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BIOMECHANICS OF HIP

PRESENTER : DR. SUDHEER KUMAR
POST GRADUATE IN ORTHOPAEDICS
NARAYANA MEDICAL COLLEGE
INTRODUCTION
BIOMECHANICS – Science that deals with the
study of forces (internal or external ) acting on
the living body
HIP - Mobile as well as stable
• Strong bones

• Powerful muscles
• Strongest ligaments
• Depth of acetabulum , narrowing ...
The Neck of Femur
• Angulated in relation to the shaft in 2 planes :
sagittal & coronal
• Neck Shaft angle
– 140 deg at bi...
Acetabular Direction
• long axis of acetabulum points
– forwards : 15-200
ante version
– 450 inferior inclination
ante ver...
Axis of lower limb
 Mechanical axis line passes
between center of hip joint
and center of ankle joint.
 Anatomic axis li...
Biomechanics- HIP
• First order lever

fulcrum (hip joint)
forces on either side of fulcrum
i.e, body weight & abductor te...
Biomechanics
To maintain stable hip, torques produced by the body weight is
countered by abductor muscles pull.
Abductor ...
Biomechanics
• Forces acting across hip
joint
 Body weight
 Abductor muscles
force
 Joint reaction force
Joint reaction force
defined as force generated within a joint in response to forces
acting on the joint
in the hip, it ...
Coupled forces:
Certain joints move in such a way that rotation
about one axis is accompanied by an
obligatory rotation ab...
Instant centre of rotation:
• Point at which a joint rotates
• Normally lies on a line perpendicular to the
tangent of the...
Centre of gravity
• Wts. of the objects act through the centre of
gravity.
• In humans  just anterior to S2
Forces across the hip joint in
two leg stance
• L.L constitute 2/6 (1/6 + 1/6), and U.L & trunk constitute 4/6
the total b...
Single leg stance - Right
• Rt. LL supports the body wt & also the Lt
LL’s i.e. 5/6th total body wt.
• Effective Centre of...
Single leg stance - Right
• Rt. LL supports the body wt & also the Lt
LL’s i.e. 5/6th total body wt.
• Effective Centre of...
USE OF CANE / WALKING STICK
• It creates an additional force that keeps the pelvis level in the face
of gravity's tendency...
USE OF CANE / WALKING STICK
Cane and Limp
• Both decrease the force exerted
by the body wt on the loaded
hip
• Cane: transmits part of the
body wt to ...
TRENDELENBURG SIGN
Stand on LEFT leg—if RIGHT hip
drops, then it's a + LEFT
Trendelenburg

The contralateral side drops
be...
1

2

normal
affected
Biomechanics in neck deformities :
Coxa valga
•
Increased neck shaft angle
•

GT is at lower level

•

Shortened abductor ...
Coxa valga
Resultant force R is
more than a normal hip
Coxa Vara
• Decreased neck shaft angle
• GT is higher than normal
• Increased abductor lever arm
• Abductor muscle length ...
Coxa Vara

Resultant force R is less than
a normal hip
WITH WEIGHT GAIN
• Abductor muscular forces are to be increased to counteract
body wt
• Increased joint forces across the ...
Biomechanics of THR
Principle – to decrease joint reaction force
• Centralization of femoral head by deepening of Acetabul...
Joint reaction forces are minimal if hip centre placed in
anatomical position
Adjustment of neck length is important as it...
Offsets………
• Vertical Ht (offset)
Determined by the Base length
of the Prosthetic neck and
length gained by the head
• Horizontal Offset
(Medial offset) center of the head
to the axis of the stem
IF……….
• Medial offset is inadequate  shortens the moment arm 
limp, increase bony impingement
• Excessive medial offset...
• In regular THR , the Femoral component must be inserted
in the same orientation as the femoral neck to achieve the
rotat...
HEAD DIAMETER

• Large diameter head compared to Small head

– Less prone for dislocation
– Range of motion is more
• Femoral components available with a fixed neck shaft angle 135º
• Restoration of the neck in ante version - 10-15º

– In...
Hip biomechanics
Hip biomechanics
Hip biomechanics
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Hip biomechanics

Biomechanics of Hip in normal,one leg stance,with cane,THR

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Hip biomechanics

  1. 1. BIOMECHANICS OF HIP PRESENTER : DR. SUDHEER KUMAR POST GRADUATE IN ORTHOPAEDICS NARAYANA MEDICAL COLLEGE
  2. 2. INTRODUCTION BIOMECHANICS – Science that deals with the study of forces (internal or external ) acting on the living body
  3. 3. HIP - Mobile as well as stable • Strong bones • Powerful muscles • Strongest ligaments • Depth of acetabulum , narrowing of mouth by acetabular labrum • Length and obliquity of neck of femur • MOBILITY is due to the long neck which is narrower than the diameter of the head
  4. 4. The Neck of Femur • Angulated in relation to the shaft in 2 planes : sagittal & coronal • Neck Shaft angle – 140 deg at birth – 120-135 deg in adult • Ante version – Anteverted 40 deg at birth – 12-15 deg in adults
  5. 5. Acetabular Direction • long axis of acetabulum points – forwards : 15-200 ante version – 450 inferior inclination ante version
  6. 6. Axis of lower limb  Mechanical axis line passes between center of hip joint and center of ankle joint.  Anatomic axis line is between tip of greater trochanter to center of knee joint.  Angle formed between these two is around 70
  7. 7. Biomechanics- HIP • First order lever fulcrum (hip joint) forces on either side of fulcrum i.e, body weight & abductor tension
  8. 8. Biomechanics To maintain stable hip, torques produced by the body weight is countered by abductor muscles pull. Abductor force X lever arm1 = weight X leverarm2
  9. 9. Biomechanics • Forces acting across hip joint  Body weight  Abductor muscles force  Joint reaction force
  10. 10. Joint reaction force defined as force generated within a joint in response to forces acting on the joint in the hip, it is the result of the need to balance the moment arms of the body weight and abductor tension maintains a level pelvis Joint reaction force -2W during SLR - 3W in single leg stance -5W in walking -10W while running
  11. 11. Coupled forces: Certain joints move in such a way that rotation about one axis is accompanied by an obligatory rotation about another axis & these movements are coupled Joint congruence – the proper fit of two articular surfaces, necessary for joint motion
  12. 12. Instant centre of rotation: • Point at which a joint rotates • Normally lies on a line perpendicular to the tangent of the joint surface at all points of contact
  13. 13. Centre of gravity • Wts. of the objects act through the centre of gravity. • In humans  just anterior to S2
  14. 14. Forces across the hip joint in two leg stance • L.L constitute 2/6 (1/6 + 1/6), and U.L & trunk constitute 4/6 the total body wt • Little or no muscular forces required to maintain equilibrium in 2 leg stance • Body wt is equally distributed across both hips • Each hip carries 1/3rd body weight – (4/6 = 2/3 = 1/3 + 1/3)
  15. 15. Single leg stance - Right • Rt. LL supports the body wt & also the Lt LL’s i.e. 5/6th total body wt. • Effective Centre of gravity shifts to the non-supportive leg (L) & produces downward force to tilt pelvis • Rt .abductors must exert a downward counter balancing force with right hip joint acting as a fulcrum. 4/6 +1/6 =5/6 Typical levels for single leg stance are 3W, corresponding to a level ratio of 2.5. i.e. Body wt acts eccentrically on the hip and tends to tilt the pelvis in adduction ---- balanced by the abductors
  16. 16. Single leg stance - Right • Rt. LL supports the body wt & also the Lt LL’s i.e. 5/6th total body wt. • Effective Centre of gravity shifts to the non-supporting leg(L) & produces downward force to tilt pelvis • Rt. abductors must exert a downward counter balancing force with right hip joint acting as a fulcrum. i.e. Body wt acts eccentrically on the hip and tends to tilt the pelvis in adduction ---- balanced by the abductors 4/6 +1/6 =5/6 Typical levels for single leg stance are 3W, corresponding to a level ratio of 2.5.
  17. 17. USE OF CANE / WALKING STICK • It creates an additional force that keeps the pelvis level in the face of gravity's tendency to adduct the hip during unilateral stance. • decreases the moment arm between the center of gravity and the femoral head(R) • The cane's force must substitute for the hip abductors. • Long distance from the centre of hip to contralateral hand offers excellent mechanical advantage
  18. 18. USE OF CANE / WALKING STICK
  19. 19. Cane and Limp • Both decrease the force exerted by the body wt on the loaded hip • Cane: transmits part of the body wt to the ground thereby decreasing the muscular force required for balancing • Limping shortens the body lever arm by shifting the centre of gravity to the loaded hip
  20. 20. TRENDELENBURG SIGN Stand on LEFT leg—if RIGHT hip drops, then it's a + LEFT Trendelenburg The contralateral side drops because the ipsilateral hip abductors do not stabilize the pelvis to prevent the droop.
  21. 21. 1 2 normal affected
  22. 22. Biomechanics in neck deformities : Coxa valga • Increased neck shaft angle • GT is at lower level • Shortened abductor lever arm • Body wt arm remains same • Increased joint forces in hip during one leg stance • Less muscle force required to keep pelvis horizontal
  23. 23. Coxa valga Resultant force R is more than a normal hip
  24. 24. Coxa Vara • Decreased neck shaft angle • GT is higher than normal • Increased abductor lever arm • Abductor muscle length is shortened • Decreased joint forces across the hip during one leg stance • Higher muscle force is required to keep pelvis horizontal
  25. 25. Coxa Vara Resultant force R is less than a normal hip
  26. 26. WITH WEIGHT GAIN • Abductor muscular forces are to be increased to counteract body wt • Increased joint forces across the joint leading to increased degeneration • Rationale of decreasing body wt in OA – decrease in body wt force & hence abductor force required to counter balance  decreasing joint reaction forces across that hip
  27. 27. Biomechanics of THR Principle – to decrease joint reaction force • Centralization of femoral head by deepening of Acetabulum - decreases body wt lever arm • Increase in neck length and Lateral reattachment of trochanter - lengthens abductor lever arm • This decreases abductor force, hence joint reaction force, & so the wear of the implants.
  28. 28. Joint reaction forces are minimal if hip centre placed in anatomical position Adjustment of neck length is important as it has effect on both medial offset & vertical offset
  29. 29. Offsets……… • Vertical Ht (offset) Determined by the Base length of the Prosthetic neck and length gained by the head
  30. 30. • Horizontal Offset (Medial offset) center of the head to the axis of the stem
  31. 31. IF………. • Medial offset is inadequate  shortens the moment arm  limp, increase bony impingement • Excessive medial offset – dislocation, increases stress on stem & cement  stress # or loosening
  32. 32. • In regular THR , the Femoral component must be inserted in the same orientation as the femoral neck to achieve the rotational stability . • Modular component in which stem is rotated independently of the metaphyseal portion • Anatomical stems have a few degrees of ante version built into the neck
  33. 33. HEAD DIAMETER • Large diameter head compared to Small head – Less prone for dislocation – Range of motion is more
  34. 34. • Femoral components available with a fixed neck shaft angle 135º • Restoration of the neck in ante version - 10-15º – Increased ante version  anterior dislocation – Increased retroversion  posterior dislocation • Cup placed in 150-200 of ante version and 450 of inclination

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