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Central africa

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Central africa

  1. 1. Chapter 23Central Africa
  2. 2. Section 1Physical Geography
  3. 3. Physical Features Borders Atlantic Ocean Borders Western Rift Valley High Mts. Biggest rivers in Africa
  4. 4. Landforms– The Congo Basin  Basin; flat region surrounded by higher land such as mountains and plateaus– Western Rift Valley  Highest mountain is 16,700 feet– Lake Tanganyika, Lake Malawi
  5. 5. Rivers– The Congo River  Fed by thousands of smaller rivers – Waterfalls & rapids make it impossible for ships to travel from Central Africa to Atlantic Ocean– The Zambezi River  Zambezi is famous for Victoria Falls
  6. 6. Climates, Vegetation, and Animals Humid tropical climate in the Congo Basin and on the Atlantic coast – Warm temps & lots of rain – dense, tropical rain forest – Animal like: antelopes, hyenas, elephants, okapis, insects, birds, monkeys, bats, and snakes are found here – Trees form a canopy, preventing much life on the rain forest floor Tropical savanna climate found north and south of the basin – Distinct dry & wet seasons – grasslands, scattered trees, & shrubs Highland climate found in the high eastern mountains Dry steppe and deserts in the far south
  7. 7. Resources Tropical Environment good for growing crops – Most are subsistence farmers – Moving towards growing crops for sale Tropical Forests – Provides timber – Rivers provide way to travel & trade & hydroelectricity Oil, natural gas, and coal Minerals: copper, uranium, tin, zinc, diamonds, gold, and cobalt Subsistence farmers – Some beginning to grow more crops for sale Crops: coffee, bananas, & corn – Sold in periodic markets: open air markets set up at crossroads or in a town
  8. 8. Section 2History & Culture
  9. 9. History Early humans lived in central Africa thousands of years ago 2,000 years ago new peoples migrated & formed several kingdoms – Kongo Kingdom most important  Est. trade routes Europeans – Came in 1400s for forest products & other resources like ivory – Also traded for slaves Kingdoms were weakened and destroyed by Europeans – region was divided into colonies in the late 1800s by the France, Portugal, Britain, Spain, Belgium, & Germany – Borders created ignored homelands of Africa’s ethnic groups  Each had different languages, ways of life, & resulted in conflicts
  10. 10. Modern Central Africa Independence came after WWII – Some fought bloody wars to gain independence Many ethnic groups continued to fight even after independence Became battleground of the Cold War between U.S. & Soviet Union – Many people died and great damage was caused
  11. 11. Culture 100 million people in Central Africa Many different ethnic groups w/ different customs
  12. 12. People & Languages Hundreds of different languages & dialects – Due to number of ethnic groups Official languages are European – French, English, Spanish, Portuguese Religion – Influenced by colonial history – Roman Catholic, Protestant Christianity, traditional African religions, Christian, Muslim, & Hindu are the practiced religions of Central Africa The Arts – Influenced by traditional cultures – Famous for sculpture, carved wooden masks, & cotton gowns dyed in bright colors – Popular styles of music & dance
  13. 13. Section 3Central Africa Today
  14. 14. Countries of Central Africa Most are very poor Years of colonial rule & civil war – Struggling to build stable gov’ts & strong economies
  15. 15. Democratic Republic of the Congo Former Belgian colony Former Belgian colony – Many Belgians left after independence (few doctors, teachers, & other professionals remained) Ethnic conflicts after independence – Caused country to remain poor Joseph Mobutu – a dictator, came to power in 1965 – Changed the country’s name to Zaire in 1971 & his name to Mobutu Sese Seko – Country suffered from economic problems & political corruption during his rule  Mobutu became very wealthy & used violence against those who challenged him After a civil war in 1997 a new government took over – Name changed to the Democratic Republic of the Congo  Fighting between ethnic groups has continued
  16. 16.  Treasure chest of minerals & tropical resources South is part of central Africa’s rich copper belt Gold, diamonds, & cobalt Tropical rain forests supply wood, food, rubber, & other products Civil war, bad government, & crime have scared many foreign businesses away Countries rich resources have helped few people
  17. 17. The People Most are poor Live in rural areas & farm and trade for food Many people live in Kinshasa, the capital & largest city – Along Congo River; crowded; consists of poor slum areas mainly
  18. 18. Central African Republic & Cameroon Central African Republic – Struggled w/ military coups, corrupt leaders, & improper elections – Weak economy – Most people are farmers – Diamonds & gold present, but no railroads or ports to transport resources for export – Receives some aid from foreign countries Cameroon – Fairly stable Republic (president is elected & holds most power) – Economy is growing – Oil reserves & farming support economy – Good roads & railways people w/ transportation needs –
  19. 19. Equatorial Guinea & Sao Tome and Principe Equatorial Guinea – Divided between mainly & 5 islands – Republic w/ elections (possibly flawed though, same president for 25 years) – Recent oil discovery, but living conditions for most are still poor Sao Tome & Principe – Struggled w/ political stability – Poor country w/ few resources – Produces cacao, but has to import food
  20. 20. Gabon & Republic of the Congo Gabon – 1 president since 1967 – Economy provides highest standard of living in region – ½ of country’s income comes from oil Republic of the Congo – Much of income comes from oil – Income from forest products – Civil war in last 1990s hurt economy – Mostly urban
  21. 21. Angola Civil war following independence from Portugal – Ended in 2002 Now republic w/ elected president Economy is struggling 85% rely of subsistence farming for income – Land mines from civil war makes farming dangerous High rate of inflation has also hurt economy
  22. 22. Zambia & Malawi Zambia – 85% of workers are farmers – Rich copper mines – Economy growing slowly – High levels of debt & inflation Malawi – Most farm for a living – 75% live in villages in rural areas – Aid from foreign countries & religious groups help economy
  23. 23. Issues & Challenges Unstable governments & poor economies – Have been either cause or effect of other issues & challenges in the region Ethnic & Regional Conflict – Mixing of ethnic groups & competing for power has resulted in civil wars  Thousands killed, contributed to poor economies, land destroyed, & other resources destroyed
  24. 24.  Health – Malaria: kills many people (1 child every 30 seconds) – International health organizations trying to control malaria  Use nets & medicine, but both are expensive – HIV  Causes AIDS  Hundreds of thousands die each year  No cure & medicines are expensive
  25. 25. Resources & Environment To help economy & people – Develop natural resources more effectively  Food production has declined in some areas (does not support growing population) resulting in food shortages & malnutrition – Manage the environment  Industries are destroying the environment – Cutting down forests and mining diamonds & copper National parks have been set up to protect the environment