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1Joint Operation Access Concept (JOAC)and Air Sea Battle (ASB) –impact on US- Japan defense cooperation Col. Yajima (JASDF) Col. Ikeda (JGSDF)
2 TABLE OF CONTENTS• Description of JOAC and ASB?• The impact of the applicationof JOAC to the Asia-Pacific region• Challenges of Japan-US defensecooperation under ASB Concept
3 Sustaining US Global Leadership: Priorities for 21st Century Defense (= New Defense Strategy)- What is this document?- How does it relate to other concepts?- What are the main points of this document?
4Relationship between Joint Operation Concepts New NMS Defense Strategic Guidance Capstone Concept for Joint Operations: Joint Force 2020 Joint Operation Access Concept (JOAC) ASBC JCEO Sustaining Operation GAMA
A Challenging Global Security Environment 5・ Increasingly complex global security environment・ Necessity to rebalance towards the Asia – Pacific Region・ Continued presence and support for the Middle East alsonecessary・ Continuing to lead global effort and assure access to globalcommons necessrary Primary Missions of the U.S. Armed Forces① Counter Terrorism and Irregular Warfare ② Deter and Defeat Aggression③ Project Power to meet against A2/AD Challenges④ Counter Weapons of Mass Destruction⑤ Operate Effectively in Cyberspace and Space⑥ Maintain a Safe, Secure, and Effective Nuclear Deterrent⑦ Defend the Homeland and Provide Support to Civil Authorities⑧ Provide a Stabilizing Presence⑨ Conduct Stability and Counterinsurgency Operations⑩ Conduct Humanitarian, Disaster Relief, and Other Operations
6 Capstone Concept for Joint Operations: Joint Force 2020- What is this document?- How does it relate to other concepts?- What are the main points of this concept?
7Relationship between Joint Operation Concept New NMS Defense Strategic Guidance Capstone Concept for Joint Operations: Joint Force 2020 * Globally Integrated Operation Joint Operation Access Concept ASBC JCEO Sustaining Operation GAMA
8 Becoming Globally Integrated① Command US missions globally② Seize, retain and exploit the opportunity③ Global agility④ Partnership⑤ Flexibility in establishing Joint Forces⑥ Cross-domain synergy⑦ Use of flexible, low-signature capabilities⑧ Increasingly discriminatory to minimizeunintended consequences
9Joint Operation Access Concept (JOAC)-What is this document?-How does this relate to other concepts?-What are the main points of this concept?
10Relationship between Joint Operation Concept New NMS Defense Strategic Guidance Capstone Concept for Joint Operations: Joint Force 2020 Joint Operation Access Concept *Cross domain synergy ASBC JCEO Sustaining Operation GAMA
11 Basic idea● Cross-domain synergy● Operational Access Precepts ・ Gain access to requirements and broader mission ・ Prepare the operational area in advance ・ Consider a variety of basing options ・ Seize the initiative through multiple and independent operations ・ Gain advantage in one or more domains, disruptingadversaries’ A2/AD efforts ・ Disrupting reconnaissance and surveillance of adversaries ・ Create pockets of local domain superiority for penetration ・ Maneuver directly toward key objective from strategic distance ・ Attack enemy’s A2/AD defense in depth ・ Maximize surprise ・ Protect space and cyber capabilities while attacking enemy’s
12 Relationship between JOAC and ASB New NMS Defense Strategic Guidance Capstone Concept for Joint Operations: Joint Force 2020 Joint Operation Access ConceptASBC JCEO Sustaining Operation GAMA
13 Air-Sea Battle Concept- Progress of ASBC- Purpose and character of ASBC- The central idea of ASBC- Diagram of an operation based on ASBC
14 Progress TIME EVENT 2009 Then-Defense Secretary Robert Gates directed the examination CSAF and CNO signed the memorandum to establish Sep 2009 JASBC Feb 2010 First appearance as Joint Air-Sea Battle in QDR2010May, Aug, 2010 CSBA published reports on JASBC Nov 2011 Establishment of ASB Office, Announced “The ASBC Summary” Jan 2012 Announced “Defense Strategic Guidance” and “JOAC” CSAF and CNO announced “Air-Sea Battle: Promoting Stability in Feb an era of Uncertainty” Jun ASB Office announced “Air-Sea Battle : Clearing the Fog” Sep Gen. Dempsey announced “CCJO: Joint Force 2020”
15 Progress TIME EVENT 2009 Then-Defense Secretary Robert Gates directed the examination CSAF and CNO signed the memorandum to establish Sep 2009 JASBC Feb 2010 First appearance as Joint Air-Sea Battle in QDR2010May, Aug, 2010 CSBA published two reports on JASBC Nov 2011 Establishment of ASB Office, Announced “The ASBC Summary” Jan 2012 Announced “Defense Strategic Guidance” and “JOAC” CSAF and CNO announced “Air-Sea Battle: Promoting Stability in Feb an era of Uncertainty” Jun ASB Office announced “Air-Sea Battle : Clearing the Fog” Sep Gen. Dempsey announced “CCJO: Joint Force 2020”
16 Purpose and Characer of ASBPurpose・ Maintain U.S. access to the global commons・ keep the power projection capability, maintain freedom ofmission under A2/AD environmentCharacter・ NOT a strategy, or a doctrine・ A limited operational concept・ NOT a concept aimed at any particular potential adversary・ NOT a new concept, but an advanced joint operation conceptusing cross-domain operations
17 The central idea of ASBC NIA-3DNetworked ： Maintain cross domain network Integrated ： Organize appropriate units among all ForcesAttack-in-depth Disrupt adversarys C4ISR networks Destroy adversary’s A2/AD systems Defeat weapons launched by adversary
18 Example of an operation based on ASBC TGT information AWACS Order of Attack TGT information Stealth Fighter Order of Attack www.af.mil Collect TGT InformationOperation Center Submarine www.mod.go.jp Adversary ships
19 The implementation of the JOAC to the Asia-Pacific region• Impact to the US defense posture in the Asia- Pacific• Japan’s Role
20 OPTIONS Advantage Challenge Provision Japan’s role O-1 Maximal Readiness Strengthen Continuous ISR Protection Risks Protection Present Allies Cooperation Strengthen Bases Less POL challenges O-2 Host nation coord. Accept additional Disaggregate/ Host nation Long range Comms. Disperse risks and Transportation deploymentmaximum forward C2 More protection deployment Training site Rapid deployment > Transportation > Long Range ISR and Ensure use bases O-3 Readiness attacking measure Keep U.S. supplies > ASW More protection Disaggregate/ Deterrence Minimal risk > BMD- bases, shipsminimum forward Host nation > Robust Cyber, Space * Integrated doctrine, deployment C2 capability tactics, network Training site Host nation coord. C2= Command and Control
Deployment in the Asia-Pacific 21 Region Marine Corps moves units from Okinawa to Guam and Hawaii, and make rotation through Darwin, Australia ROK Main island Japan Okinawa Hawaii Guam ARMY Darwin NAVY Air Force Marine Corps 21
22 Anticipated role and the Challenges of Japan To enhance reliability as a US foothold anti-A2/AD capability, Networked JSDF – U.S. force Reviewing the Japan National Defense Program Guideline Reviewing the Japan-U.S. Guidelines for defense cooperation
23Japan-U.S. defense CooperationUnder the Air-Sea Battle Concept
24 Table of Contents・ Challenges or problems of ASBC in the U.S. military・ Importance of ASBC in the the Western Pacific・ The Influence of defense budget cut on ASBC・ Challenges of Japan-U.S. defense cooperation underASBC・ Conclusion
25 Challenges or problems about ASBC in the U.S. military・ There is a possibility that the Air-Sea Battle Conceptcould suffer from the negative effects of parochialism.・ ASBC may not be given top priority, concerns overits probability.・ Develop more high-level “jointness”
26 Importance of ASBC in the Western PacificThe Western Pacific Geostrategic Considerations1 The main operational area is air and sea2 The U.S. military does limited strategic depth.3 The distance between the U.S. mainland and the Western Pacific is very far.4 There are countries with A2/AD capability5 Most of U.S. forward bases and allies’ bases are in range of potential adversaryballistic missiles ・ The Western Pacific is one of the regions where an adversary can establish an A2/AD environment with relative ease. Japan is located between mainland of Asia and the US. Japan has bilateral operation capability. ・ Japan-US Cooperation is important
27 Influence of defense budget cut on ASBC4 scenarios of defense budget cutScenario Reduction Influence and analysis $350 ～ U.S. military remains capable of addressing a wide range of possible threats around the world by pursuing “High-Low-New” modernization 1 $400 plan. billion The risks are modest and acceptable $500 ～ Under a reduced capability, U .S. military can manage its global mission. 2 $550 But U.S. has to prioritize regions billion The risks are significant but acceptable $650 ～ U.S. military reduce forward maritime presence. U.S. can maintain it’s presence only in selected regions (Western Pacific, Indian Ocean, 3 $700 Middle East, Arabian Gulf) billion The risks are high $800 ～ U.S. has to alter global engagement strategy significantly. U.S. can protect its interests only in Asia and Middle East. But Asian allies and 4 $850 partners question the credibility of U.S. security guarantees. billion The risks are very high Reference: Hard Choice by center for New American Security
28 Influence of defense budget cut on ASBCReduction capability in scenario 4 Services Reduction Capabilities Total cut 8% NAVAL Reduce CVN (11 →10), Amphibious Ships, Attack Submarine(Virginia-class), Forces Cruiser, LSC, Eliminate future procurement of F-18 Lose mine hunting and sweeping capabilities Total cut 8%Air Forces Reduce F-35, MQ-4, Strategic Aircraft, V-22 Osprey Eliminate future procurement of F-16 Ground Total cut 16% Army 520000 →430000, Marine 187000 →150000 Forces Shrinking Armys heavy Capability, GCV, JLTV, JTRS, GMR, Cancel F-35 B,Defense-Wide Activities Total cut 64% Base support, DOD Civilian, Intelligence, Missile Defense, R&D NoN DOD Total cut 4% Atomic Energy Defense activities, Other Defense-Related Activities Activities Reference: Hard Choice by center for New American Security
29Challenges for Japan-U.S. defense cooperation under ASBCPolicy Level・ Japan should support the Air-Sea Battle Concept, and sharethe burden as much as possible.・ Japan should be more involved in the implementation processand share the contents to the National Defense ProgramGuideline and the Mid-Term Defense Program with US in atimely manner.
30Challenges for Japan-U.S. defense cooperation under ASBCPolicy Level・ Japan has to build the foundation of executing Air-Sea Battle operations. - Build the political and legal framework which enables Japan to execute the use of force out of Japanese territory. - Strengthen Japan-US bilateral operational capability.・ Execute Air-Sea Battle operations in the Western pacific with other US allies andpartners is important.・ The Jieitai has to develop jointness and overcome the parochialism among itsthree services.
31Challenges for Japan-U.S. defense cooperation under ASBCTactical Level Category Japan-US military Cooperation ・ Establish network system to share situational awareness Networked of cross-domain operation. ・ Establish real time communication system among headquarters Integrated and all domain assets. ・ Prepare all kinds of scenarios and exercises Disrupt ・ Promote cooperation in the cyber field. Attack ・ Maintain mission flexibility (Japan should strengthen an Destroyin-depth attack capability ) ・ Increase the reliability and operational capability of Defeat missile defense. ・ Increase survivability of the bases
32 Conclusion・ ASBC is necessary for the US to rebalance toward the Asia-Pacificregion.・ To execute ASB operations in the Western Pacific, Japan-U.S. cooperation is necessary.・ To execute cooperation successfully, the Jieitai will have to overcome its challenges.・ The Jieitais operational performance will improve dramatically.・ Japan-US cooperation under the Air-Sea battle Concept will be a greatdeterrence to adversaries in the Asia-Pacific region