2. Need of Research in the Teaching - Learning process
Behind the classroom door the key factor in the success of a lesson is the creative ability of the
teachers — their ability to combine theory and practical classroom experience. Critical to this
process is the teacher's knowledge of the subject content, and his/her ability to implement new
strategies, to develop effective performance tasks, to design appropriate assessment tools, and to
address the different student learning styles. Little of this can be accomplished if teachers are not
knowledgeable of new research, and determined to implement it. Effective teaching therefore
involves the practical application of new research/theory in a classroom environment.
The new Challenges of Education System
The rapid changes and increased complexity of today’s world present new challenges and put
new demands on our education system. There has been generally a growing awareness of the
necessity to change and improve the preparation of students for productive functioning in the
continually changing and highly demanding environment. In confronting this challenge it is
necessary to consider the complexity of the education system itself and the multitude of
problems that must be addressed. The goal of education is viewed as the transmission of
knowledge by the teachers to the students. As educators seek ways to meet the demands put upon
the education system in today’s world of rapid changes and ever increasing complexity, it is
important to understand the need for research in the teaching and learning process.
In broad terms, Educational Goals are statements that describe the competencies, skills, and
attributes that students should possess upon completion of a course or program. They often
operate within the interacting domains of knowledge, skills and attitudes.
The Teaching and Learning Process
Individual students may be better suited to learning in a particular way, using distinctive modes
for thinking, relating and creating. The notion of students having particular learning styles has
implications for teaching strategies. Because preferred modes of input and output vary from one
individual to another, it is critical that teachers use a range of teaching strategies to effectively
meet the needs of individual learners. Sound health instruction should incorporate a variety of
teaching methods intended to complement the learning styles of children.
3. A teacher should be aware that in front of him/her there are, broadly speaking, two types of
a. Having surface approach
b. Having Deep approach
Surface approach. These students only want to complete the tasks of the course and memorize
the information necessary for the assessments. They often fail to distinguish principles and tend
to limit their knowledge to some basic elements. They try to organise time and effort to obtain
the highest possible grades.
Deep approach. These students are motivated to learn and will spontaneously do exercises and
interact with the content. They usually relate new ideas to previous knowledge. They also relate
concepts to everyday experience and evidence to conclusions. In the end, they will have a good
understanding of the logic of the arguments that, teacher formulate in class.
A lecturer is to motivate students to understand the content of the course at a deeper level. For
this the teacher must be skilled in teaching.
a. Good Teaching
Good teachers become aware of their own teaching processes and of the effect of these processes
on student learning. Good teachers often engage in institutional teaching development activities
and purposefully evaluate their own teaching to make improvements.
b. Scholarly Teaching
Scholarly teachers are informed not only by the latest developments in the field, but also by
research about instructional design and methods of assessing student learning and teaching in
Principles of Effective Teaching and Learning
1. Teachers' knowledge of the subject matter is essential to the implementation of important
2. Active involvement of the learner enhances learning.
3. Interaction between teachers and students is the most important factor in student motivation
4. Students benefit from taking responsibility for their learning.
5. There are many roads to learning - Providing a variety of learning activities for a class
enables individual students to choose the activity which is the most effective for them at the
4. 6. Expect more and you will achieve more - if an educator conveys his belief in their ability to
succeed learning is enhanced.
7. Learning is enhanced in an atmosphere of cooperation between students.
8. Material must be meaningful. Material which is seen by the learner as relevant to his or her
own problems and experiences will be more readily learned.
9. Both teaching and learning are enhanced by descriptive feedback that he or she is progressing
towards the goals.
10. Critical feedback is only useful if the learner has alternatives to pursue.
11. Time plus energy equals learning.
-time to talk with teachers
-time for interaction between students
-time to study
12. Experience usually improves teaching .
Experience is associated with increasing teacher effectiveness for some teachers, probably for
those teachers who obtain feedback about their teaching and who are flexible enough to modify
their methods in response to the feedback.
Today every government around the world is asking how it can improve the quality of its
teaching force and what contribution research can make to that improvement. High quality
teaching is now widely acknowledged to be the most important school-level factor influencing
student achievement. This in turn has focused attention on the importance of teacher education,
from initial training and induction for beginning teachers, to on-going professional development
to help update teachers’ knowledge, deepen their understanding and advance their skills as expert
practitioners. We today understand that, learning and teaching are correlated, and that in most
cases a good teacher makes a good learner.
Armstrong, T. (1994). Multiple Intelligences in the Classroom. Alexandria, VA: ASCD.
Lewin, L., Shoemaker, B.J. (1998). Great Performances. Creating Classroom-Based Assessment
Tasks. Alexandria, VA: ASCD.
Jensen, E. (1998). Teaching with the Brain in Mind. Alexandria, VA: ASCD.
5. Marzano, R.J., Pickering, D.J., Pollock, J.E. (2001). Classroom Instruction That Works.
Research-Based Strategies for Increasing Student Achievement. Alexandria, VA: ASCD.
Defining Educational Goals: http://educationalgoals.tlc.sfu.ca/define-educational-goals/
Research on teaching and learning process: