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Stanford LASER December 14, 2017 AI Deception Blockchain

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Recent AI systems can create fake images, sound files, and videos that are hard to distinguish from real ones. For example, Lyrebird's software can mimic anyone saying anything from a one minute sample of their speech, Adobe's "Photoshop of Voice" VoCo software has similar capabilities, and the "Face2Face" system can generates realistic real time video of anyone saying anything. Continuing advances in deep learning "GAN" systems will lead to ever more accurate deceptions in a variety of domains. But AI is also getting better at detecting fakes. The recent rash of "fake news" has led to a demand for deception detection. We are in an arms race between the deceivers and the fraud detectors. Who will win? The science of cryptographic pseudorandomness suggests that the deceivers will have the upper hand. It is computationally much cheaper to generate pseudorandom bits than it is to detect that they aren't random. The issue has enormous social implications. A synthesized video of a world leader could start a war. Altered media could implicate people in crimes they didn't commit. Governments have tampered with photographs since the beginning of photography. Stalin, for example, was famous for removing people from historical photos when they fell out of favor. The art world has had to deal with forgeries for centuries. Good forgers can create works that fool even the best art critics. The solution there is "provenance". We not only need the work, we need its history. But provenances can also be faked if we aren't careful! Can we create an unmodifiable digital provenance for media? We describe several approaches to using blockchains, the technology underlying cryptocurrencies, to do this. We discuss how the time and location of events can be cryptographically certified. And how future media hardware might provide guarantees of authenticity.

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Stanford LASER December 14, 2017 AI Deception Blockchain

  1. 1. AI, Deception, and Blockchains Steve Omohundro, Ph.D. PossibilityResearch.com SteveOmohundro.com SelfAwareSystems.com https://postmediacanadadotcom.files.wordpress.com/2014/01/74383151_213293952.jpg
  2. 2. Stalin’s altered photographs https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Censorship_of_images_in_the_Soviet_Union
  3. 3. http://twistedsifter.com/2012/02/famously-doctored-photographs/
  4. 4. https://www.pinterest.com.au/pin/570690584022001081/
  5. 5. https://i.ytimg.com/vi/8ar7WO1T5Cs/maxresdefault.jpg
  6. 6. 1970: “Uncanny Valley” – Masahiro Mori http://www.kpcb.com/blog/is-food-tech-headed-towards-its-uncanny-valley-moment
  7. 7. “Digital Emily” http://gl.ict.usc.edu/Research/digitalemily/
  8. 8. Deep Neural Net CycleGAN https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9reHvktowLY&ab_channel=Jun-YanZhu
  9. 9. Faces from Deep GAN Networks https://blog.heuritech.com/2017/04/11/began-state-of-the-art-generation-of-faces-with-generative-adversarial-networks/
  10. 10. http://www.dailymail.co.uk/sciencetech/article-5169263/Algorithm-puts-Gal-Gadots-face-porn-stars-body.html
  11. 11. Adobe Cloak http://digg.com/2017/adobe-project-cloak
  12. 12. http://pitchfork.com/news/69587-adobes-new-audio-software-eerily-mimics-human-speech/ VoCo: Realistic Altered Speech
  13. 13. https://techcrunch.com/2017/04/25/lyrebird-is-a-voice-mimic-for-the-fake-news-era/
  14. 14. Face2Face https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ohmajJTcpNk&ab_channel=MatthiasNiessner
  15. 15. Interest in “Fake News”
  16. 16. https://www.wired.com/2017/02/veles-macedonia-fake-news/ http://www.nbcnews.com/news/world/fake-news-how-partying- macedonian-teen-earns-thousands-publishing-lies-n692451 https://www.magzter.com/article/Science/WIRED/Welcome- To-Veles-Macedonia-FakeNews-Factory-To-The-World December 2016 Fake News
  17. 17. $450 Million “Salvator Mundi” Leonardo
  18. 18. http://www.vulture.com/2017/11/christies-says-this-painting-is-by-leonardo-i-doubt-it.html
  19. 19. https://news.artnet.com/art-world/artificial-intelligence-art-authentication-1156037
  20. 20. Deceivers vs. Fraud Detectors Who wins? Cryptographically secure pseudorandom number generators: Much cheaper to generate random looking bits Than to detect that they aren’t random http://slideplayer.com/slide/8866865/26/images/30/Cryptographic+Hash+Functions+SHA-512+Logic.jpg
  21. 21. Art World Relies on “Provenance” https://shop.getty.edu/products/provenance-an-alternate-history-of-art-978-1606061220
  22. 22. Blockchains http://blog.newegg.com/blog/wp-content/uploads/bitcoin-logo-3d.jpg https://www.ethereum.org/ Bitcoin Satoshi Nakamoto: 2008 Ethereum: July 2015
  23. 23. Blockchain Proof of Time https://blog.sldx.com/blockchain-proof-of-location-7af5eb8073c1 time blockchain blockchain A B Top block hash Hash of image and top block hash
  24. 24. https://www.lifewire.com/best-gps-cameras-493669 GPS Cameras
  25. 25. Blockchain Proof of Location https://arxiv.org/abs/1607.00174 https://dao.consider.it/can-we-build-a-proof-of-location-system-for-the-ethereum-blockchain?results=true https://blog.sldx.com/blockchain-proof-of-location-7af5eb8073c1
  26. 26. Politicians Should Wear Bodycams http://www.region-muenchen.de/wp-content/uploads/2016/11/Bodycam-Polizei-M%C3%BCnchen-1024x768.jpg
  27. 27. Blockchain Society Based on Truth • Verified audio, images, video, time, space • True news – reputation • Uncensorable speech • Verified voting • Politician accountability • Liquid democracy? • Futarchy? • Backfeed economy? https://lovelace-media.imgix.net/uploads/521/33980560-cfe3-0132-45f2-0ebc4eccb42f.jpg