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Translation skills<br />Information help you to teach translation subject.<br />Information help you to become a good translator<br />Information about the electronic tools which can help you in translation.<br />Rawia al-jehani<br />
Teaching translation<br />In teaching translation you should make a balance between<br />So, the translation course is designed in such away the student will practice as much as possible<br />Theory<br />Application<br />And<br />It lean a little bit more on practice<br />Rawia al-jehani<br />
Firstthing you have to do as a translation teacher is:<br />Knowing your students‘ background, expectation, experience, knowledge about translation and their intrerst.<br />How can you know all these information !?<br />Through a simple questionnaire.<br />Why these information are needed !?<br />These information can help you to know your students’ level,which can help you to choose the level of difficulty of the assignments.<br />Rawia al-jehani<br />
Secondthing is:<br />Starting to explain the process of translation and the criteria of good translation.<br /> Should be analyzed. Should be evaluated.<br />Source language<br />SL<br />Target language<br />TL<br />Rawia al-jehani<br />
Some of the most important points your students should know about the translation subject:<br />1-Translation is for communication.<br />2- The content of the text is what needs to be translated, not the form.<br />3- Dictionaries have to be used if they have difficult words.<br />4- The grading system should be known from the first lecture.<br />5- All the assignment should be done on the way the teacher asked. <br />Rawia al-jehani<br />
Appropriate level of language.<br />formality, and technically<br />Fulfill the function required by the text in SL.<br />Accuracy.<br />characteristics of a good translation<br />Logic.<br />Appropriate tone .<br />Clarity.<br />On time delivery.<br />Rawia al-jehani<br />
Nunan’s principles for designing language teaching materials:<br /> 1-Materials should be authentic in terms of text and tasks.<br />“ This will help the students when they face the real-world text when they become translators”.<br />2-Materials should encourage interaction in class.<br />“ If the students used to discus translation problems they will think critically in evaluating their translation when they become translator”.<br />Rawia al-jehani<br />
3-Materials should allow learners to focus on formal aspects of the language.<br />“ They should know how to translate in such away that is common for the readers in TL, because audience from different level of education may read their translation”.<br />4-Materials should encourage learners to develop learning skills and skills in learning how-to-learn.<br />“ The class discussion about the assignment provides students with effective translation strategies”.<br />Rawia al-jehani<br />
5-Materials should encourage learners to apply their knowledge to work as translators.<br />“ it is assumed that students will know how to deal with problems of translation after they finish the course”.<br />Rawia al-jehani<br />
The difference between translating and interpreting :<br />“ Translation” is used as a generic term covering both written & spoken messages.<br />“ Translation” means transferring written messages from language to another. <br />“ Interpreting” means transferring spoken messages.<br />Rawia al-jehani<br />
What can you do for clients as <br />a professional translator: <br /> <br />1-Gives them access to documents written in a language they don’t understand.<br />2- Enables them to communicate their views in another language.<br />3-Improve the image of their companies or organizations by producing a professional document that is correct and uses a style and terminology that are appropriate for the target audience. <br />Rawia al-jehani<br />
4- Helps sell their products and services.<br />5- Saves their money by reducing the number of errors in your documents and eliminating delays and the need for expensive patch-up jobs later.<br />-Saves them from the worry and problems that arise from working with non-professional.<br />7 - saves them from possible embarrassment by pointing out any problems in cross-cultural communication<br />Rawia al-jehani<br />
The qualities of a good translation:<br /> <br />1- A sophisticated understanding of a foreign language.<br />” knowing about cultures, fashion and other matters that are considered socially important ”<br />2- An understanding of the topic being translated.<br />3- An ability to transfer ideas expressed in one language into an equally meaningful form in the other language.<br />“ humor humor ” ….. “ tag questions” …<br />Rawia al-jehani<br />
4-An above-average ability to write well in the target language.<br />“ using language appropriate for the topic, science or social, and audience, children or scientists”.<br />5- Broad general knowledge.<br />6- A sound knowledge of the two cultures involved.<br />“ ex: how do you do ?اهلا وسهلا”<br /> “هند فتاة جميلة كالقمر”<br />7- Mental agility.<br /> <br />Rawia al-jehani<br />
8- Sensitivity and attention to details.<br />9- An understanding of specialized terminology in the field of the translation.<br />“Make further research if necessary”<br />10-Training or experience.<br />Rawia al-jehani<br />
Can translators work in both language directions equally well? <br /> <br />It is very rare for a translator to be able to translate written texts equally well in both directions even if both languages are spoken fluently.<br />Writing well, with correct grammar and full expressiveness, required particular skills and greater expertise than spoken fluency.<br />WHY?<br />Rawia al-jehani<br />
If your native language is Arabic and you want to translate <br />EA: you will produce text in the desired style of TL and with less grammatical errors, but you may make mistakes in comprehension SL.<br />AE: It is less likely to make mistakes in comprehension , but it is more likely to make grammatical errors.<br />However, good translation is not impossible<br />But, sometimes it requires familiarity with the field of the topic being translated. <br />Rawia al-jehani<br />
How much you can ask for your translation?<br />Being a professional translator means that you have expertise in the two languages and also have a background in special field such as law, particular area of science or technology.<br />Having all these mean that you have spend long hours reading in that field you specialized in to broad your knowledge or you may have postgraduate level.<br />Beside these, translation work is often highly complex and demanding intellectually and working hours.<br />So, as a translator you should be paid for your work at a level appropriate with your skills, knowledge and training.<br />Rawia al-jehani<br />
The billing unit varies from translator to another. <br />Translators normally charge based on:<br />1-The length of the source text or the length of The target text.<br />2-The subject matter.<br />3-The degree complexity.<br />4-The deadline.<br />5-The country where the translation is made.<br />If you pay in peanuts , expect to get monkeys.<br />Rawia al-jehani<br />
How long translation will take !?<br />It depend on :<br />1- The length of the text .<br />2-Its difficulty ”specialized terms, requires research or editing”.<br />3-The translator ability and familiarity with the topic.<br />4-The translator existing workload.<br />The time varies from a translator to another<br />But, The average is 10 pages a day<br />Rawia al-jehani<br />
Is it acceptable for you as a translator to make changes to the text?<br /><ul><li>Literal word-for word translation often results in a different meaning or nuance, so you should discuss with your client how much freedom you have.
Slight changes are acceptable as long as the intended meaning is conveyed.
Beside the intended meaning, making the text more suitable for the target audience allows slight changes according to the target culture to avoid communication breakdown caused by cultural differences.</li></ul>Rawia al-jehani<br />
Should you offer your translation to be checked !?<br /><ul><li>If the translator does not have a full written competence, the translation is better checked by a native speaker.</li></ul>“This will help eliminate any incorrect, long-winded, awkward expressions and enable parts where the meaning is not conveyed clearly to be written”.<br /><ul><li>Make sure that the checker is provided with the same information as the translator, and he/she should be an experienced translator Beside being a native speaker.
For legal purposes, the translator can provide a notarized statement that the translation is true and accurate to the best of his or her knowledge.</li></ul>Rawia al-jehani<br />
How clients select translator to hire them?<br />The clients select translator on the basis of relevant qualifications and experience, appropriate resources, availability, and cost.<br />1-They keep an eye out for good translations in a related field and they track down the translator . <br />2-They ask potential translators for references or samples of work they have already done (both source &target texts). <br />3-They ask prospective translators do a half-page sample text.<br />4-They make sure of the translator’s abilities through cross-checks and on-going checks.<br />Rawia al-jehani<br />
Working with a translation company:<br /><ul><li>Some clients need to employ a translation companies, because translation companies offer additional services and quality control, and have the facilities to provide camera-ready artwork and can handle large volumes, tight deadlines and complex or unusual subjects.
some translation companies rely on both freelance and in-house translators.
It is recommended to be consistent in working with a specific company for the translator and the client.</li></ul>Rawia al-jehani<br />
what are the things which the client should provide the translator with before starting the work:<br />The more preparation and corporation a person does with his /her translator, the better the outcome is:<br />Before assigning the work to a translator<br />1-Take care that the original text is written clearly.<br /> “it is impossible to translate something doesn't make sense into something does make sense”.<br />2-Don’t send a document till the translator is available.<br />3-Show the translator the actual document in advance.<br />4-Provide clearly legible text (not a handwritten copy).<br />5- If the material is to be published, agree on who will do the proofreading.<br />Rawia al-jehani<br />
B) Information to provide the translator:<br />1- Inform your translator on the purpose of the translation (whether it is for information, publication) and intended readers( Americans, British).<br />2- Mark any sections that are not to be translated.<br />3- Provide the translator with as much background material as possible ( relevant web site).<br />4- Inform the translator of any particular style that should be followed( in-house style or the style of existing documents).<br />5- Inform the translator fully on any particular format. <br />Rawia al-jehani<br />
6- Inform the translator of any software requirements(word-processing).<br />7- Provide enough context (not a list of isolated items or an extract from a text).<br />8- Provide any drawings, illustrations, table or graphs that may help explain the rest of the text( even if not to be translated).<br />9- Give the name and the number of a contact person in case the translator needs to clarify something.<br />10- Let the translator know if the source text and the reference material should be returned. <br />Rawia al-jehani<br />
C) Deadlines and financial arrangements:<br />1-Allow enough time in the documentation schedule for translation.<br />2-Agree on a realistic deadline before the translator starts working.<br />3-The translator may be better paid for the time involved, and not for the length.<br />4-Decide whether the translation is for information purposes only or publication, and assign the budget accordingly.<br />5-Agree on financial arrangements in advance.<br />Rawia al-jehani<br />
D) General tips:<br />1-Understand that if translators ask you questions, it does not mean they are incompetent. It is indication of a professional attitude.<br />2- Don’t try to save by asking your translator to compromise on quality.<br />3- Beware of splitting large jobs between several different translators.<br />4- Be willing to give feedback once the job has been completed to the translator so he can learn from his mistakes.<br /> <br />Rawia al-jehani<br />
format qualifications for translators:<br /> <br />Qualified translators are one of the following:<br />1- Those who have studied translation courses academically.<br />“ they have sounder grasp of translation than novices without any training, but they may still lack the experience “<br />2-Those who have professional and technical background.<br />3-Those who pass the accreditation test.<br />“It depends on the reliability of the testing methodology”<br />4- Those who have experience in a particular field in which s/he has a good reputation of being a qualified translator.<br />Rawia al-jehani<br />
Translator ethics<br /> <br />commitment towards:<br />1-Himself “to develop his knowledge and skills”.<br />2- His client “not to undertake work beyond his ability unless he inform the client”.<br />3- His work ”to be responsible for the quality of his work”.<br />4- His audience ”to be neutral and accurate”.<br />5- His career's probity ”not to disclose any information existed in his work”.<br />Rawia al-jehani<br />
Is machine translation a viable alternative?<br /><ul><li>Machine translation packages can sometimes serve a simple purpose by providing a very rough idea of the document.</li></ul> <br /><ul><li>Using machine translation requires extensive pre-editing and post-editing by human experts.</li></ul>Rawia al-jehani<br />
Rawia al-jehani<br />Electronic Tools for Translators in the 21st Century<br /><ul><li>Computer-Assisted Translation (CAT) software is helpful to translators, since it speeds up the translation process.
The translator has to consider the software licenses restricting the use of the program and its cost. </li></li></ul><li>Accordingly, the programs are one of the following types: <br />1-Commercial software is computer software sold for commercial purposes.<br />2-Free software can be used, copied, studied, modified, and redistributed without restriction. ‘free’ of ‘freedom’ and not ‘free of charge’.<br />3-Freeware ‘free of charge’ copyrighted computer software which made available for use free of charge for an unlimited time.<br />4-Shareware (opposes freeware) the user has to pay after some trial period (usually no longer than 30 days. <br />Rawia al-jehani<br />
CAT technology is either:<br />electronic tools.<br />Or other useful software packages.<br />Electronic tools used for translation are nine:<br />word possessors.<br />electronic dictionaries.<br /> tools for the internet.<br />image editors.<br /> CAT tool.<br />PDF tools.<br />desktop publishing tools.<br /> proofreading tools.<br /> tools for freelance translators.<br />Rawia al-jehani<br />
The most popular word possessors are Microsoft Word and Open Office Writer.</li></ul>Rawia al-jehani<br />
2- Electronic Dictionaries and Encyclopedias<br /> <br /><ul><li>Electronic dictionaries have the advantage of speed and convenience of lookup, and popularity over their printed counterparts.
They show three fields: pronunciation, function, and etymology </li></ul> <br /><ul><li>Examples of Oxford or Collins CD-ROM, Merriam-Webster’s ,Online Dictionary.</li></ul> .<br /><ul><li>The best electronic encyclopedia is Wikipedia containing up-to-date articles written be people from all around the world.</li></ul> <br />Rawia al-jehani<br />
3-Tools for the Internet<br /> <br />a- Web Browser<br /> <br /><ul><li>The Internet is a World Wide Web, a network of sites that can be searched and retrieved by a special protocol know as Hyper Text Transfer Protocol (HTTP).
In order to surf through these sites, it is necessary to use a web explorer known as “browser”
The most popular browsers are Internet Explorer ,Mozilla Firefox ,Opera .
Web browsers allow the user :</li></ul>1- to do searches in Google or Wikipedia.<br />2- to load Web pages in separate tabs of a single browser window to jump between them quickly and easily.<br /> <br />Rawia al-jehani<br />
b) E-mail Software<br /> <br /><ul><li>Most Internet users use free webmail e-mail services such as Hotmail, Yahoo.
To keep track of inbox messages, it is better to use an email application like Microsoft Outlook, commercial).
E-mail software allow the user </li></ul>1- to retrieve emails from a remote server<br />2- to download messages from webmail accounts<br /> <br />Rawia al-jehani<br />
c) Search Engines<br /> <br /><ul><li>Translators frequently need to research topics to overcome their lack of knowledge in a specific field through search engines like Google or AltaVista .
Search engines use Boolean operators to search the selected terms through the web</li></ul> <br />d) Specialized Databases<br /><ul><li>A lot of information, that cannot be retrieved by search engines, can be retrieved by “Invisible Web” or specialized database.
Some medical and scientific online database are the Web of Knowledge.</li></ul>Rawia al-jehani<br />
e) Chats and Other Online Communication Systems<br /> <br /><ul><li>Translators can be exchange ideas and opinions in the real time with other translators or specialists, and they can be in touch with clients.
e.g MSN Messenger or Gaim</li></ul>f) Blogs:<br /><ul><li>A blog can be created by following easy steps in a free weblog publishing system as Blogger after which a person can talk about any topic and can publish.
Among the blogs from which translators can get some recommendations as translation notes.</li></ul>Rawia al-jehani<br />
4- Image Editors:<br /><ul><li>Translators are expected to have some basic skills in order to undertake a translation job which deal with graphics.
They should be aware of the existence of image editors such as Photoshop, Pain Shop Pro, Photo Filtre , and The GIMP.</li></ul>Rawia al-jehani<br />
The most popular translation memory system is SDL Trados.
Other cheaper ones are Wordfast, and DéjàVu.</li></ul> B) Terminology Tools:<br /> <br /><ul><li>For terminological consistency, terminologists may use term-extraction and concordance tools such as WordSmith Tools , TextStat and AntConc .</li></ul> <br />Rawia al-jehani<br />
C) Web Localization Tools<br /> <br /><ul><li>To have a multilingual website, translators are advised to become familiar with tools for web localization such as the HTML editors like Dreamweaver and NVU .
Such tools preserve the original layout by avoiding any modification.
Other CAT tools may also allow the user to see both the source and the target texts at the same time and preview the translation in the browser is a reference for CAT tools for web localization</li></ul>Rawia al-jehani<br />
D) Software Localization Tools<br /> <br /><ul><li>In order to translate software, it is necessary to deal with localization tools to extract or edit the menu, window and message strings in a single resource file.
The leading CAT tools for software localization are Alchemy Catalyst and Passolo commercial)</li></ul> <br />Rawia al-jehani<br />
E) Subtitling Tools<br /> <br /><ul><li>Many young translators prefer translating a film through subtitling than a legal contract.
Many subtitlers subtitle TV shows and spread them over the internet, while others code software programs to subtitle TV series to get some feedbacks from other subtitlers via forums.
Such software programs are VisualSubSync, Sabbu ,Aegisub ,and SSA Tool.</li></ul>Rawia al-jehani<br />
F) Machine Translation Systems<br /> <br /><ul><li>Nowadays, machine translation produces good-quality results with simple texts or texts with controlled language such weather forecasts.
However, some editing is still required before and after processing a text in a machine translation system.
There are many free online machine translation systems such as Altavista’s Babelfish Systran and Power Translator.</li></ul>Rawia al-jehani<br />
6- PDF Tools (Portable Document Format):<br /> <br />PDF files can never be modified, so there is no risk of losing the format when different version of the same software is used.<br /> <br />A) PDF Readers:<br /> <br /><ul><li>The PDF reader is Acrobat Reader.Another PDF reader is Foxit Reader. </li></ul> <br />B) PDF Creators:<br /> <br /><ul><li>To produce PDF files, PDF creators can be installed as “virtual printers”
Such PDF creators are Acrobat Professional and PDFCreator. </li></ul>C) PDF Converters:<br /> <br /><ul><li>To edit a PDF file, it needs to be converted by a converter to a Word document.
Good converters are Solid Converter and ABBYY PDF Transformer.</li></ul>Rawia al-jehani<br />
D) PDF Editors:<br /> <br /><ul><li>Converting a PDF file to a Word document may not maintain the same quality.
Thus, PDF editors can be used to edit PDF files directly, preserving the original layout.
PDF editor is Foxit PDF Editors. </li></ul> <br /> <br />7- Desktop Publishing Tools:<br /> <br /><ul><li>As opposed to Word Processors, which are used to write documents, Desktop Publishing tools (DTP) are used to design a stylish layout for a journal or magazine.
The translator does not necessarily need to know how to create a document from scratch, but s/he will be benefited from having the DTP skills.
The best-known DTP tools are FrameMaker (InDesign QuarkXPress and Scribus.</li></ul>Rawia al-jehani<br />
8- Proofreading Tools:<br /> <br /><ul><li>Proofreading is a process which focus on the correction of errors such as misspellings or typos and mistakes in grammar and punctuation.
PDF proofreading tools are Highlight Tool and the Strikethrough Tool.
Other cheaper alternatives are Foxit Reader Pro Jaws PDF Editors and Bluebeam Revu.</li></ul>Rawia al-jehani<br />
9- Tools for Freelance Translators:<br /> <br />A) Billing Software:<br /> <br /><ul><li>Before attempting a freelance job, it is advisable to know the price the translator will charge.
Among the billing software that can help to manage translation invoices are BillQuick ,Freeside, and FactuSol</li></ul> <br /> <br />B) Internet Fax Services:<br /><ul><li>Windows comes with a fax service that uses a modem to send fax.
Another source fax service is though the Internet like InterFAX, FaxZero or TrusFax.</li></ul>Rawia al-jehani<br />
Other Useful Software Packages<br /> <br />There are three other useful software packages which come handy when using the computer: anti-malware software, file compressors/decompressors, and miscellaneous tools<br /> <br />1-Anti-malware Software<br /> <br />Malicious software is designed to infiltrate computers.It includes computer viruses, worms, Trojan horses, spyware and adware.<br /> <br />A) Antivirus Software<br /> <br /><ul><li>It is important to install an antivirus program to detect and eliminate computer viruses.
The best antivirus software packages include AVP ,Norton Antivirus ,McAfee Antivirus, AntiVir ,and AVG.</li></ul>Rawia al-jehani<br />
B) Anti-spyware Software<br /> <br /><ul><li>The most popular software used to fight spyware is Ad-aware
There are two other alternatives such as SpyBotSeach & Destroy and Spyware Terminator </li></ul> <br />C) Firewalls <br /> <br /><ul><li>A firewall is a piece of software that tracks every attempt to access a computer and asks its user to grant permission to execute something when software receives data from the Internet.
It perfectly works together with antivirus software to block online viruses.
Examples of firewalls are ZoneAlarm , Kerio and NetDefender.</li></ul>Rawia al-jehani<br />
2-File Compressors/Decompressors<br /> <br /><ul><li>File compressors reduce the file size depending on the file type to be able to send and receive the file on the Internet.
Compression file formats are zip, rar, ace,7z.</li></ul>The most popular file compressor is WinZip.<br /><ul><li>Other alternatives are WinRAR , 7Zip,ALZip and IZArc.</li></ul> <br />Rawia al-jehani<br />
3-Miscellaneous Tools<br /> <br /><ul><li>Miscellaneous tools are other useful tools for translators:</li></ul> <br /><ul><li>Search and Replace Tools: InfoRapid Search & Replace and Actual Search & Replace.
Screen Capture Tools: WinSnap ,MWSnap and Snaglt.
References:<br />Nunan, David.(1988).Principles for designing Language teaching materials.Guidelines,10,1-24.<br />Samudra, juliaEkaRini P.(1993).Proposed Guidelines for Translation Instructors of the Sarjana Program at English Departments. Unpublished thesis ,IKIP Malang.<br />Suryawinatat, Zuchridin.(1989).Terjemahan:TeoridanPrakta: DepartmenPendidikandanKebudayaan.<br />http://www.skaau.com/vb/showthread.php?t=130601.<br />Rawia al-jehani<br />