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AI: A Begining

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AI: A Begining

  1. 1. Artificial Intelligence: Just a Beginning
  2. 2. Intelligence is the ability to learn about, to learn from, to understand about, and interact with one’s environment. Intelligence is not to make no mistakes but quickly to understand how to make them good. ...A German Poet… What is Intelligence???
  3. 3. Artificial Intelligence (AI) The branch of computer science which aims to create machines with “intelligence” or making intelligence machines. Basis of field is that “intelligence” can be described by a machine. Which raises many philosophical questions. What is Artificial Intelligence?
  4. 4. How Does AI Works?? Artificial intelligence works with the help of •Artificial Neurons (Artificial Neural Network) And •Scientific theorems(If- Then Statements, Logics)
  5. 5.  Artificial neural networks are composed of interconnecting artificial neurons (programming, that mimic the properties of biological neurons). What is Neural Networking??
  6. 6. Dendrites: Accepts Inputs Soma: Processes the Inputs Axon: Turns the processed inputs into outputs Synapses: The electrochemical contact between neurons
  7. 7. 7 An Artificial Neuron: A sample W1 W2 W3 Wn ∑ f X1 X2 X3 Xn SynapsesDendrites Body (Soma) Axon Output (y)
  8. 8. We are building intelligence in an object so that it can do what we want it to do, as for example-- robots, thus reducing human labor and reducing human mistakes . Why we Need Artificial intelligence
  9. 9. PROSPECTOR: Used by geologists to identify sites for drilling or mining PUFF: Medical system for diagnosis of respi-ratory conditions Applications of AI
  10. 10. LITHIAN: Gives advice to archaeologists examining stone tools DENDRAL: Used to identify the structure of chemical compounds. First used in 1965
  11. 11. Robots ASIMO (Advanced Step in Innovative Mobility) Created by Honda Motor Company in 1986… A machine resembling a human being and able to replicate certain human movements and functions.
  12. 12. Laws of Robotics Isaac Asimov wrote a set of three rules in his classic I, Robot which all robots must obey:  A robot may not injure a human being or, through inaction, allow a human being to come to harm.  A robot must obey orders given to it by human beings, except where such orders would conflict with the First Law.  A robot must protect its own existence as long as such protection does not conflict with the First or Second Law.
  13. 13. Impact of AI  Decreased demand for human labor  Enhancement of human ability or experience  Redefinition of human identity and basic values (e.g. intelligence)  …………….
  14. 14. Awareness: AI in Fiction Movies Servants: Star Wars (R2D2) Comrade: Star Trek Lt. Commander Data Extension of Human Abilities: Ghost in the Shell Conqueror: The Matrix A Race: Starcraft Self Intelligence :I Robot Feelings*: Robocop
  15. 15. Man :Machine Several futurists argue that artificial intelligence will transcend the limits of progress and human intelligence. This idea is based on Moore’s Law (1965- 2007):  Relentless exponential improvement in digital technology with mysterious accuracy.
  16. 16. Gordon Moore’s Law  This law predicts that desktop computers will have the same processing power as human brains by the year 2029.  2045: AI will reach a point where it is able to improve itself at a rate that far exceeds anything in the past.
  17. 17. Man + Machine: Cyborgs Several futurists believe that human beings and robots will merge to create cyborgs more capable and powerful than either. This idea is called trans-humanism. RoboCop
  18. 18. 18 Difference Between Humans and Machines Humans (and animals) use prior knowledge to deal with sensory input. The process involves a complex of bottom-up and top-down processes. It is hard to develop algorithms for a barely understood process. Certainly, we cannot match human behavior by a machine, unless the machine has prior knowledge of its environment.
  19. 19. 19 The Big Obstacle to General AI We have too little knowledge of how the brain works, especially how context is conditional and brought into play. Adding more CPU power helps only if we understand the problem (as in the case of chess), so general advances in computing are not likely to help. Once we accept that humans and computers are fundamentally different machines we should not try to imitate the way humans solve a problem.
  20. 20. Human Intelligence & Artificial Intelligence
  21. 21. Human Intelligence & Artificial Intelligence Human Intelligence Intuition, Common sense, Judgment, Creativity, Beliefs etc The ability to demonstrate their intelligence by communicating effectively Plausible Reasoning and Critical thinking Artificial Intelligence Ability to simulate human behavior and cognitive processes Capture and preserve human expertise Fast Response. The ability to comprehend large amounts of data quickly. Pros
  22. 22. • Humans are fallible • They have limited knowledge bases • Information processing of serial nature proceed very slowly in the brain as compared to computers Humans are unable to retain large amounts of data in memory. No “common sense” Cannot readily deal with “mixed” knowledge May have high development costs Raise legal and ethical concerns Human Intelligence & Artificial Intelligence Human Intelligence Artificial Intelligence Cons
  23. 23. Human Intelligence VS Artificial Intelligence We achieve more than we know. We know more than we understand. We understand more than we can explain……Claude Bernard, French scientific philosopher
  24. 24. Final Perspective For Humans Intelligence is no more than TAKING a right decision at right time And For Machines Artificial Intelligence is no more than CHOOSING a right decision at right time I think Artificial intelligence is the Second intelligence ever to exist
  25. 25. The special ability of artificial intelligence is to reach a solution, based on facts rather than on a preset series of steps—is what most closely resembles the thinking function of the human brain. Conclusion AI is Close to Human Brain
  26. 26. Thank You Our Attempt To Build Models Of Ourselves. Elaine Rich
  27. 27. Be Not Afraid Of Falling Be Afraid Of Not Trying
  28. 28. ASIMO capabilities Recognition of moving objects Recognition of posture and gesture Environmental recognition Distinguishing sounds Facial Recognition
  29. 29. ASIMO capabilities in detail  The robot can follow and greet a person  Can recognize when a handshake is offered and wave in back to someone  Can distinguish objects and terrain in its environment  Distinguish between voices and other sounds  Identify 10 different faces and once they are registered they can respond to them by name
  30. 30. Pros  It can do tedious chores that take up a lot of time  Help the elderly and disabled  Can perform certain tasks that are dangerous to humans  Productivity can increase Cons  People fear that robot will take over their job  Less personal communication  Fear that robots will take over human activity
  31. 31. Current Work  Inspiring young scientist  Education  it can be an extra set of hands, ears, eyes for humans  Make it more affordable than its one million price currently
  32. 32. Reference Page "ASIMO." Wilipedia, the free encyclopedia. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/asimo>. "Honda- The Power of Dreams." 2008. American Honda Motor Company. 15 Nov. 2008 <http://www.honda.com/power-of-dreams/#home>. Obringer, Lee A., and Jonathan Strickland. "How ASIMO works." How Stuff Works. <http:/http://science.howstuffworks.com/asimo5.htm>.

Notes de l'éditeur

  • First LAW (1965): That the number of transistors the industry would be able to place on a computer microchip would double every year.
  • The important aspects of human intelligence seem to following the use of intuition, common sense, judgment, creativity, goal directedness, plausible reasoning, knowledge and beliefs.
    Meaning of intelligence is not human brain’s information processing ability but the ability of humans to demonstrate their intelligence by communicating effectively.