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There has been a lot of hype around social media, social networks and social business, much of it unhelpful in understanding what this is all about. For some people, “social” will always mean frivolity and time wasting. For others, social media just means marketing and communications.
The evolution of social media over the past several years has made it easier than ever before to find, connect and engage with “experts” and people with similar interests. Enlightened organisations have recognised that investment in social technologies and (most importantly) the organisational change required in order to nurture and embed a collaborative culture, can overcome the limitations of silo’d structures that have traditionally inhibited information flows and opportunities for innovation.
In a broader context, the pervasive and ubiquitous availability of social media in almost all aspects of daily life, from the way we communicate, get information, buy and sell, travel, live and learn is adding to the pressure on organisations to provide a more porous interface between internal (behind the firewall) and external services. Knowledge workers are increasingly making their own decisions on what tools, products and services that they need to work more effectively and will become increasingly disaffected if these are not available within the work environment.
This presentation looks at industry trends on how social media and social technologies are changing the way that we generate, organise and consume knowledge, and how this is driving emergent digital literacies for knowledge workers.
Evolution of Social Media and its effects on Knowledge Organisation
ISKO UK biennial conference
8th-9th July 2013
pushing the boundaries
The Evolution Of Social
and its effects on knowledge
Image Source: Life of Brian
What has Social Media ever
done for us?
Name the film!
1. Social Media: love it or hate it
3. The Information deluge
4. Knowledge organisation (in search of relevance)
5. 21st Century Literacies
The Good,The Bad and The Ugly....of Social Media.
The key point about all of these examples is that social media gives a voice to the people (the “democratisation of voice”). People do no longer isolated and can
share opinions (likes and dislikes) online. It offers true democratisation and can have a powerful effect on public opinion. Anyone can start an e-petition, and if it
attracts more then 100,000 signatures it can trigger a parliamentary debate.
Sources include: http://thesocialskinny.com/216-social-media-and-internet-statistics-september-2012/
40% of accounts and 8% of messages on
social media sites are robots or spam
24% of people have missed witnessing
important moments because they are too busy
trying to write about them on social networks.
40% of people spend more time
socialising online than they do face-
to-face (source: AllTwitter)
The average Briton has 26 Internet accounts for
everything from email and bank services to online
shopping, social media sites, Skype and Paypal.
“I take pictures of my food, my
feet….pretty much anything and post it
Some useful (?) statistics:
•24% of people have missed witnessing important moments because they were too busy trying to write about them on social networks.
•40% of people spend more time socialising online than they do face-to-face.
•40% of accounts and 8% of messages on social media websites are robots or spam.
•The average Briton has 26 Internet accounts for everything from email and bank services to online shopping, social media sites, Skype and Paypal.
•85% of employees working on Social Media have lass than 2 years experience.
•34% check their smartphone after sex,
•23% go on Twitter more than 10 times a day,
•51% check social network sites at dinner,
•62% use their phones while shopping and
•42% will stop a conversation if their phone beeps.
The Ugly face of social media (not the people in the photos, but the concept).
Social Media has brought publishing to the masses, but with publishing comes responsibility. Social Media users are learning the rules the hard way, and in
particular, that press injunctions don’y just apply to the mainstream Press.
Left image – Peter Steiner, cartoonbank.com, The New Yorker, 1993. Right image – Tumblr user cachorro no computador.
One minor correction to the “On the Internet, everyone knows you’re a dog” - not everyone knows that they might be following or friending “bots”.
However, anyone wishing to establish reputation, social currency and trust needs to be open and transparent in their online personas.
Image:The Minority Report. 20th Century Fox
Name that film!
Digital Dawinsim: The evolution of consumer behaviour when society and technology evolve faster than your ability to adapt.
The underlying principle is that all technology should facilitate critical reflection - awareness of the self and the ability to articulate ideas. People need to make
judgements on the information they consume and the contexts they create whilst sharing information. Technology is becoming increasingly seamless but our
relationship with it isn't intuitive.
We’ve no doubt all heard about Google Glass, but this is by no means the trend-setter for wearable technology. The calculator watch, introduced in the 1980s, was
one original piece of widespread worn electronics.
Ilya Fridman designed a Bluetooth headset into a pair of earrings with a hidden microphone. The Spy TIE includes a colour video camera and USB Heating Gloves
keep hands warm when plugged in.
The tweeter can wear a "Pocket Tweet" using a Java application and cutting out and applying a Twitter text bubble to a person's shirt, one example of Do-it-yourself
wearable tech that was part of an art exhibit for the Wearable Technology AIR project in spring 2009. ZED-phones stitch headphones into beanies and headbands
allowing riders, snowboarders, Drivers and Runners to stay connected, hands-free, always.
Wearable technology has applications in monitoring and realtime feedback for athletes as well. The decreasing cost of processing power and other components is
encouraging widespread adoption and availability.
Transitioning to night life and entertainment industries electroluminescent shirts have appeared in concerts such as Electric Daisy Carnival and Lollapalooza.
Michael Graziano Clothing has worked with such artists as Deadmau5, Coldplay and Andy Moor they are appearing in the tourism industry.
According to ABI Research due to the relative ease of compatibility with smartphones and other electronic devices, the wearable technologies market will spike to
485 million annual device shipments by 2018.
Work is no longer dependent on workplace.
Enterprise social software should ultimately make business and work processes more efficient and adaptable to a fast-changing environment (internal or external).
How will improved knowledge flows and opportunities for collaboration and co-production be channelled into the existing business/work processes?
We’ve already passed the point where sales of mobile devices are outstripping those of traditional desktop PC’s, and by 2015 web browsing via mobile devices
will exceed that of desktop PCs. The future is clearly ‘mobile’.
Two-thirds of the mobile
workforce will own a
Smartphone by 2016, and 40%
of the workforce will be
mobile. Source: Gartner
The number of Smartphone users is
growing by 42% per year, globally.
Source: Morgan Stanley
There are already 1 billion smartphone users around the world, with 1.3 billion smartphone and tablet sales expected in 2013. Employees are using their personal
smartphones for work all over the globe. However, the trend is strongest in high growth countries, such as Brazil, Russia and India, and among the youngest
workers. Employees bring their own devices because they believe they let them do their jobs better, they like the flexibility to work when they want, and they prefer
to carry a single device for work and personal use. Even knowing the security risks and that their companies might be watching their online activities, isn’t stopping
See more at: http://blog.magicsoftware.com/2013/01/the-state-of-byod-2013-devices.htm
Source: Gartner April 2013
High Growth Countries
The startling contrast in BYOD take-up rates between high-growth countries and mature markets.
The concept of information overload was originated by futurist Alvin Toffler in his 1970 book Future Shock as part of a depiction of a world in which the rate of
change would accelerate to the point that governments, society and individuals would be unable to keep up. They would in fact be “future shocked”.
90% of the data in the world today has been created in the last two years alone, according to IBM.
By 2015, it would take an individual five years to view all of the video content that will be transmitted every second.
However, what doesn’t change is that we only have 24 hours in every day!
But the problem of information overload is not only about quantity of information. It’s also a problem of quality and format. Widely different formats make it difficult
for use to scan and quickly assimilate new information, as we don’t automatically know where the key point lies in any given source, and we often have trouble
determining the reliability (veracity) of a source, particularly a new source.
Isn’t it all about ﬁnding
More doesn’t mean better
What is the role of knowledge professionals in an information-rich but attention-poor world?
Central Control Democratic creation
Meaning to the author Meaning to the reader
Process to add new Just do it
Accurate Good enough
Taxonomy vs. Folksonomy
Regulated Environments Unregulated Environments19
“Isn’t a taxonomy a collection of stuffed animals?”
85% of employees working on social media have less than 2 years experience.
We’re officially in the era of too many hashtags. Nearly three-quarters of social media users stick them in posts, according to a March 2013 study from
RadiumOne. But quickly scan Twitter, Instagram, Google+, Tumblr — and now Facebook — and even that seems low. In January, France banned the word
Even the father of the hashtag tells NBC News that enough is enough. “The worst thing is what I might call ‘poor hashtag grammar,’” says Chris Messina, a Google
engineer who first suggested hashtags as a Twitter tool back in 2007. “Like #when #people #tag #every #word #in #a #sentence! That's not the point!”
Knowledge Organisation: In
search of Relevance
Image source: Monty Python, Meaning of Life
What’s the ﬁlm?
A number of facets to this slide:
1. Social Media is still relatively new, and we’re still learning the rules.
2. User generated content (blogs, Twitter, Facebook conversations) is feeding traditional news channels
3. We use tags and other metadata to help us find relevant information
4. Information is propagated (shared) usually with one-click
A small selection of the many information aggregation services, including:
Why is this such a growth market? We have plenty of data - too much maybe, but we lack meaning, a sense of how all the streams of information coming in fit
together to point us to wise decision-making.
Content curation is the process of seeking relevant, high quality information, adding a level of sense-making to it, and then sharing the results.
A “Curator” is a critical knowledge
broker who continually seeks, collects
and shares the most relevant content in
his/her area of expertise.
Digital curation is important because people want to know what’s important and they want to discover interesting and relevant content.
A great curator:
1. Optimises titles so it is relevant for that audience
2. Edits the content to add further relevance of the message
3. Formats the material so it is easy for the audience to read and apply to their situation
4. Adds good images and other visual material that complements and reinforces the content
5. Excerpts selected text so the reader can quickly and easily grasp the most important elements
6. Adds his or her own voice in an intro to the piece, adding context and relevance for the reader
7. Tags all content with relevant words and phrases so it is easily found by that audience
8. Supplies links to expand the scope of the piece and give access to added resources about the subject
9. Personalizes each piece for the relevant audience when posting to social sites, when appropriate
10.Ensures all curated content is correct and from a reliable source
11.Always gives attribution and links to sources
12.Filters content vigorously and does not publish anything and everything
13.Has a network of experts and curators in their sphere that they can tap into for personal insights
14.Suggests stories and items to other curators
15.Searches for additional material that can add depth and value or context to an item
16.Constantly scouts for interesting new sources
17.Sets up searches, filters and feeds to get a constant flow of relevant information
18.Makes the focus of the curated content perfectly clear and easy to see right upfront
19.Recommends other newsmasters and curators with great content
20.Crowd sources tips and suggestions from readers and always acknowledges their contributions
• Social media platforms are curating content, by giving curation tools to users
(YouTube playlists, Flickr galleries, Amazon lists, List.ly etc.)
• Media entrepreneurs are building new types of media platforms around
posting excerpts from the most relevant stories from around the web (The
Drudge Report, The Hufﬁngton Post, etc.)
• News media organizations are curating conversations around popular topics
e.g. The Guardian #smarttakes)
There are five generally accepted types of content curation (ref: Influential Marketing Blog: http://www.rohitbhargava.com/2011/03/the-5-models-of-content-
1. Aggregation, which is analogous to being an archivist. The aggregator seeks to gather ALL the relevant content about a particular topic in one location.
Aggregation is about collection, not interpretation. It’s the most common form of curation, but probably the least useful. Most “list of resources” type blog posts are
2. Distillation, which is the role of our museum curator. In this instance, the curator first gathers, like the aggregator, but then condenses the mass of information
into a coherent story, providing not just a litany of resources of varying quality, but actual meaning. Many infographics are a result of distillation.
3. Elevation is about trend-spotting. This happens when the curator is deeply immersed in the daily milieu of a given topic and thus can spot a larger change in the
zeitgeist as it arises. This is particularly popular among technology trend-spotting websites like Techmeme and Mashable.
4. Mashups are created by artists, who take extant works and combine them to create something entirely new. Most commonly thought of in regards to music
(combining a vocal track from one song with an instrumental track from another), it’s a major movement in most of the arts, although it carries with it certain
inherent intellectual property problems.
5. Chronology is done by historians, who place events in a timeline to show the progression of a topic or idea. Chronology is another popular infographic format.
There is the who is doing the curation. This can be:
1. Algorithmic curation (done automatically by computers running algorithms)
2. Social curation, by humans, sharing the aggregation and curation of content across a variety of social platforms
3. Expert curation, by an expert in a given topic, weighs the quality of information in making source selections and adding an editorial element. Robin Good (http://
www.masternewmedia.org) does expert curation on a large number of topics.
Image source: thefancarpet.com - Educating Rita
What’s the ﬁlm?!
Source: Dr Daniel Churchill, www.learnactivity.com
•Ability to identify
what information is
needed and the ability
to locate, evaluate and
•Ability to understand
and produce visual
•Ability to question,
challenge and evaluate
the meanings and
purposes of texts
•Ability to question,
evaluate and create
•Ability to use tools
to manage, consume
•Ability to use digital
and networks to
locate, evaluate and
There’s also one other literacy - “Social Networking Literacy” - the ability to find, develop and nurture trusted social connections for mutual support and personal
We need to acquire the tools and develop the skills that enable us to focus, make sense of our complex world, to understand context and find
meaning, and ultimately to make better decisions, both personally and professionally.
★We live in a socially connected world, where anyone
can have a voice, and everyone wants to be heard.
★Social Media will not be tamed - but protocols are
★Information anywhere, all the time, any device
★Technology is becoming increasingly seamless but our
relationship with it isn't intuitive.
★Work is no longer dependent on workplace.
★Emergent/key Digital literacy skills: 1. Networking 2.
Sense-making 3. Curation
★The search for relevance continues...
•Cara Pring - Social Media & Intranet Statistics: http://thesocialskinny.com/216-social-
•The Social Skinny: http://thesocialskinny.com/216-social-media-and-internet-statistics-
•Graphic - what happens in an Internet Minute: http://scoop.intel.com/what-happens-in-
•The Future of Wearable Technology (video): http://www.youtube.com/watch?
•Today’s New Literacy: Dr Daniel Churchill: www.learnactivity.com
•Mary Meeker Internet Web Trends: http://qz.com/88980/mary-meekers-2013-internet-
•Images: Peter Steiner, cartoonbank.com, Cachorro no Coumputador, Mitchell Kapor,
Patient Opinion, Fixmystreet, HM Government, Tripadviser.co.uk,Techcrunch.com, Lego:
Minority Report/20th Century Fox, Monty Python: the Meaning of Life, thefancarpet.com
- Educating Rita.
Other photos and images sourced from Google images and Shutterstock Photos.
Unless otherwise noted, this work is licensed under a Creative Commons
Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License.
“I was gratified to be able
to answer promptly, and
I did. I said I didn’t
― Mark Twain