs assessmentOT 5101 week3 planning needs assessment
OT 5101 week3 planning needs assessment
stanbridge319 vues
NUR 304 Chapter005 par stanbridge
NUR 304 Chapter005NUR 304 Chapter005
NUR 304 Chapter005
stanbridge692 vues
NUR 3043 Chapter007 par stanbridge
NUR 3043 Chapter007NUR 3043 Chapter007
NUR 3043 Chapter007
stanbridge1.4K vues
NUR 3043 Chapter006 par stanbridge
NUR 3043 Chapter006NUR 3043 Chapter006
NUR 3043 Chapter006
stanbridge475 vues
NUR 3043 Chapter004 par stanbridge
NUR 3043 Chapter004NUR 3043 Chapter004
NUR 3043 Chapter004
stanbridge477 vues
Melnyk ppt chapter_21 par stanbridge
Melnyk ppt chapter_21Melnyk ppt chapter_21
Melnyk ppt chapter_21
stanbridge332 vues
Melnyk ppt chapter_22 par stanbridge
Melnyk ppt chapter_22Melnyk ppt chapter_22
Melnyk ppt chapter_22
stanbridge765 vues

Dernier

Narration lesson plan.docx par
Narration lesson plan.docxNarration lesson plan.docx
Narration lesson plan.docxTARIQ KHAN
99 vues11 diapositives
The basics - information, data, technology and systems.pdf par
The basics - information, data, technology and systems.pdfThe basics - information, data, technology and systems.pdf
The basics - information, data, technology and systems.pdfJonathanCovena1
77 vues1 diapositive
Education and Diversity.pptx par
Education and Diversity.pptxEducation and Diversity.pptx
Education and Diversity.pptxDrHafizKosar
107 vues16 diapositives
Student Voice par
Student Voice Student Voice
Student Voice Pooky Knightsmith
148 vues33 diapositives
DU Oral Examination Toni Santamaria par
DU Oral Examination Toni SantamariaDU Oral Examination Toni Santamaria
DU Oral Examination Toni SantamariaMIPLM
138 vues2 diapositives

Dernier(20)

Narration lesson plan.docx par TARIQ KHAN
Narration lesson plan.docxNarration lesson plan.docx
Narration lesson plan.docx
TARIQ KHAN99 vues
The basics - information, data, technology and systems.pdf par JonathanCovena1
The basics - information, data, technology and systems.pdfThe basics - information, data, technology and systems.pdf
The basics - information, data, technology and systems.pdf
JonathanCovena177 vues
Education and Diversity.pptx par DrHafizKosar
Education and Diversity.pptxEducation and Diversity.pptx
Education and Diversity.pptx
DrHafizKosar107 vues
DU Oral Examination Toni Santamaria par MIPLM
DU Oral Examination Toni SantamariaDU Oral Examination Toni Santamaria
DU Oral Examination Toni Santamaria
MIPLM138 vues
Lecture: Open Innovation par Michal Hron
Lecture: Open InnovationLecture: Open Innovation
Lecture: Open Innovation
Michal Hron95 vues
JiscOAWeek_LAIR_slides_October2023.pptx par Jisc
JiscOAWeek_LAIR_slides_October2023.pptxJiscOAWeek_LAIR_slides_October2023.pptx
JiscOAWeek_LAIR_slides_October2023.pptx
Jisc72 vues
Use of Probiotics in Aquaculture.pptx par AKSHAY MANDAL
Use of Probiotics in Aquaculture.pptxUse of Probiotics in Aquaculture.pptx
Use of Probiotics in Aquaculture.pptx
AKSHAY MANDAL81 vues
EIT-Digital_Spohrer_AI_Intro 20231128 v1.pptx par ISSIP
EIT-Digital_Spohrer_AI_Intro 20231128 v1.pptxEIT-Digital_Spohrer_AI_Intro 20231128 v1.pptx
EIT-Digital_Spohrer_AI_Intro 20231128 v1.pptx
ISSIP256 vues
Class 10 English notes 23-24.pptx par TARIQ KHAN
Class 10 English notes 23-24.pptxClass 10 English notes 23-24.pptx
Class 10 English notes 23-24.pptx
TARIQ KHAN95 vues

Santrock essentials4e ppt_ch06

  • 1. © 2015 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part. SOCIOEMOTIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN EARLY CHILDHOOD 6 ESSENTIALS OF LIFE-SPAN DEVELOPMENT JOHN W. SANTROCK 4e
  • 2. © 2015 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part. 6-2 CHAPTER OUTLINE • Emotional and personality development • Families • Peer relations, play, and television
  • 3. © 2015 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part. 6-3 EMOTIONAL AND PERSONALITY DEVELOPMENT • Initiative versus guilt • Children use their perceptual, motor, cognitive, and language skills to make things happen • On their own initiative, children move out into a wider social world • The great governor of initiative is conscience • Initiative and enthusiasm may results in rewards or in guilt, which lowers self-esteem
  • 4. © 2015 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part. 6-4 EMOTIONAL AND PERSONALITY DEVELOPMENT • Self-understanding and understanding others • Increased awareness reflects young children’s expanding psychological sophistication • Self-understanding: Substance and content of self-conceptions • Involves self-recognition • Physical and material attributes, physical activities are central components of the self • Unrealistically positive self-descriptions
  • 5. © 2015 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part. 6-5 EMOTIONAL AND PERSONALITY DEVELOPMENT • Understanding others • Theory of mind includes understanding that others have emotions and desires • Start perceiving others in terms of psychological traits • Gain understanding that people don’t always give accurate reports of their beliefs • Young children are not as egocentric as depicted in Piaget’s theory • Socially sensitive and perceptive • Parents and teachers can help to understand and interact with social world
  • 6. © 2015 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part. 6-6 EMOTIONAL AND PERSONALITY DEVELOPMENT • Expressing emotions • Self-conscious emotions - Pride, shame, embarrassment, and guilt • These emotions do not appear until self-awareness develops • Emotions such as pride and guilt become more common • Influenced by parents’ responses to children’s behavior
  • 7. © 2015 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part. 6-7 EMOTIONAL AND PERSONALITY DEVELOPMENT • Understanding emotions • Understanding emotion is linked to an increase in prosocial behavior • Increase in number of terms used to describe emotions • Increased ability to reflect on emotions • Begin to understand that the same event can elicit different feelings in different people • By age 5, most children show growing awareness of need to manage emotions according to social standards
  • 8. © 2015 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part. 6-8 EMOTIONAL AND PERSONALITY DEVELOPMENT • Regulating emotions • Growth of emotional regulation as central to social competence • Parents play an important role in helping children regulate emotions • Emotion-coaching approach: monitor emotions, negative emotions as a teaching opportunity, coaching in how to deal effectively with emotions • Emotion-dismissing approach: Deny, ignore, or change negative emotions
  • 9. © 2015 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part. 6-9 EMOTIONAL AND PERSONALITY DEVELOPMENT • Moral development • Thoughts, feelings, and behaviors regarding rules and conventions about what people should do in their interactions with other people • Moral feelings • Feelings of anxiety and guilt are central to the account of moral development • Advancing children’s moral development: • Learning how to identify a wide range of emotional states in others • Anticipate what kinds of action will improve another person’s emotional state
  • 10. © 2015 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part. 6-10 EMOTIONAL AND PERSONALITY DEVELOPMENT • Moral reasoning • Heteronomous morality: Think of justice and rules as unchangeable properties, removed from the control of people • Autonomous morality: Become aware that rules and laws are created by people • In judging an action, considers intentions as well as consequences • Immanent justice: Concept that if a rule is broken, punishment will be meted out immediately • Parent-child relations, in which parents have the power, are less likely to advance moral reasoning • Rules are often handed down in an authoritarian manner
  • 11. © 2015 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part. 6-11 EMOTIONAL AND PERSONALITY DEVELOPMENT • Moral behavior • Processes of reinforcement, punishment, and imitation explain the development of moral behavior • Situation influences behavior • Cognitive factors are important in the child’s development of self- control • Ability to resist temptation • Learning to delay gratification
  • 12. © 2015 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part. 6-12 EMOTIONAL AND PERSONALITY DEVELOPMENT • Gender • Gender identity: Sense of being male or female • Gender roles: Sets of expectations that prescribe how females or males should think, act, and feel • Children increasingly act in ways that match their culture’s gender roles
  • 13. © 2015 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part. 6-13 EMOTIONAL AND PERSONALITY DEVELOPMENT • Social theories of gender • Social role theory: Gender differences result from the contrasting roles of women and men • Psychoanalytic theory: Preschool child develops a sexual attraction to the opposite-sex parent • Social cognitive theory: Children’s gender development occurs through observation and imitation of what other people say and do
  • 14. © 2015 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part. 6-14 EMOTIONAL AND PERSONALITY DEVELOPMENT • Parental influences • Mothers’ socialization strategies • Socialize daughters to be more obedient and responsible than sons • Place more restrictions on daughters’ autonomy • Fathers’ socialization strategies • Show more attention to sons than daughters • Engage in more activities with sons • Put forth more effort into sons’ intellectual development
  • 15. © 2015 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part. 6-15 EMOTIONAL AND PERSONALITY DEVELOPMENT • Peer influences • Peers respond to, model, reward and punish gender behavior • Gender molds aspects of peer relations • Composition of children’s groups • Group size • Interaction in same-sex groups • Cognitive influences • Gender schema theory: Gender typing emerges as children gradually develop gender schemas of what is gender-appropriate and gender- inappropriate in their culture
  • 16. © 2015 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part. 6-16 FAMILIES • Baumrind’s parenting styles • Authoritarian parenting: Restrictive, punitive style in which parents exhort the child to follow their directions and respect their work and effort • Authoritative parenting: Encourages children to be independent but still places limits and controls on their actions • Neglectful parenting: Parent is uninvolved in the child’s life • Indulgent parenting: Parents are highly involved with their children but place few demands or controls on them
  • 17. © 2015 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part. 6-17 FIGURE 6.2 – CLASSIFICATION OF PARENTING STYLES
  • 18. © 2015 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part. 6-18 FAMILIES • Parenting styles in context • Authoritative parenting conveys the most benefits to the child and to the family as a whole • Punishment • Corporal punishment linked to lower levels of moral internalization and mental health • Handle misbehavior by reasoning with the child, especially explaining the consequences of the child’s actions for others • Coparenting • Support that parents give each other in raising a child
  • 19. © 2015 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part. 6-19 FIGURE 6.3 – CORPORAL PUNISHMENT IN DIFFERENT COUNTRIES
  • 20. © 2015 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part. 6-20 FAMILIES • Types of child maltreatment • Physical abuse • Child neglect • Sexual abuse • Emotional abuse • Context of abuse • No single factor causes child maltreatment • About ⅓ of parents who were abused themselves go on to abuse their own children
  • 21. © 2015 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part. 6-21 FAMILIES • Developmental consequences of abuse • Poor emotional regulation • Attachment problems • Problems in peer relations • Difficulty in adapting to school • Other psychological problems (depression, delinquency, etc.)
  • 22. © 2015 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part. 6-22 FAMILIES • Sibling relationships • Important characteristics: • Emotional quality of the relationship • Familiarity and intimacy of the relationship • Variation in sibling relationships • Birth order • Whether a child has older or younger siblings has been linked to development of certain personality characteristics • Birth order has limited ability to predict behavior
  • 23. © 2015 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part. 6-23 FAMILIES • Working parents • Maternal employment is part of modern life, but effects are debated • Employment can have positive and negative effects on parenting • Nature of parents’ work matters for child development
  • 24. © 2015 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part. 6-24 FAMILIES • Children in divorced families • Children from divorced families show poorer adjustment than their counterparts in never-divorced families • Many of the problems experienced by children from divorced homes begin during the predivorce period • Frequent visits by the noncustodial parent usually benefit the child • Children with a difficult temperament often have problems in coping with their parents’ divorce • Income loss for divorced mothers is accompanied by increased workloads, high rates of job instability, and residential moves
  • 25. © 2015 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part. 6-25 FAMILIES • Gay male and lesbian parents • Most children from gay or lesbian families have a heterosexual orientation • Few differences found between children raised with same-sex or heterosexual parents
  • 26. © 2015 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part. 6-26 FAMILIES • Cultural, ethnic, and socioeconomic variations • Trends toward greater family mobility, migration to urban areas, family separation, smaller families, fewer extended families, increase in maternal employment • Large and extended families more common among minority groups • Single-parent families more common among African American and Latino families • Limited resources of time, money, and energy • Dramatic increase in immigration of Latino and Asian families into the United States
  • 27. © 2015 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part. 6-27 FAMILIES • Lower-SES parents • Less access to resources than higher-income families • Nutrition, health care, protection from danger, enriching educational and socialization opportunities • Variation in child-rearing practices according to SES in United States
  • 28. © 2015 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part. 6-28 PEER RELATIONS, PLAY, AND MEDIA/SCREEN TIME • Peer relations • Peers – children of the same age or maturity level • Provide a source of information and comparison about the world outside the family • With age, children spend an increasing amount of time with peers • Good peer relations can be necessary for normal socioemotional development
  • 29. © 2015 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part. 6-29 PEER RELATIONS, PLAY, AND MEDIA/SCREEN TIME • Play • Makes important contributions to children’s cognitive and socioemotional development • Play therapy used to allow the child to work off frustrations and to analyze the child’s conflicts and ways of coping with them • Play as exciting, pleasurable, satisfies exploratory drive • Important context for the development of language and communication skills
  • 30. © 2015 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part. 6-30 PEER RELATIONS, PLAY, AND MEDIA/SCREEN TIME • Types of play • Sensorimotor • Practice • Pretense/symbolic • Social • Constructive • Games: Activities that are engaged in for pleasure and have rules • Trends in play • Decline in the amount of free play experienced by young children in recent decades • Restrictions at home and school
  • 31. © 2015 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part. 6-31 PEER RELATIONS, PLAY, AND MEDIA/SCREEN TIME • Media/Screen Time • Screen time – Time spent watching/using television, DVDs, computers, video games, mobile media • Special concerns for too much screen time • Many children spend more time with various screen media than with parents • Negative influences – creating passive learners, homework distractions, violent models of aggression, unrealistic views of the world • Screen time linked with decreased play, reduced physical activity, overweight/obesity, poor sleep habits, higher rates of aggression