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  2. 2. DEFINITION ANATOMY The scientific study of the structure of human or animal bodies. The word “anatomy” comes from the Greek words “ana,” meaning “up,” and “tome,” meaning “a cutting.” Traditionally, studies of anatomy have involved cutting up, or dissecting, organisms. Now, however, imaging technology can show us much about how the inside of a body works, reducing the need for dissection..
  3. 3. SUBDIVISIONS • The study of anatomy includes many sub specialties. • Human anatomy consists of two main divisions: Macroscopic or gross anatomy. Microscopic anatomy.
  4. 4. GROSS ANATOMY • Gross anatomy studies body structure with out microscope. • Gross anatomy is subdivided into surface anatomy (the external body), regional anatomy (specific regions of the body), and systemic anatomy (specific organ systems).
  5. 5. MICROSCOPIC ANATOMY • Microscopic anatomy (Histology) requires the use of microscope to study tissues that form the various organs of the body. • Microscopic anatomy is subdivided into cytology (the study of cells) and histology (the study of tissues).
  6. 6. LEVEL OF STRUCTURAL ORGANIZATION OF THE BODY • The human body has different structural levels of organization, starting with atoms molecules and compounds and increasing in size and complexity to cells, tissues, organs and the systems that make up the complete organism.
  7. 7. ATOMS MOLECULES AND COMPOUNDS • Atoms molecules and compounds: - At its simplest level, the body is composed of atoms. The most common elements in living organism are carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen phosphorus and sulfur. • Atoms → Molecule → Compounds.
  8. 8. CELL • Cell: The smallest independent units of life. All life depends on the many chemical activities of cells. Some of the basic functions of cell are: growth, metabolism, irritability and reproduction.
  9. 9. TISSUE • Tissue: tissue is made up of many similar cells that perform a specific function. The various tissues of the body are divided in to four groups. These are epithelial, connective, nervous and muscle tissue.
  10. 10. ORGAN • Organ: - Is an integrated collection of two or more kinds of tissue that works together to perform specific function. For example: Stomach is made of all type of tissues
  11. 11. SYSTEM • System: Is a group of organs that work together to perform major function. • For example: Respiratory system contains several organs.
  12. 12. REGIONS OF THE HUMAN BODY Back and Trunk. The torso includes the back and trunk. The trunk includes the thorax (chest) and abdomen. At the lower end of the trunk is the pelvis. The perineum is the portion of the body forming the floor of the pelvis. The lungs, the heart, and the digestive system are found in the trunk. Head and Neck. The brain, eyes, ears, mouth, pharynx, and larynx are found in this region. Members. Upper member includes a shoulder, arm, forearm, wrist, and hand. Lower member includes a hip, thigh, leg, ankle, and foot.
  13. 13. Anterior view
  14. 14. Posterior view
  15. 15. WHAT IS ANATOMICAL POSITION? • Anatomical position, or standard anatomical position, refers to the specific body orientation used when describing an individual’s anatomy. Standard anatomical position of the human body consists of the body standing upright and facing forward with the legs parallel to one another. The upper limbs, or arms, hang at either side and the palms face forward.
  16. 16. SUPERIOR-INFERIOR • Superior and inferior come from the Latin words meaning “above” and below”. In standard anatomical position, the head is the most superior part of the body, and the feet are the most inferior.
  17. 17. MEDIAL-LATERAL • Lateral describes the parts of the body that are toward the sides, while medial describes the middle of the body. If a part of the body is lateral, it can mean left lateral or right lateral.
  18. 18. DORSAL-VENTRAL • The dorsal side is the back side of an organism. The ventral side is the belly side of an organism. When a human is in standard anatomical position, the ventral side is facing the viewer. When a four-legged animal such as a dog is in standard anatomical position, the ventral side is their belly, which is parallel to the ground.
  19. 19. PROXIMAL-DISTAL • Proximal and distal are used to describe bodily appendages such as limbs. The proximal part of a limb is the part close to where it joins the body, while the distal part is the part furthest away. For example, the tips of our fingers are the most distal part of our arms.
  20. 20. ANATOMICAL PLANES • The anatomical position is further standardized by dividing the body into three anatomical planes. • A plane is an imaginary flat surface passing through the body or organ which divides the structure.
  21. 21. FRONTAL (CORONAL) PLANE 1) Frontal (Coronal) Plane: is vertical and extends from one side of the body to the other. It divides the body into front and back sections.
  22. 22. SAGITTAL (MEDIAL) PLANE 2) Sagittal (Medial) Plane: is vertical and extends from the front of the body to the back. It divides the body into right and left sections.
  23. 23. TRANSVERSE (HORIZONTAL) PLANE 3) Transverse (Horizontal) Plane: is horizontal and divides the body into upper and lower segments
  24. 24. FRONTAL (MEDIO-LATERAL) AXIS • 3 Primary Axes of Rotation • 1. Frontal (Medio- Lateral) Axis: Runs from side to side Perpendicular to Sagittal Plane Typically flexion/extension
  25. 25. SAGITTAL (ANTERO-POSTERIOR ) AXIS 2. Sagittal (Antero- Posterior ) Axis: Runs from front to back Perpendicular to the Coronal Plane Typically abduction/adduction movements
  26. 26. LONGITUDINAL (VERTICAL) AXIS 3. Longitudinal (Vertical) Axis: Runs straight through the top of the head down between the feet Perpendicular to the Transverse Plane Typically a rotation type of movement
  27. 27. ANATOMICAL TERMS OF MOVEMENT • Anatomical terms of movement are used to describe the actions of muscles upon the skeleton. Muscles contract to produce movement at joints, and the subsequent movements can be precisely described using this terminology.
  28. 28. FLEXION AND EXTENSION Flexion and extension are movements that occur in the sagittal plane. • Flexion refers to a movement that decreases the angle between two body parts. Flexion at the elbow is decreasing the angle between the ulna and the humerus. When the knee flexes, the ankle moves closer to the buttock, and the angle between the femur and tibia gets smaller.
  29. 29. EXTENSION • Extension refers to a movement that increases the angle between two body parts. Extension at the elbow is increasing the angle between the ulna and the humerus. Extension of the knee straightens the lower limb.
  30. 30. ABDUCTION AND ADDUCTION • abduction and adduction are movements that occur in the frontal plane. • Abduction is a movement away from the midline – just as abducting someone is to take them away. For example, abduction of the shoulder raises the arms out to the sides of the body.
  31. 31. ADDUCTION • Adduction is a movement towards the midline. Adduction of the hip squeezes the legs together. • In fingers and toes, the midline used is not the midline of the body, but of the hand and foot respectively. Therefore, abducting the fingers spreads them out.
  32. 32. MEDIAL AND LATERAL ROTATION • Medial and lateral rotation describe movement of the limbs around their transverse plane: • Medial rotation is a rotational movement towards the midline. It is sometimes referred to as internal rotation. To understand this, we have two scenarios to imagine. Firstly, with a straight leg, rotate it to point the toes inward. • Lateral rotation is a rotating movement away from the midline. This is in the opposite direction to the movements described above.
  33. 33. ELEVATION AND DEPRESSION • Elevation refers to movement in a superior direction (e.g. shoulder shrug), depression refers to movement in an inferior direction.
  34. 34. PROTRACTION AND RETRACTION • Protraction describes the anterolateral movement of the scapula on the thoracic wall that allows the shoulder to move anteriorly. In practice, this is the movement of ‘reaching out’ to something. • Retraction refers to the posteromedial movement of the scapula on the thoracic wall, which causes the shoulder region to move posteriorly i.e. picking something up.
  35. 35. PRONATION AND SUPINATION • This is easily confused with medial and lateral rotation, but the difference is subtle. With your hand resting on a table in front of you, and keeping your shoulder and elbow still, turn your hand onto its back, palm up. This is the supine position, and so this movement is supination. • Again, keeping the elbow and shoulder still, flip your hand onto its front, palm down. This is the prone position, and so this movement is named pronation.
  36. 36. DORSIFLEXION AND PLANTARFLEXION/PALMARFLEXION • Dorsiflexion and plantarflexion are terms used to describe movements at the ankle. They refer to the two surfaces of the foot; the dorsum (superior surface) and the plantar surface (the sole). • Dorsiflexion refers to extension at the ankle, so that the foot points more superiorly. Similarly there is a term for the hand. • Plantarflexion refers extension at the ankle, so that the foot points inferiorly. Similarly there is a term for the hand, which is palmarflexion.
  37. 37. INVERSION AND EVERSION • Inversion and eversion are movements which occur at the ankle joint, referring to the rotation of the foot around its long axis. • Inversion involves the movement of the sole towards the median plane – so that the sole faces in a medial direction. • Eversion involves the movement of the sole away from the median plane – so that the sole faces in a lateral direction.
  38. 38. OPPOSITION AND REPOSITION • A pair of movements that are limited to humans and some great apes, these terms apply to the additional movements that the hand and thumb can perform in these species. • Opposition brings the thumb and little finger together. • Reposition is a movement that moves the thumb and the little finger away from each other, effectively reversing opposition.
  39. 39. CIRCUMDUCTION • Circumduction can be defined as a conical movement of a limb extending from the joint at which the movement is controlled. • It is sometimes talked about as a circular motion, but is more accurately conical due to the ‘cone’ formed by the moving limb.
  40. 40. THANK YOU