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CONFIGURATION
AND
IMPLEMANTATION
of
IPTABLEs




                   Submitted by-
            SAMESWAR BEHERA
    1                Guided By-
        ER.NUTAN KUMAR PANDA
Certificate
This is to certify that the Project report entitled “Configuration and
Implementation of Iptables” submitted by Sameswar Behera, ISEH-FRP, in
partial fulfillment of the requirement of the award of Diploma in ISEH under
APPIN TECHNOLOGY LAB: Bhubaneswar. Completed his project successfully.


Er. Nutan Kumar Panda               Mr. Bibhuti Bhusan Prusty
    Project Guide                              Center Head

              Mr. SudhanshuBhusanPrusty
                         Managing Director




                                      2
Acknowledgement


I have a great honor to acknowledge MR. Sudhanshu Bhusan Prusty,
Managing Director, Appin Technology Labs, Bhubaneswar, Odisha. Who
had given me his consent to carry out this project . I feel immense pleasure
and privilege in expressing my deep sense of gratitude towards my guide
ER. Nutan Kumar Panda, whose valuable guidance and critical analysis of
my result has led to successful completion of my project.
My special thanks to all my friends for giving me incentive support in this
report work. I express my gratitude to my affectionate and friends for
encouragement and enthusiastic support throughout this study.


SAMESWAR BEHERA




                                      3
TABLE OF CONTENTS


What is firewall……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….5
What is iptables………………………………………………………………………………………………………………5
Installing iptables……………………………………………………………………………………………………………5
To start iptables………………………………………………………………………………………………………………6
Determining the status of iptables…………………………………………………………………………………7
Packet processing in iptables………………………………………………………………………………………….8
Processing for packet routed by the firewall………………………………………………………………….9
Iptables packet flow diagram………………………………………………………………………………………..10
Targets and jumps………………………………………………………………………………………………………….11
General iptables match criteria………………………………………………………………………………………12
Common TCP and UDP match criteria……………………………………………………………………………21
Common extended match criteria………………………………………………………………………………….29
Saving iptables scripts…………………………………………………………………………………………………….31
Iptables restoration…………………………………………………………………………………………………………32
Allow your home network to access the internet………………………………………………………….33
Allow your home network to access the firewall……………………………………………………………33
Prevent DoS attack…………………………………………………………………………………………………………33
Static NAT………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..34
Port forwarding……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….34
Conclusion……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….35
Reference…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………36




                                       4
What is a Firewall?

      A firewall is hardware, software, or a combination of both that is used to prevent unauthorized
       programs or Internet users from accessing a private network and/or a single computer.
      A set of related programs that protects the resources of a private network from users from other
       networks.
      A mechanism for filtering network packets based on information contained within the IP header.

Firewall Options:

      Commercial Firewall Devices (Watchguard, Cisco PIX)
      Routers (ACL Lists)
      Linux (Iptables)
      Software Packages (ZoneAlarm, Black Ice, Tiny Personal Firewall, Norton Personal
       Firewall, Comodo Firewall)


Linux Firewall Programs:

       Ipfwadm       :      Linux kernel 2.0.34

       Ipchains      :      Linux kernel 2.2.

       Iptables      :      Linux kernel 2.4. & above




What Is iptables?

       It is the modified firewall package available in linux operating system. Before it was known as
ipchanes, later it comes with capabilities like natting and routing. Some other improvements are:

      Better integration with the Linux kernel, so improved speed and reliability.
      Stateful packet inspection.
      Filter packets according to TCP header and MAC address.
      System logging that provides the option of adjusting the level of detail of the reporting.
      Better network address translation.
      Support for transparent integration with such Web proxy programs as Squid.
      A rate limiting feature that helps iptables block some types of denial of service (DoS) attacks.


Installing iptables:
    In most Linux distros including Redhat / CentOS Linux installs iptables by default. You can use the
following procedure to verify that iptables has been installed or not in Redhat.

Open terminal and type the following command:

[root@localhost ~]#yum info iptables




                                                     5
Sample outputs:




If the above message does not appear, then type the following command to install iptables:


[root@localhost ~]#yum install iptables



To Start iptables:

You can start, stop, and restart iptables after booting by using the commands:

[root@localhost ~]# service iptables start
[root@localhost ~]# service iptables stop
[root@localhost ~]# service iptables restart

To get iptables configured to start at boot, use the chkconfig command:

[root@localhost ~]# chkconfig iptables on




                                               6
Determining The Status of iptables:

You can determine whether iptables is running or not via the service iptables status command.

[root@localhost ~]# service iptables status




                                               7
Packet Processing In iptables:

All packets inspected by iptables pass through a sequence of built-in tables (queues) for processing. Each
of these queues is dedicated to a particular type of packet activity and is controlled by an associated
packet transformation/filtering chain.

      There are three tables in total. The first is the mangle table which is responsible for the alteration
       of quality of service bits in the TCP header. This is hardly used in a home or SOHO environment.
      The second table is the filter queue which is responsible for packet filtering. It has three built-in
       chains in which you can place your firewall policy rules. These are the:

1. Forward chain: Filters packets to servers protected by the firewall.
2. Input chain : Filters packets destined for the firewall.
3. Output chain : Filters packets originating from the firewall.

      The third table is the nat queue which is responsible for network address translation. It has two
       built-in chains; these are:

4. Pre-routing chain: NATs packets when the destination address of the packet needs to be changed.
5. Post-routing chain: NATs packets when the source address of the packet needs to be changed.




                                                      8
Processing For Packets Routed By The Firewall:

                                    Packet
Queue             Queue             Transformation         Chain Function
Type              Function          Chain in
                                    Queue

Filter            Packet            FORWARD                Filters packets to servers accessible by another
                  filtering                                NIC on the firewall.



                                    INPUT                  Filters packets destined to the firewall.




                                    OUTPUT                 Filters packets originating from the firewall.


                                                           Address translation occurs before routing.
Nat               Network           PREROUTING             Facilitates the transformation of the destination IP
                  Address                                  address to be compatible with the firewall's routing
                                                           table. Used with NAT of the destination
                  Translation
                                                           IP address, also known as destination NAT or
                                                           DNAT.
                                                           Address translation occurs after routing. This
                                    POSTROUTING            implies that there was no need to modify the
                                                           destination IP address of the packet as in pre-
                                                           routing. Used with NAT of the source IP address
                                                           using either one-to-one or many-to-one NAT. This
                                                           is known as source NAT, or SNAT.
                                                           Network address translation for packets generated
                                    OUTPUT                 by the firewall. (Rarely used in SOHO
                                                           environments)



Mangle            TCP header        PREROUTING             Modification of the TCP packet quality of service
                  modification      POSTROUTING            bits before routing occurs. (Rarely used in SOHO
                                    OUTPUT                 environments)
                                    INPUT
                                    FORWARD


        You need to specify the table and the chain for each firewall rule you create. There is an
exception: Most rules are related to filtering, so iptables assumes that any chain that's defined without an
associated table will be a part of the filter table. The filter table is therefore the default.
Queue
Take a look at the way packets are handled by iptables. In Figure below a TCP packet from the Internet
arrives at the firewall's interface on Network A to create a data connection.

        The packet is first examined by your rules in the mangle table's PREROUTING chain, if any. It is
         then inspected by the rules in the nat table's PREROUTING chain to see whether the packet
         requires DNAT. It is then routed.

        If the packet is destined for a protected network, then it is filtered by the rules in the FORWARD
         chain of the filter table and, if necessary, the packet undergoes SNAT in the POSTROUTING chain
         before arriving at Network B. When the destination server decides to reply, the packet undergoes
                                                       9
the same sequence of steps. Both the FORWARD and POSTROUTING chains may be configured to
           implement quality of service (QoS) features in their mangle tables, but this is not usually done in
           SOHO environments.

          If the packet is destined for the firewall itself, then it passes through the mangle table of the INPUT
           chain, if configured, before being filtered by the rules in the INPUT chain of the filter table before.
           If it successfully passes these tests then it is processed by the intended application on the firewall.

          At some point, the firewall needs to reply. This reply is routed and inspected by the rules in the
           OUTPUT chain of the mangle table, if any. Next, the rules in the OUTPUT chain of the nat table
           determine whether DNAT is required and the rules in the OUTPUT chain of the filter table are then
           inspected to help restrict unauthorized packets. Finally, before the packet is sent back to the
           Internet, SNAT and QoS mangling is done by the POSTROUTING chain.
Type
Iptables Packet Flow Diagram:




Packet




                                                         10
Targets And Jumps:

  Each firewall rule inspects each IP packet and then tries to identify it as the target of some sort of
operation. Once a target is identified, the packet needs to jump over to it for further processing.



Target               Description                                     Most Common Options
                     Iptables stops further processing and
ACCEPT               the packet is handed over to the end            N/A
                     application.
                     Iptables stops further processing and
DROP                 drop the packet.                                N/A

                     The packet information is sent to the syslog     --log-prefix “string”
LOG                  daemon for logging and iptables continues
                     processing with the next rule in the table.     (It tells iptable to fix the log message
                     As you can't log and drop at the                with a user defined string.)
                     same time.
                                                                      --log-level 0 to 7
                                                                      --reject-with qualifier
REJECT               Works like the DROP target, but will also       (The qualifier tells what type of reject
                     return an error message to the host             message is returned.)
                     sending the packet that the packet was          Qualifiers include:
                     blocked.                                        icmp-port-unreachable (default)
                                                                     icmp-net-unreachable
                                                                     icmp-host-unreachable
                                                                     icmp-proto-unreachable
                                                                     icmp-net-prohibited
                                                                     icmp-host-prohibited
                                                                     tcp-reset
                                                                     echo-reply
                     Used to do destination network address          --to-destination ipaddress
DNAT                 translation. ie. rewriting the destination IP
                     address of the packet.                          (Tells iptables what the destination IP
                                                                     address should be.)

                     Used to do source network address               --to-source <ip>[-<ip>][:<port>-
SNAT                 translation. ie. rewriting the source IP        <port>]
                     address of the packet.
                     The source IP address is user defined.          (Specifies the source IP address and
                                                                     ports to be used by SNAT.)
                     Used to do Source Network Address               --to-ports <port>[-<port>]
MASQUERADE           Translation.
                     By default the source IP address is the         (Specifies the range of source ports to
                     same as that used by the firewall's             which the original source port can be
                     interface.                                      mapped.)


Queue
Chain Function




                                                      11
Important Iptables Command Switch Operations:

Each line of an iptables script not only has a jump, but they also have a number of command line options
that are used to append rules to chains that match your defined packet characteristics, such the source IP
address and TCP port. There are also options that can be used to just clear a chain so you can start all
over again.

General Iptables Match Criteria:-


Iptables command Switch          Description
                                 It is to specify which table you will use from filter, nat, mangle.
-t <-table->                     If you don’t specify a table then the filter table is assumed.
                                 Jump to the specified target chain when the packet matches the current
-j <target>                      rule.
-A                               Append rule to end of a chain.

-F                               Flush. Deletes all the rules in the selected table.

-p <protocol-type>               Match protocol. Types include, icmp, tcp, udp, and all.

-s <ip-address>                  Match source IP address.

-d <ip-address>                  Match destination IP address.

-i <interface-name>              Match "input" interface on which the packet enters.

-o <interface-name>              Match "output" interface on which the packet exits.



In this command switches example:

[root@localhost ~]#iptables -A INPUT -s 0/0 -i eth0 -d 0/0 -p TCP -j ACCEPT



iptables is being configured to allow the firewall to accept TCP packets coming in on interface eth0 from
any IP address . The 0/0 representation of an IP address means any.




                                                     12
13
[root@localhost ~]#iptables -A INPUT -s 0/0 -i eth0 -d 0/0 -p TCP -j DROP




                                                   14
15
[root@localhost ~]#iptables -A INPUT -s 0/0 -i eth0 -d 0/0 -p icmp -j DROP




                                                   16
iptables -A INPUT -s 0/0 -i eth0 -d 0/0 -p icmp –REJECT –reject-with icmp-host-unrechable




                                                   17
18
19
Block a Specific ip-address:

if you want to block a specific ip-address, you should do that first as shown below. Change the “x.x.x.x” in
the following example to the specific ip-address that you like to block.



BLOCK_THIS_IP="x.x.x.x"



iptables -A INPUT -s "$BLOCK_THIS_IP" -j DROP



This is helpful when you find some strange activities from a specific ip-address in your log files, and you
want to temporarily block that ip-address while you do further research.You can also use one of the
following variations, which blocks only TCP traffic on eth0 connection for this ip-address.



iptables -A INPUT -i eth0 -s "$BLOCK_THIS_IP" -j DROP



iptables -A INPUT -i eth0 -p tcp -s "$BLOCK_THIS_IP" -j DROP



Allow Internal Network to External network:

On the firewall server where one ethernet card is connected to the external, and another ethernet card
connected to the internal servers, use the following rules to allow internal network talk to external
network.



iptables -A FORWARD -i eth0 -o eth1 -j ACCEPT



In this example, eth1 is connected to external network (internet), and eth0 is connected to internal
network (For example: 192.168.1.x).




                                                     20
Common TCP and UDP Match Criteria:-


Switch                                      Description
-p tcp --sport <port>                       TCP source port. It filter TCP source port.
-p tdp --sport <start-port:end-port>        Can be a single value or a range like 1024:65535

-p tcp --dport <port>                       TCP source port. It filter TCP destination port.
-p tdp --dport <start-port:end-port>        Can be a single value or a range like 1024:65535

-p tcp --syn                                Used to identify a new TCP connection request. ! --syn
                                            means, not a new connection request.
-P tcp !--syn                               Used to identify old TCP connection request.

-p udp --sport <port>                       UDP source port. It test UDP connections for source ports.
-p udp --sport <start-port:end-port>        Can be a single value or a range like 1024:65535

-p udp --dport <port>                       UDP destination port. It test UDP connections for destination
-p udp --dport <start-port:end-port>        ports.Can be a single value or a range like 1024:65535



In this command switches example:


iptables -A OUTPUT -s 0/0 -d 0/0 -p TCP --sport 1024:65535 --dport 80 -j ACCEPT



      The source port is in the range 1024 to 65535 and the destination port is port 80 (www/http).




                                                   21
22
Allow outbound DNS:


iptables -A OUTPUT -p udp -o eth0 --dport 53 -j ACCEPT



iptables -A INPUT -p udp -i eth0 --sport 53 -j ACCEPT



Allow POP3 access:


iptables -A INPUT -i eth0 -p tcp --dport 110 -m state --state NEW,ESTABLISHED -j ACCEPT



iptables -A OUTPUT -o eth0 -p tcp --sport 110 -m state --state ESTABLISHED -j ACCEPT



Allow outbound DNS:


iptables -A OUTPUT -p udp -o eth0 --dport 53 -j ACCEPT



iptables -A INPUT -p udp -i eth0 --sport 53 -j ACCEPT



Allow Outgoing SSH:


iptables -A OUTPUT -o eth0 -p tcp --dport 22 -m state --state NEW,ESTABLISHED -j ACCEPT



iptables -A INPUT -i eth0 -p tcp --sport 22 -m state --state ESTABLISHED -j ACCEPT



Please note that this is slightly different than the incoming rule. i.e We allow both the NEW and
ESTABLISHED state on the OUTPUT chain, and only ESTABLISHED state on the INPUT chain. For the
incoming rule, it is vice versa.




                                                   23
Common ICMP (Ping) Match Criteria:-


Matches used with ---icmp-type            Description
--icmp-type <type>                        The most commonly used types are
                                          echo-reply and echo-request .



Allow Ping from Outside to Inside:
The following rules allow outside users to be able to ping your servers.



iptables -A OUTPUT -p icmp --icmp-type echo-request -j ACCEPT



iptables -A INPUT -p icmp --icmp-type echo-reply -j ACCEPT




                                                     24
Reject Ping from Outside to Inside:


iptables -A INPUT -p icmp --icmp-type echo-request -j REJECT



iptables -A OUTPUT -p icmp --icmp-type echo-reply -j REJECT




                                                  25
Allow Ping from Inside to Outside:
The following rules allow you to ping from inside to any of the outside servers.



iptables -A OUTPUT -p icmp --icmp-type echo-request -j ACCEPT



iptables -A INPUT -p icmp --icmp-type echo-reply -j ACCEPT




                                                     26
Consider another example:


iptables -A INPUT -p icmp --icmp-type echo-request -m limit --limit 1/s -i eth0 -j ACCEPT



      The limit feature in iptables specifies the maximum average number of matches to allow per
       second. You can specify time intervals in the format /second, /minute, /hour, or /day, or you can
       use abbreviations so that 3/second is the same as 3/s.
      In this example, ICMP echo requests are restricted to no more than one per second. When tuned
       correctly, this feature allows you to filter unusually high volumes of traffic that characterize denial
       of service (DOS) attacks and Internet worms.




                                                      27
iptables -A INPUT -p tcp --syn -m limit --limit 5/s -i eth0 -j ACCEPT



      In this example, you can expand on the limit feature of iptables to reduce your vulnerability to
       certain types of denial of service attack. Here a defense for SYN flood attacks was created by
       limiting the acceptance of TCP segments with the SYN bit set to no more than five per second.




                                                     28
Common Extended Match Criteria:-


Switch                                   Description
-m multiport --sports <port, port>       A variety of TCP/UDP source ports separated by commas. Unlike
                                         when -m isn't used, they do not have to be within a range.

-m multiport --dports <port,port>        A variety of TCP/UDP destination ports separated by commas.
                                         Unlike when -m isn't used, they do not have to be within a range.

-m multiport --ports <port,port>         A variety of TCP/UDP ports separated by commas. Source and
                                         destination ports are assumed to be the same and they do not
                                         have to be within a range.

-m –state <state>                        The most frequently tested states are:
                                         ESTABLISHED: The packet is part of a connection that has seen
                                         packets in both directions.
                                         NEW: The packet is the start of a new connection.
                                         RELATED: The packet is starting a new secondary connection.
                                         This is a common feature of such protocols such as an FTP data
                                         transfer, or an ICMP error.
                                         INVALID: The packet couldn't be identified. Could be due to
                                         insufficient system resources, or ICMP errors that don't match an
                                         existing data flow.



In this command switch examples:


iptables -A FORWARD -s 0/0 -i eth0 -d 0/0 -p TCP --sport 1024:65535 -m multiport --dports 80,443 -j
ACCEPT



iptables -A FORWARD -d 0/0 -o eth0 -s 0/0 -p TCP -m state --state ESTABLISHED -j ACCEPT



      Here iptables is being configured to allow the firewall to accept TCP packets to be routed when they
       enter on interface eth0 from any IP address destined for IP address of 192.168.1.58 that is
       reachable via interface eth1. The source port is in the range 1024 to 65535 and the destination
       ports are port 80 (www/http) and 443 (https). The return packets from 192.168.1.58 are allowed
       to be accepted too. Instead of stating the source and destination ports, you can simply allow
       packets related to established connections using the -m state and --state ESTABLISHED options.




                                                    29
30
Saving iptables Scripts:


[root@localhost ~]#service iptables save



[root@localhost ~]#iptables-save



      The above command permanently saves the iptables configuration in the /etc/sysconfig/iptables
       file. When the system reboots, the iptables-restore program reads the configuration and makes it
       the active configuration.




                                                   31
Here is a sample /etc/sysconfig/iptables configuration:




      It is never a good idea to edit this script directly because it is always overwritten by the save
       command and it doesn't save any comments at all, which can also make it extremely difficult to
       follow. For these reasons, you're better off writing and applying a customized script and then using
       the service iptables save command to make the changes permanent.




[root@localhost ~]#iptables-save > firewall-config



It will actually saves a permanent copy of the firewall's active configuration in the /etc/sysconfig/iptables
file and exports the iptables-save output to a text file named firewall-config. It can be further used for
restoration of iptables.

Iptables Restoration:


[root@localhost ~]#iptables-restore < firewall-config



      Finally, you should permanently save the active configuration so that it will be loaded automatically
       when the system reboots.



                                                      32
Allow Your Firewall To Access The Internet:

Allow port 80 (www) and 443 (https) connections from the firewall:



iptables -A OUTPUT -j ACCEPT -m state --state NEW,ESTABLISHED,RELATED -o eth0 -p tcp -m multiport -
-dports 80,443 --sport 1024:65535



If you want all TCP traffic originating from the firewall to be accepted, then remove the line:


-m multiport --dports 80,443 --sport 1024:65535


Allow previously established connections:


[root@localhost ~]#iptables -A INPUT -j ACCEPT -m state --state ESTABLISHED,RELATED -i eth0 -p tcp



Allow Your Home Network To Access The Firewall:

Here eth0 is directly connected to a home network using IP addresses from the 192.168.1.0 network. All
traffic between this network and the firewall is simplistically assumed to be trusted and allowed.
Further rules will be needed for the interface connected to the Internet to allow only specific ports, types
of connections and possibly even remote servers to have access to your firewall and home network.

Allow all bidirectional traffic from your firewall to the protected network:



[root@localhost ~]#iptables -A INPUT -j ACCEPT -p all -s 192.168.1.0/24 -i eth0



[root@localhost~]#iptables -A OUTPUT -j ACCEPT -p all -d 192.168.1.0/24 -o eth0



Prevent DoS Attack:

The following iptables rule will help you prevent the Denial of Service (DoS) attack on your webserver.



iptables -A INPUT -p tcp --dport 80 -m limit --limit 25/minute --limit-burst 100 -j ACCEPT




                                                       33
In the above example:


   -m limit: This uses the limit iptables extension
   –limit 25/minute: This limits only maximum of 25 connection per minute. Change this value based on
    your specific requirement
   –limit-burst 100: This value indicates that the limit/minute will be enforced only after the total number
    of connection have reached the limit-burst level.


Static NAT:

In this example, all traffic to a particular public IP address, not just to a particular port, is translated to a
single server on the protected subnet.

Uses one to one NAT to make the server 192.168.1.100 on your home network appear on the Internet as
IP addresses 97.158.253.26.




iptables -t nat -A PREROUTING -d 97.158.253.26 -i eth0 -j DNAT --to-destination 192.168.1.100



iptables -t nat -A POSTROUTING -s 192.168.1.100 -o eth0 -j SNAT --to-source 97.158.253.26



Creates a many to one NAT for the 192.168.1.0 home network in which all the servers appear on the
Internet as IP address 97.158.253.29.



iptables -t nat -A POSTROUTING -s 192.168.1.0/24 -j SNAT -o eth0 --to-source 97.158.253.29



Port Forwarding (PAT):

The following example routes all traffic that comes to the port 442 to 22. This means that the incoming
ssh connection can come from both port 22 and 422.



iptables -t nat -A PREROUTING -p tcp -d 192.168.102.37 --dport 422 -j DNAT --to 192.168.102.37:22




                                                        34
CONCLUSION:

We can get different service with this like firewall, routing, natting, logging and we can
also block some types of DoS attacks just by implementing few rules in it.




                                          35
REFERENCE:


www.haifux.org/lectures/98-sil/IPTablesPresentation.pdf
http://media.scottr.org/presentations/linux-home-networking.pdf
http://docs.redhat.com/docs/en-US/Red_Hat_Enterprise_Linux/3/html/Reference_Guide/s1-iptables-options.html
www.thegeekstuff.com/2011/06/iptables-rules-examples/
www.cse.psu.edu/~tjaeger/cse497b.../cse497b-project-4-iptables.pdf
www.linuxhowtos.org/Security/iptables.pdf




                                                      36

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Iptables Configuration

  • 1. CONFIGURATION AND IMPLEMANTATION of IPTABLEs Submitted by- SAMESWAR BEHERA 1 Guided By- ER.NUTAN KUMAR PANDA
  • 2. Certificate This is to certify that the Project report entitled “Configuration and Implementation of Iptables” submitted by Sameswar Behera, ISEH-FRP, in partial fulfillment of the requirement of the award of Diploma in ISEH under APPIN TECHNOLOGY LAB: Bhubaneswar. Completed his project successfully. Er. Nutan Kumar Panda Mr. Bibhuti Bhusan Prusty Project Guide Center Head Mr. SudhanshuBhusanPrusty Managing Director 2
  • 3. Acknowledgement I have a great honor to acknowledge MR. Sudhanshu Bhusan Prusty, Managing Director, Appin Technology Labs, Bhubaneswar, Odisha. Who had given me his consent to carry out this project . I feel immense pleasure and privilege in expressing my deep sense of gratitude towards my guide ER. Nutan Kumar Panda, whose valuable guidance and critical analysis of my result has led to successful completion of my project. My special thanks to all my friends for giving me incentive support in this report work. I express my gratitude to my affectionate and friends for encouragement and enthusiastic support throughout this study. SAMESWAR BEHERA 3
  • 4. TABLE OF CONTENTS What is firewall……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….5 What is iptables………………………………………………………………………………………………………………5 Installing iptables……………………………………………………………………………………………………………5 To start iptables………………………………………………………………………………………………………………6 Determining the status of iptables…………………………………………………………………………………7 Packet processing in iptables………………………………………………………………………………………….8 Processing for packet routed by the firewall………………………………………………………………….9 Iptables packet flow diagram………………………………………………………………………………………..10 Targets and jumps………………………………………………………………………………………………………….11 General iptables match criteria………………………………………………………………………………………12 Common TCP and UDP match criteria……………………………………………………………………………21 Common extended match criteria………………………………………………………………………………….29 Saving iptables scripts…………………………………………………………………………………………………….31 Iptables restoration…………………………………………………………………………………………………………32 Allow your home network to access the internet………………………………………………………….33 Allow your home network to access the firewall……………………………………………………………33 Prevent DoS attack…………………………………………………………………………………………………………33 Static NAT………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..34 Port forwarding……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….34 Conclusion……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….35 Reference…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………36 4
  • 5. What is a Firewall?  A firewall is hardware, software, or a combination of both that is used to prevent unauthorized programs or Internet users from accessing a private network and/or a single computer.  A set of related programs that protects the resources of a private network from users from other networks.  A mechanism for filtering network packets based on information contained within the IP header. Firewall Options:  Commercial Firewall Devices (Watchguard, Cisco PIX)  Routers (ACL Lists)  Linux (Iptables)  Software Packages (ZoneAlarm, Black Ice, Tiny Personal Firewall, Norton Personal Firewall, Comodo Firewall) Linux Firewall Programs: Ipfwadm : Linux kernel 2.0.34 Ipchains : Linux kernel 2.2. Iptables : Linux kernel 2.4. & above What Is iptables? It is the modified firewall package available in linux operating system. Before it was known as ipchanes, later it comes with capabilities like natting and routing. Some other improvements are:  Better integration with the Linux kernel, so improved speed and reliability.  Stateful packet inspection.  Filter packets according to TCP header and MAC address.  System logging that provides the option of adjusting the level of detail of the reporting.  Better network address translation.  Support for transparent integration with such Web proxy programs as Squid.  A rate limiting feature that helps iptables block some types of denial of service (DoS) attacks. Installing iptables: In most Linux distros including Redhat / CentOS Linux installs iptables by default. You can use the following procedure to verify that iptables has been installed or not in Redhat. Open terminal and type the following command: [root@localhost ~]#yum info iptables 5
  • 6. Sample outputs: If the above message does not appear, then type the following command to install iptables: [root@localhost ~]#yum install iptables To Start iptables: You can start, stop, and restart iptables after booting by using the commands: [root@localhost ~]# service iptables start [root@localhost ~]# service iptables stop [root@localhost ~]# service iptables restart To get iptables configured to start at boot, use the chkconfig command: [root@localhost ~]# chkconfig iptables on 6
  • 7. Determining The Status of iptables: You can determine whether iptables is running or not via the service iptables status command. [root@localhost ~]# service iptables status 7
  • 8. Packet Processing In iptables: All packets inspected by iptables pass through a sequence of built-in tables (queues) for processing. Each of these queues is dedicated to a particular type of packet activity and is controlled by an associated packet transformation/filtering chain.  There are three tables in total. The first is the mangle table which is responsible for the alteration of quality of service bits in the TCP header. This is hardly used in a home or SOHO environment.  The second table is the filter queue which is responsible for packet filtering. It has three built-in chains in which you can place your firewall policy rules. These are the: 1. Forward chain: Filters packets to servers protected by the firewall. 2. Input chain : Filters packets destined for the firewall. 3. Output chain : Filters packets originating from the firewall.  The third table is the nat queue which is responsible for network address translation. It has two built-in chains; these are: 4. Pre-routing chain: NATs packets when the destination address of the packet needs to be changed. 5. Post-routing chain: NATs packets when the source address of the packet needs to be changed. 8
  • 9. Processing For Packets Routed By The Firewall: Packet Queue Queue Transformation Chain Function Type Function Chain in Queue Filter Packet FORWARD Filters packets to servers accessible by another filtering NIC on the firewall. INPUT Filters packets destined to the firewall. OUTPUT Filters packets originating from the firewall. Address translation occurs before routing. Nat Network PREROUTING Facilitates the transformation of the destination IP Address address to be compatible with the firewall's routing table. Used with NAT of the destination Translation IP address, also known as destination NAT or DNAT. Address translation occurs after routing. This POSTROUTING implies that there was no need to modify the destination IP address of the packet as in pre- routing. Used with NAT of the source IP address using either one-to-one or many-to-one NAT. This is known as source NAT, or SNAT. Network address translation for packets generated OUTPUT by the firewall. (Rarely used in SOHO environments) Mangle TCP header PREROUTING Modification of the TCP packet quality of service modification POSTROUTING bits before routing occurs. (Rarely used in SOHO OUTPUT environments) INPUT FORWARD You need to specify the table and the chain for each firewall rule you create. There is an exception: Most rules are related to filtering, so iptables assumes that any chain that's defined without an associated table will be a part of the filter table. The filter table is therefore the default. Queue Take a look at the way packets are handled by iptables. In Figure below a TCP packet from the Internet arrives at the firewall's interface on Network A to create a data connection.  The packet is first examined by your rules in the mangle table's PREROUTING chain, if any. It is then inspected by the rules in the nat table's PREROUTING chain to see whether the packet requires DNAT. It is then routed.  If the packet is destined for a protected network, then it is filtered by the rules in the FORWARD chain of the filter table and, if necessary, the packet undergoes SNAT in the POSTROUTING chain before arriving at Network B. When the destination server decides to reply, the packet undergoes 9
  • 10. the same sequence of steps. Both the FORWARD and POSTROUTING chains may be configured to implement quality of service (QoS) features in their mangle tables, but this is not usually done in SOHO environments.  If the packet is destined for the firewall itself, then it passes through the mangle table of the INPUT chain, if configured, before being filtered by the rules in the INPUT chain of the filter table before. If it successfully passes these tests then it is processed by the intended application on the firewall.  At some point, the firewall needs to reply. This reply is routed and inspected by the rules in the OUTPUT chain of the mangle table, if any. Next, the rules in the OUTPUT chain of the nat table determine whether DNAT is required and the rules in the OUTPUT chain of the filter table are then inspected to help restrict unauthorized packets. Finally, before the packet is sent back to the Internet, SNAT and QoS mangling is done by the POSTROUTING chain. Type Iptables Packet Flow Diagram: Packet 10
  • 11. Targets And Jumps: Each firewall rule inspects each IP packet and then tries to identify it as the target of some sort of operation. Once a target is identified, the packet needs to jump over to it for further processing. Target Description Most Common Options Iptables stops further processing and ACCEPT the packet is handed over to the end N/A application. Iptables stops further processing and DROP drop the packet. N/A The packet information is sent to the syslog --log-prefix “string” LOG daemon for logging and iptables continues processing with the next rule in the table. (It tells iptable to fix the log message As you can't log and drop at the with a user defined string.) same time. --log-level 0 to 7 --reject-with qualifier REJECT Works like the DROP target, but will also (The qualifier tells what type of reject return an error message to the host message is returned.) sending the packet that the packet was Qualifiers include: blocked. icmp-port-unreachable (default) icmp-net-unreachable icmp-host-unreachable icmp-proto-unreachable icmp-net-prohibited icmp-host-prohibited tcp-reset echo-reply Used to do destination network address --to-destination ipaddress DNAT translation. ie. rewriting the destination IP address of the packet. (Tells iptables what the destination IP address should be.) Used to do source network address --to-source <ip>[-<ip>][:<port>- SNAT translation. ie. rewriting the source IP <port>] address of the packet. The source IP address is user defined. (Specifies the source IP address and ports to be used by SNAT.) Used to do Source Network Address --to-ports <port>[-<port>] MASQUERADE Translation. By default the source IP address is the (Specifies the range of source ports to same as that used by the firewall's which the original source port can be interface. mapped.) Queue Chain Function 11
  • 12. Important Iptables Command Switch Operations: Each line of an iptables script not only has a jump, but they also have a number of command line options that are used to append rules to chains that match your defined packet characteristics, such the source IP address and TCP port. There are also options that can be used to just clear a chain so you can start all over again. General Iptables Match Criteria:- Iptables command Switch Description It is to specify which table you will use from filter, nat, mangle. -t <-table-> If you don’t specify a table then the filter table is assumed. Jump to the specified target chain when the packet matches the current -j <target> rule. -A Append rule to end of a chain. -F Flush. Deletes all the rules in the selected table. -p <protocol-type> Match protocol. Types include, icmp, tcp, udp, and all. -s <ip-address> Match source IP address. -d <ip-address> Match destination IP address. -i <interface-name> Match "input" interface on which the packet enters. -o <interface-name> Match "output" interface on which the packet exits. In this command switches example: [root@localhost ~]#iptables -A INPUT -s 0/0 -i eth0 -d 0/0 -p TCP -j ACCEPT iptables is being configured to allow the firewall to accept TCP packets coming in on interface eth0 from any IP address . The 0/0 representation of an IP address means any. 12
  • 13. 13
  • 14. [root@localhost ~]#iptables -A INPUT -s 0/0 -i eth0 -d 0/0 -p TCP -j DROP 14
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  • 16. [root@localhost ~]#iptables -A INPUT -s 0/0 -i eth0 -d 0/0 -p icmp -j DROP 16
  • 17. iptables -A INPUT -s 0/0 -i eth0 -d 0/0 -p icmp –REJECT –reject-with icmp-host-unrechable 17
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  • 20. Block a Specific ip-address: if you want to block a specific ip-address, you should do that first as shown below. Change the “x.x.x.x” in the following example to the specific ip-address that you like to block. BLOCK_THIS_IP="x.x.x.x" iptables -A INPUT -s "$BLOCK_THIS_IP" -j DROP This is helpful when you find some strange activities from a specific ip-address in your log files, and you want to temporarily block that ip-address while you do further research.You can also use one of the following variations, which blocks only TCP traffic on eth0 connection for this ip-address. iptables -A INPUT -i eth0 -s "$BLOCK_THIS_IP" -j DROP iptables -A INPUT -i eth0 -p tcp -s "$BLOCK_THIS_IP" -j DROP Allow Internal Network to External network: On the firewall server where one ethernet card is connected to the external, and another ethernet card connected to the internal servers, use the following rules to allow internal network talk to external network. iptables -A FORWARD -i eth0 -o eth1 -j ACCEPT In this example, eth1 is connected to external network (internet), and eth0 is connected to internal network (For example: 192.168.1.x). 20
  • 21. Common TCP and UDP Match Criteria:- Switch Description -p tcp --sport <port> TCP source port. It filter TCP source port. -p tdp --sport <start-port:end-port> Can be a single value or a range like 1024:65535 -p tcp --dport <port> TCP source port. It filter TCP destination port. -p tdp --dport <start-port:end-port> Can be a single value or a range like 1024:65535 -p tcp --syn Used to identify a new TCP connection request. ! --syn means, not a new connection request. -P tcp !--syn Used to identify old TCP connection request. -p udp --sport <port> UDP source port. It test UDP connections for source ports. -p udp --sport <start-port:end-port> Can be a single value or a range like 1024:65535 -p udp --dport <port> UDP destination port. It test UDP connections for destination -p udp --dport <start-port:end-port> ports.Can be a single value or a range like 1024:65535 In this command switches example: iptables -A OUTPUT -s 0/0 -d 0/0 -p TCP --sport 1024:65535 --dport 80 -j ACCEPT  The source port is in the range 1024 to 65535 and the destination port is port 80 (www/http). 21
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  • 23. Allow outbound DNS: iptables -A OUTPUT -p udp -o eth0 --dport 53 -j ACCEPT iptables -A INPUT -p udp -i eth0 --sport 53 -j ACCEPT Allow POP3 access: iptables -A INPUT -i eth0 -p tcp --dport 110 -m state --state NEW,ESTABLISHED -j ACCEPT iptables -A OUTPUT -o eth0 -p tcp --sport 110 -m state --state ESTABLISHED -j ACCEPT Allow outbound DNS: iptables -A OUTPUT -p udp -o eth0 --dport 53 -j ACCEPT iptables -A INPUT -p udp -i eth0 --sport 53 -j ACCEPT Allow Outgoing SSH: iptables -A OUTPUT -o eth0 -p tcp --dport 22 -m state --state NEW,ESTABLISHED -j ACCEPT iptables -A INPUT -i eth0 -p tcp --sport 22 -m state --state ESTABLISHED -j ACCEPT Please note that this is slightly different than the incoming rule. i.e We allow both the NEW and ESTABLISHED state on the OUTPUT chain, and only ESTABLISHED state on the INPUT chain. For the incoming rule, it is vice versa. 23
  • 24. Common ICMP (Ping) Match Criteria:- Matches used with ---icmp-type Description --icmp-type <type> The most commonly used types are echo-reply and echo-request . Allow Ping from Outside to Inside: The following rules allow outside users to be able to ping your servers. iptables -A OUTPUT -p icmp --icmp-type echo-request -j ACCEPT iptables -A INPUT -p icmp --icmp-type echo-reply -j ACCEPT 24
  • 25. Reject Ping from Outside to Inside: iptables -A INPUT -p icmp --icmp-type echo-request -j REJECT iptables -A OUTPUT -p icmp --icmp-type echo-reply -j REJECT 25
  • 26. Allow Ping from Inside to Outside: The following rules allow you to ping from inside to any of the outside servers. iptables -A OUTPUT -p icmp --icmp-type echo-request -j ACCEPT iptables -A INPUT -p icmp --icmp-type echo-reply -j ACCEPT 26
  • 27. Consider another example: iptables -A INPUT -p icmp --icmp-type echo-request -m limit --limit 1/s -i eth0 -j ACCEPT  The limit feature in iptables specifies the maximum average number of matches to allow per second. You can specify time intervals in the format /second, /minute, /hour, or /day, or you can use abbreviations so that 3/second is the same as 3/s.  In this example, ICMP echo requests are restricted to no more than one per second. When tuned correctly, this feature allows you to filter unusually high volumes of traffic that characterize denial of service (DOS) attacks and Internet worms. 27
  • 28. iptables -A INPUT -p tcp --syn -m limit --limit 5/s -i eth0 -j ACCEPT  In this example, you can expand on the limit feature of iptables to reduce your vulnerability to certain types of denial of service attack. Here a defense for SYN flood attacks was created by limiting the acceptance of TCP segments with the SYN bit set to no more than five per second. 28
  • 29. Common Extended Match Criteria:- Switch Description -m multiport --sports <port, port> A variety of TCP/UDP source ports separated by commas. Unlike when -m isn't used, they do not have to be within a range. -m multiport --dports <port,port> A variety of TCP/UDP destination ports separated by commas. Unlike when -m isn't used, they do not have to be within a range. -m multiport --ports <port,port> A variety of TCP/UDP ports separated by commas. Source and destination ports are assumed to be the same and they do not have to be within a range. -m –state <state> The most frequently tested states are: ESTABLISHED: The packet is part of a connection that has seen packets in both directions. NEW: The packet is the start of a new connection. RELATED: The packet is starting a new secondary connection. This is a common feature of such protocols such as an FTP data transfer, or an ICMP error. INVALID: The packet couldn't be identified. Could be due to insufficient system resources, or ICMP errors that don't match an existing data flow. In this command switch examples: iptables -A FORWARD -s 0/0 -i eth0 -d 0/0 -p TCP --sport 1024:65535 -m multiport --dports 80,443 -j ACCEPT iptables -A FORWARD -d 0/0 -o eth0 -s 0/0 -p TCP -m state --state ESTABLISHED -j ACCEPT  Here iptables is being configured to allow the firewall to accept TCP packets to be routed when they enter on interface eth0 from any IP address destined for IP address of 192.168.1.58 that is reachable via interface eth1. The source port is in the range 1024 to 65535 and the destination ports are port 80 (www/http) and 443 (https). The return packets from 192.168.1.58 are allowed to be accepted too. Instead of stating the source and destination ports, you can simply allow packets related to established connections using the -m state and --state ESTABLISHED options. 29
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  • 31. Saving iptables Scripts: [root@localhost ~]#service iptables save [root@localhost ~]#iptables-save  The above command permanently saves the iptables configuration in the /etc/sysconfig/iptables file. When the system reboots, the iptables-restore program reads the configuration and makes it the active configuration. 31
  • 32. Here is a sample /etc/sysconfig/iptables configuration:  It is never a good idea to edit this script directly because it is always overwritten by the save command and it doesn't save any comments at all, which can also make it extremely difficult to follow. For these reasons, you're better off writing and applying a customized script and then using the service iptables save command to make the changes permanent. [root@localhost ~]#iptables-save > firewall-config It will actually saves a permanent copy of the firewall's active configuration in the /etc/sysconfig/iptables file and exports the iptables-save output to a text file named firewall-config. It can be further used for restoration of iptables. Iptables Restoration: [root@localhost ~]#iptables-restore < firewall-config  Finally, you should permanently save the active configuration so that it will be loaded automatically when the system reboots. 32
  • 33. Allow Your Firewall To Access The Internet: Allow port 80 (www) and 443 (https) connections from the firewall: iptables -A OUTPUT -j ACCEPT -m state --state NEW,ESTABLISHED,RELATED -o eth0 -p tcp -m multiport - -dports 80,443 --sport 1024:65535 If you want all TCP traffic originating from the firewall to be accepted, then remove the line: -m multiport --dports 80,443 --sport 1024:65535 Allow previously established connections: [root@localhost ~]#iptables -A INPUT -j ACCEPT -m state --state ESTABLISHED,RELATED -i eth0 -p tcp Allow Your Home Network To Access The Firewall: Here eth0 is directly connected to a home network using IP addresses from the 192.168.1.0 network. All traffic between this network and the firewall is simplistically assumed to be trusted and allowed. Further rules will be needed for the interface connected to the Internet to allow only specific ports, types of connections and possibly even remote servers to have access to your firewall and home network. Allow all bidirectional traffic from your firewall to the protected network: [root@localhost ~]#iptables -A INPUT -j ACCEPT -p all -s 192.168.1.0/24 -i eth0 [root@localhost~]#iptables -A OUTPUT -j ACCEPT -p all -d 192.168.1.0/24 -o eth0 Prevent DoS Attack: The following iptables rule will help you prevent the Denial of Service (DoS) attack on your webserver. iptables -A INPUT -p tcp --dport 80 -m limit --limit 25/minute --limit-burst 100 -j ACCEPT 33
  • 34. In the above example:  -m limit: This uses the limit iptables extension  –limit 25/minute: This limits only maximum of 25 connection per minute. Change this value based on your specific requirement  –limit-burst 100: This value indicates that the limit/minute will be enforced only after the total number of connection have reached the limit-burst level. Static NAT: In this example, all traffic to a particular public IP address, not just to a particular port, is translated to a single server on the protected subnet. Uses one to one NAT to make the server 192.168.1.100 on your home network appear on the Internet as IP addresses 97.158.253.26. iptables -t nat -A PREROUTING -d 97.158.253.26 -i eth0 -j DNAT --to-destination 192.168.1.100 iptables -t nat -A POSTROUTING -s 192.168.1.100 -o eth0 -j SNAT --to-source 97.158.253.26 Creates a many to one NAT for the 192.168.1.0 home network in which all the servers appear on the Internet as IP address 97.158.253.29. iptables -t nat -A POSTROUTING -s 192.168.1.0/24 -j SNAT -o eth0 --to-source 97.158.253.29 Port Forwarding (PAT): The following example routes all traffic that comes to the port 442 to 22. This means that the incoming ssh connection can come from both port 22 and 422. iptables -t nat -A PREROUTING -p tcp -d 192.168.102.37 --dport 422 -j DNAT --to 192.168.102.37:22 34
  • 35. CONCLUSION: We can get different service with this like firewall, routing, natting, logging and we can also block some types of DoS attacks just by implementing few rules in it. 35