3. DECREASED RESTING HEART RATE Resting HR gives an indication of fitness. If your train regularly your heart will get bigger and stronger and be able to supply the same amount of blood with fewer beats. If your heart beats less times per minute it means it is under less stress. Your resting pulse rate can also be affected by AGE, SEX, POSTURE, EATING, EMOTION, BODY TEMPERATURE, ENIVRONMENTAL FACTORS AND SMOKING.
4. FASTER RECOVERY RATE Heart recovery is the speed at which your heart returns to normal after doing exercise. The faster you recover the fitter you are.
5. STROKE VOLUME The amount of blood pumped out of the heart by each ventricle during one contraction ( PER BEAT). CARDIAC OUTPUT The amount of blood pumped out of the heart in one minute . CARDIAC OUTPUT = STROKE VOLUME HEART RATE x
6. INCREASED STROKE VOLUME If the heart is bigger and stronger then it is able to pump more blood per beat. A fitter person can have a resting SV of 85ml, and it can be up to 130ml when exercising.
7. LOWER BLOOD PRESSURE Regular exercise helps with weight loss. Being overweight can lead to high blood pressure. Other factors that affect blood pressure are: AGE, SEX, MUSCULAR DEVELOPMENT, STRESS, AND TIREDNESS. High altitude can affect blood pressure too, due to the low oxygen levels. Athletes often use altitude training to improve their cardiovascular system.
8. MORE EFFICIENT BLOOD VESSELS Fitness increases the number of capillaries you have around your heart. If your are fitter then your blood vessels will be more flexible and clear so you can carry more blood. A blockage in a blood vessel could result in a heart attack or CHD, it will cause less damage in a fit person.
9. CORONARY HEART DISEASE (CHD) This causes more deaths than any other disease in the developed world!!! CAUSES: Hereditary Infections Narrowing of the coronary arteries High blood pressure Smoking The most common form of heart disease is the deposit of fat and cholesterol on the inside walls of the arteries. SYMPTOMS: Short of breath, especially after exercise Chest pains, (angina) Rise in blood pressure (narrowing of the blood vessels)
11. How does how you live your life effect your heart and blood vessels? GET ENOUGH REST HAVING THE CORRECT DIET DO NOT USE RECREATIONAL DRUGS GET ENOUGH EXERCISE FREE FROM STRESS
12. GETTING ENOUGH REST is essential to allow your body to recover after training. It is during rest when the body (including the heart) gets stronger. The heart will grow in thickness and size and the number of capillaries will increase. When planning a training programme it is important to have work days and rest days! REST INTERVAL CONT. REST INTERVAL INTERVAL CONT. SUN SAT FRI THURS WED TUES MON DAY
13. HAVING THE CORRECT DIET is important to ensure you don’t get high cholesterol. CHOLESTEROL is a fatty substance carried in the blood by LIPOPROTEINS. They come in 2 forms: HIGH DENSITY LIPOPROTEIN (HDL) contains more protein than fat so is known as ‘GOOD CHOLESTEROL’ as it carries cholesterol away from the arteries to the liver, and out of the body. You need to ensure you have your 5-a-day as you will find HDL in fruit, vegetables, whole grains, and legumes (beans and peas). LOW DENISTY LIPOPROTEIN (LDL) consists of mostly fat and is known as ‘BAD CHOLESTEROL’. It causes cholesterol in the blood which will lead to plaque (fatty deposits) restricting blood flow. This means the heart has to work harder to push the blood through and this raises blood pressure.
15. DO NOT USE RECREATIONAL DRUGS. Smoking raises the blood pressure because it releases adrenaline which constricts (tightens) the arteries and causes the heart to beat faster. Tobacco smoke develops heart disease. It lowers HDL levels and increases the tendency for blood clot which leads to heart attacks and strokes. Alcohol in moderation is thought to increase HDL and can lower blood pressure. However, too much alcohol and binge drinking can have adverse effects. Some people are prescribed drugs to control their blood pressure.
16. FREE FROM STRESS Stress can build up over time and can affect the cardiovascular system by leading to an increase in blood pressure and a rise in heart rate. It can lead to depression and mood swings.
17. Ali plays badminton for the school team but is frightened of losing his place due to his lack of fitness. He decided to plan a PEP to help him improve his fitness for badminton. State TWO long term benefits you would expect Ali’s training to have on his cardiovascular system. (2 marks) Lower blood pressure Increase stroke volume Maximise cardiac output Drop in resting heart rate Heart gets stronger (‘heart gets bigger’ – not permitted)
18. Which of the following best describes cardiac output? A - The amount of times your heart beats per minute. B – The amount of blood leaving the heart per minute. C – The amount of blood leaving the heart per beat. D – The amount of blood leaving the heart per breath. (1 mark)
19. What effects will long term training have on the heart muscle and the chambers of the heart? (1 mark) It will pump more blood around per beat / increased strength / size / stronger / increase strength of contraction / pump more blood / increase stroke volume. What effect will long term training have on your resting heart rate and stroke volume? (2 marks) Resting heart rate decreases and stroke volume increases.