2. ⚫People think-that’s obvious.
⚫Human are rational beings &our rationality consists in our
abilityto think &reason.
⚫It is because of our capacity for better thinking that we are
superior to other animals in learning &in making
⚫During most of our waking hours, &even when we are
asleep &dreaming, we are thinking,What are you thinking
about right now
3. ⚫Thinking is an activity concerning ideas,symbolic in character
initiated by a problemor taskwhichthe individual isfacing,
involving some trial &error but under the directing influence of that
problem &ultimatelyleading to aconclusion or solution of the
⚫Thinking is the organization &reorganization of current learning in
the present circumstances with the help of learning &past
⚫Thinking is the perceptual relationship which provides for the
solution ofthe problem.
4. ⚫It is essentially acognitive activity
⚫It is alwaysdirected to achieve some end or purpose.
⚫It is described asa problem-solving behavior.
⚫It is asymbolic activity
⚫It is mental exploration instead of motor
⚫It can shift veryrapidly
⚫It is internal activity
5. 1. Perceptual or concrete thinking
2. Conceptual or abstract thinking
3. Creative thinking
4. Logical thinking/ reasoning
5. Problem solving
6. ConvergentVs Divergent thinking
6. ⚫Simplest form
⚫It is based on perception.
⚫Perception is the process of interpretation of sensation
⚫It isalsocalled concrete thinking
7. ⚫It does not require the perception of actual objects or events.
⚫It is also called abstract thinkingas it makes the use of
concepts or abstract ideas.
⚫It is superior to perceptual thinking'sasit economizes efforts
in understanding&helps in discovery&invention.
⚫It is multidimensional thinking with ability to
⚫Languageplaysan important part in
8. ⚫It refers to the abilityfor original thinking,
to create or discover somethingnew
⚫It is the abilityto integrate the variouselements of the
situationinto aharmoniouswhole to create somethingnovel.
⚫In other words, cognitiveactivity directed towardssome
creative work refers to creative thinking.
⚫Creativethinkers are great boons to the societyasthey enrich
⚫The creative thinker triesto achieve somethingnew
10. ⚫It is the cognitiveprocess of looking for reasons for beliefs,
conclusion,actions or feelings.
⚫It is the process of drawingconclusions based on evidence.
⚫It is form ofcontrolled thinkingin which the thought process
is directed consciouslytowards the solutionsof aproblem.
⚫Reasoningis the highest form of thinkingto find out causes&
⚫Anindividual tries to solveaproblem by
incorporating two or more aspects ofhis past
11. ⚫It is atool, skill &aprocess.
⚫It is atool because it can help you solve an immediate problem or
to achieve agoal.
⚫It isa skill becauseonceyou have learnt it you canuseit
repeatedly,like the ability to ride abicycle, add numbers or speak a
⚫It is also aprocess because it involve taking anumber of steps.
oucan engage in problem solving if you want to reach agoal &
experience obstacles on the way
⚫At the point at which you come up against abarrier you can engage
in aproblem solving process to help you achieve your goal.
⚫Every time you use aproblem solving process, you are increasing
your problem solving skill.
⚫Aseven-step problem solving cycles;
1. Identify the problem
2. Explore the problem
3. Set goals
4. Look at alternatives
5. Select apossible solution
6. Implement apossible solution
14. ⚫Divergent thinking starts from acommon point &moves
outward into avariety of perspectives.Eg;teachers use the
content asavehicleto prompt diverseor unique thinking
amongstudents rather than acommon view.
16. ⚫It involve recall of facts, principles &terms in the
forms in which theyare learned.
⚫Keywords:who,what,when, omit, where, which,
choose, find, how,define, label, show,spell, list,
match, name, relate, tell, recall, select.
⚫Eg;When did --------------------------happen?
Which one ?
17. ⚫It represent the lowest form of understanding.
⚫The student knowswhat is being communicated without relating it
to other material or seeing it in itsfullest meaning.
⚫It demonstrates understanding of facts &ideas byorganizing,
comparing, translating, interpreting, giving descriptions &stating
⚫Keywords:Compare, contrast, demonstrate, interpret, explain,
extend, illustrate, infer, outline, relate, rephrase, translate,
⚫ Eg;What facts or ideasshow-------------?
Whichis the best answer---------- ?
18. ⚫It involve the use of abstractions in concrete situation such as
nursing or other specific situations.
⚫It is solving problems byapplying acquired knowledge, facts,
techniques &rules in adifferent way
⚫Keywords: apply,build, choose,construct develop,interview,
make use of, organize, experiment with plan, select,solve,
utilize, model, identify
⚫Eg;What would result if--------------?
Can you make use of the facts to--------?
19. ⚫It is examining &breaking information into parts byidentifying
motivesor causes; makinginferences&findingevidenceto
⚫Keywords:analyze,categorize, compare, contrast, discover,
dissect, divide, examine, inspect, simplify,survey,takepart in,
test for, distinguish, list, distinction, theme, relationships,
function, motive, inferences, assumption, conclusion.
⚫ Eg;What are keyparts or features of-------------?
What motive is there-----------------?
What evidence can you find---------------?
20. ⚫It is compiling information together in adifferent wayby
combining element in anew pattern or proposing alternative
⚫Keywords:build, choose,combine,compile, compose, construct,
create, design, develop,estimate, formulate, imagine, invent,
makeup,originate, plan, predict, propose, solve solution etc.
⚫ Eg; Can you propose an alternative-----------?
Can you formulate atheoryfor-----------?
What facts can you compile-----------?
21. ⚫It is presenting &defending opinion bymaking judgment about
information, validity of ideas or quality of work based on aset of
⚫Keywords: award,choose, conclude, criticize, decide, defend,
determine, evaluate, judge, justify
, measure, compare, mark,
rate, recommend, prioritize, prove, disprove etc.
⚫ Eg;What is your opinion of--------------?
Would it be better if---------------?
How would you rate the-----------------?
23. DEFINATION OF REASONING
⚫Reasoningis step-wise thinking with apurpose or
goal in mind.
-(Garrett - 1968)
⚫Reasoningis combining past experience in order to
solveaproblem whichcannot be solvedbymere
reproduction of earlier solutions.
-(Mann - 1967)
24. NATURE OF REASONING
⚫It is aform of logical thinking
⚫It is characterized by rigid control that keeps it in
close contact with reality
⚫It is alwaysdirected towards the achievement of a
⚫Reasoningdoes not occur unless a question has
arisen for which there is no readyanswer.